Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 306 in total

  1. Mannan S, Fakhruĺ-Razi A, Alam MZ
    J Environ Sci (China), 2007;19(1):23-8.
    PMID: 17913149
    The optimization of process parameters for the bioconversion of activated sludge by Penicillium corylophilum was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The three parameters namely temperature of 33 degrees C, agitation of 150 r/min, and pH of 5 were chosen as center point from the previous study of fungal treatment. The experimental data on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (%) were fitted into a quadratic polynomial model using multiple regression analysis. The optimum process conditions were determined by analyzing response surface three-dimensional surface plot and contour plot and by solving the regression model equation with Design Expert software. Box-Behnken design technique under RSM was used to optimize their interactions, which showed that an incubation temperature of 32.5 degrees C, agitation of 105 r/min, and pH of 5.5 were the best conditions. Under these conditions, the maximum predicted yield of COD removal was 98.43%. These optimum conditions were used to evaluate the trail experiment, and the maximum yield of COD removal was recorded as 98.5%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage*
  2. Nor Anuar A, Ujang Z, van Loosdrecht MC, de Kreuk MK
    Water Sci Technol, 2007;56(7):55-63.
    PMID: 17951868
    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) technology has been extensively studied recently to improve sludge settling and behaviour in activated sludge systems. The main advantage is that aerobic granular sludge (AGS) can settle very fast in a reactor or clarifier because AGS is compact and has strong structure. It also has good settleability and a high capacity for biomass retention. Several experimental works have been conducted in this study to observe the settling behaviours of AGS. The study thus has two aims: (1) to compare the settling profile of AGS with other sludge flocs and (2) to observe the influence of mechanical mixing and design of the reactor to the settleability of AGS. The first experimental outcome shows that AGS settles after less than 5 min in a depth of 0.4 m compared to other sludge flocs (from sequencing batch reactor, conventional activated sludge and extended aeration) which takes more than 30 min. This study also shows that the turbulence from the mixing mechanism and shear in the reactor provides an insignificant effect on the AGS settling velocity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/microbiology*; Sewage/statistics & numerical data
  3. Show KY, Lee DJ, Tay JH
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2012 Jul;167(6):1622-40.
    PMID: 22383048 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-012-9609-8
    Aerobic granulation was developed in overcoming the problem of biomass washout often encountered in activated sludge processes. The novel approach to developing fluffy biosolids into dense and compact granules offers a new dimension for wastewater treatment. Compared with conventional biological flocs, aerobