Malnutrition is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century, with one in three people in the world malnourished, combined with poor diets being the leading cause of the global burden of disease. Fish is an under-recognised and undervalued source of micronutrients, which could play a more significant role in addressing this global challenge. With rising pressures on capture fisheries, demand is increasingly being met from aquaculture. However, aquaculture systems are designed to maximise productivity, with little consideration for nutritional quality of fish produced. A global shift away from diverse capture species towards consumption of few farmed species, has implications for diet quality that are yet to be fully explored. Bangladesh provides a useful case study of this transition, as fish is the most important animal-source food in diets, and is increasingly supplied from aquaculture. We conducted a temporal analysis of fish consumption and nutrient intakes from fish in Bangladesh, using nationally representative household expenditure surveys from 1991, 2000 and 2010 (n = 25,425 households), combined with detailed species-level nutrient composition data. Fish consumption increased by 30% from 1991-2010. Consumption of non-farmed species declined by 33% over this period, compensated (in terms of quantity) by large increases in consumption of farmed species. Despite increased total fish consumption, there were significant decreases in iron and calcium intakes from fish (P<0.01); and no significant change in intakes of zinc, vitamin A and vitamin B12 from fish, reflecting lower overall nutritional quality of fish available for consumption over time. Our results challenge the conventional narrative that increases in food supply lead to improvements in diet and nutrition. As aquaculture becomes an increasingly important food source, it must embrace a nutrition-sensitive approach, moving beyond maximising productivity to also consider nutritional quality. Doing so will optimise the complementary role that aquaculture and capture fisheries play in improving nutrition and health.
In the crystal structure of the title compound, C(12)H(10)N(4), the pyridine ring makes a dihedral angle of 1.12 (9) degrees with the mean plane of the complete almost planar and crystallographically centrosymmetric molecule. There are stacks of parallel molecules along the a-axis direction, with alternate stacks having a herring-bone arrangement relative to each other and an interplanar spacing of 3.551 A.
Effects of breading materials and deep-fat frying on fat uptake, moisture content and fatty acid composition of the black pomfret (Parastromateus niger) fillets. Black pomfret fillets both breaded and non-breaded were deep-fat fried in sunflower oil and palm olein. Fat uptake, moisture content and fatty acid composition in the fillets were determined. Total fat content in the fillets of both breaded and un-breaded fillets increased significantly (p
Pig (Sus sp.) and pig by-products are considered as najasa (impurities) in Islam and forbidden in Muslim consumer products. Animals fed on najasa are categorised as al-jallālah (contaminated animals) which are allowed to be consumed as long as they have been quarantined for a certain period of time. During this quarantine period the animals will have undergone a natural purification process or istihālah. African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) are commonly consumed in Malaysia and may be fed on najasa. This study was carried out to estimate the istihālah period for catfish after feeding with pig offal, based on the absence of pig DNA in catfish gut and to suggest the quarantine period in catfish fed with pig offal. The results indicated that the maximum istihālah period could reach 36h in the stomach, 6h in the midgut and less than 2h in the hindgut although in many cases shorter periods were observed. Based on these results it is estimated that the minimum quarantine period for catfish fed with pig offal is 1.5days.
Slipper oyster Crassostrea iredalei is a species of good demand for its sweet flavor and white coloured flesh. The filter feeding nature predisposes oysters to accumulation of pathogenic and heavy metals in waters impacted by sewage pollutions and may thus render the oysters unfit for human consumption. A study was undertaken to investigate the presence of bacteria flora and heavy metal concentrations in cultivated oysters Crassostrea iredalei at Setiu Wetland, Terengganu, the only source of cultivated oysters in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 200 slipper oyster samples were analyzed. The bacteria were isolated using non selective agar such as TSA agar and selective agars before they were then identified using conventional methods in combination with BBL Crystal identification kit. Heavy metals such as zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results showed that the oysters harbor predominantly Shewanella putrifaciens followed by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio cholerae, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli and Chromobacterium violaceum. They also contain high concentration of Zn (785.68 +/- 285.88 microg/g) with the lowest heavy metal was Pb (0.17 +/- 0.15 microg/g), whilst the concentrations of other heavy metals were Cu (38.9 +/- 13.2 microg/g) and Cd (1.60 +/- 0.28 microg/g). The study is very useful to evaluate the type of bacteria and heavy metal present in oyster meat for human consumption.
There is an increasing concern about the quality and quality assessment procedures of seafood. In the present study, a model to assess fish quality based on biogenic amine contents using fuzzy logic model (FLM) is proposed. The fish used was sardine (Sardinella sp.) where the production of eight biogenic amines was monitored over fifteen days of storage at 0, 3 and 10°C. Based on the results, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine were selected as input variables and twelve quality grades were considered for quality of fish as output variables for the FLM. Input data were processed by rules established in the model and were then defuzzified according to defined output variables. Finally, the quality of fish was evaluated using the designed model and Pearson correlation between storage times with quality of fish showed r=0.97, 0.95 and 1 for fish stored at 0, 3 and 10°C, respectively.
No report was found on the occurrence of microplastics in processed seafood products that are manufactured for direct human consumption. This study investigates the potential presence of micro- and mesoplastics in 20 brands of canned sardines and sprats originating from 13 countries over 4 continents followed by their chemical composition determination using micro-Raman spectroscopy. The particles were further inspected for their inorganic composition through energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Plastic particles were absent in 16 brands while between 1 and 3 plastic particles per brand were found in the other 4 brands. The most abundant plastic polymers were polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The presence of micro- and mesoplastics in the canned sardines and sprats might be due to the translocation of these particles into the edible tissues, improper gutting, or the result of contamination from the canneries. The low prevalence of micro- and mesoplastics sized >149μm, and the absence of potentially hazardous inorganic elements on them, might indicate the limited health risks associated with their presence in canned sardines and sprats. Due to the possible increase in micro- and mesoplastic loads in seafood products over time, the findings of this study suggest their quantification to be included as one of the components of food safety management systems.
Marine mammals, as top predators in the marine food web, are sentinels of changes in the oceans and public health. Pollution in the sea and overfishing of seafood resources affects these organisms just as much as it affects human beings. Medics, especially doctors, have an influential reach to patients, and are in an ideal position to get better acquainted with ongoing marine environmental issues and subsequently disseminating such information to them. While seemingly an out-of-the-box approach, it is one that can help with environmental conservation and preservation for the future of humanity.
The concentrations were ranged from 1.35 ± 0.16 to 2.22 ± 0.34 µg/g (dry weight) and 2.65 ± 0.34 to 4.36 ± 0.53 µg/g (dry weight) for Cd and Pb, respectively, in blood cockle Anadara granosa from four sites of Sabang River, namely, Kampung Sambir, Kampung Tambirat, Beliong Temple, and Kampung Tanjung Apong, which are located at Asajaya, Sarawak, Malaysia. All values exceeded safety limits set by Malaysian Food Regulation (1985). It may be the cause of serious human health problems after long term consumption. Thus, consumer should have consciousness about such type of seafood from mentioned sites and need further investigation.
Histamine, putrescine cadaverine and cis-urocanic acid (UCA) have all been implicated or suggested in scombroid fish poisoning. However, there is little information on UCA especially during storage. Changes in their contents during storage of whole Indian mackerel at 0, 3±1, 10±1 for up to 15 days and 23±2°C for up to 2 days were monitored. Fresh muscles contained 14.83 mg/kg trans-UCA, 2.23 mg/kg cis-UCA and 1.86 mg/kg cadaverine. Histamine and putrescine were not detected. After 15 days at 0 and 3°C, trans-UCA content increased to 52.83 and 189.51 mg/kg, respectively, and decreased to <2 mg/kg at the other two temperatures. Storage at 10°C also resulted in an increase in trans-UCA after 3 days, only to decrease after 6 days. The concentration of cis-UCA increased nearly 13-fold after 15 days at 0 and 3°C, decreased at 10°C and remained unchanged at 23°C. Histamine, putrescine and cadaverine levels increased significantly (P value<0.05) at all temperatures especially at 23°C.
Fishbones are of particular interest to otolaryngologists. Most fishbones can be removed transorally or via endoscopic guidance. Transcervical neck exploration is occasionally necessary, especially in cases of an embedded foreign body. Computed tomography is the most sensitive and specific imaging modality for identifying embedded fishbones. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a laryngeal foreign body embedded in the paraglottic space that was removed using an open approach via a lateral thyroid cartilage window.
Microcosm experiments simulating the occurrence of early mortality syndrome/acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (EMS/AHPND) in white shrimp production ponds were performed in 30-L aquariums. Healthy white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, were reared in aquariums containing EMS/AHPND-free hatchery or pond water. Raw pond sludge, collected from shrimp ponds where EMS/AHPND had occurred, was added to some test aquariums, while others were treated with sterilized pond sludge. In some aquariums, water pH was increased from 7.5 to 8.8. Microcosms with stable pH (around 7.5) and/or autoclaved sludge served as controls. The combination of raw sludge and increased pH induced EMS/AHPND and killed white shrimp, whereas raw sludge/stable pH and autoclaved sludge/increased pH combinations did not affect healthy shrimp. Thus, EMS/AHPND outbreaks are due not only to the causative agent but also to environmental stresses such as pH fluctuation. These findings contribute to improved management in shrimp production farms.
Clupeiformes, such as sardines and herrings, represent an important share of worldwide fisheries. Among those, the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus, Walbaum 1792) exhibits significant commercial relevance. While the last decade showed a steady and sharp decline in capture levels, recent advances in culture husbandry represent promising research avenues. Yet, the complete absence of genomic resources from sardine imposes a severe bottleneck to understand its physiological and ecological requirements. We generated 69 Gbp of paired-end reads using Illumina HiSeq X Ten and assembled a draft genome assembly with an N50 scaffold length of 25,579 bp and BUSCO completeness of 82.1% (Actinopterygii). The estimated size of the genome ranges between 655 and 850 Mb. Additionally, we generated a relatively high-level liver transcriptome. To deliver a proof of principle of the value of this dataset, we established the presence and function of enzymes (Elovl2, Elovl5, and Fads2) that have pivotal roles in the biosynthesis of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, essential nutrients particularly abundant in oily fish such as sardines. Our study provides the first omics dataset from a valuable economic marine teleost species, the European sardine, representing an essential resource for their effective conservation, management, and sustainable exploitation.
Parasitic copepods infect a large number of fishes. In particular, the family Caligidae (Crustacea) comprises more than 450 species worldwide, some of which are harmful to cultured and wild fishes. Recently, we found a parasitic copepod on the host swordfish Xiphias gladius (Xiphidae) in the coastal waters of Parangipettai, southeast coast of India. It was identified as Gloiopotes huttoni by its morphological features, and it belongs to the family Caligidae (order Siphonostomatoida). The swordfish was highly infected with about 72 caligids on a single host. Both male and female forms of G. huttoni were colonized on the beak of the swordfish and distributed mostly along the upper and lower jaws of the host, with 42 and 30 copepod parasites, respectively. Most of the copepods were ovigerous, and more females than males were recorded. It is the first record of the occurrence of G. huttoni in India.
This study compared some allometric parameters (shell length, shell width, shell height, total dry weight of soft tissues, condition index and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in the different soft tissues of Perna viridis collected from Sebatu and Muar estuary. It was found that the total dry weight of soft tissues and condition index of mussels collected from Sebatu were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in Muar. The significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of Cu in most soft tissues and some of Cd indicated a higher bioavailability of Cu and Cd at Muar than Sebatu. In addition, the significantly (p<0.05) higher levels of Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb in surface sediments collected from Muar supported the observable anthropogenic impacts at Muar than Sebatu and hence, higher metal contamination at Muar than Sebatu. The higher condition index value in mussels recorded in Sebatu than in Muar was believed to be a result of higher metal contamination at Muar estuary.
A total of 127 and 177 seafood samples from Malaysia were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), respectively. The World Health Organization-toxic-equivalency quotients (WHO-TEQ) of PCDD/Fs varied from 0.13 to 1.03 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas dl-PCBs ranged from 0.33 to 1.32 pg TEQ g(-1). Based on food-consumption data from the global environment monitoring system-food contamination monitoring and assessment programme, calculated dietary exposures to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs from seafood for the general population in Malaysia were 0.042 and 0.098 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1), respectively. These estimations were quite different from the values calculated using the Malaysian food-consumption statistics (average of 0.313 and 0.676 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, respectively). However, both of the dietary exposure estimations were lower than the tolerable daily intake recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that seafood from Malaysia does not pose a notable risk to the health of the average consumer.
Matched MeSH terms: Seafood/analysis*; Seafood/statistics & numerical data
The upper aerodigestive tract, specifically the cricopharyngeal area, is the most common site of foreign body impaction. Anatomically, this area is the first constriction of the oesophagus. Fish bones, one of the most common foreign bodies encountered in the throat, tend to get stuck in this area. The movement of this sharp-edged foreign body upon swallowing will induce odynophagia and an acute onset of neck pain. We report a case of a healthy elderly man who complained of sudden anterior neck pain and odynophagia after eating yellowtail scad fish.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is well known to be abundantly distributed in marine, coastal and
estuarine environments. Since 1951, V. parahaemolyticus had been the source of numerous
outbreaks related to contaminated or mishandled seafood. However, V. parahaemolyticus
had been detected on other types of food. This issue has prompted this study to investigate
on the prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus in various food samples and determine the risk
associated with it. The results of the MPN-plating technique of the study indicated that V.
parahaemolyticus was detected in seafood (33.3%, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 31.9 – 34.8 ,
94 – 290 MPN/g) and vegetables (10.0%, 95% CI 9.7 – 10.3 , 9.2 – 23 MPN/g) while negative
V. parahaemolyticus was detected in fruits (0.0%, 95% CI 0 – 1,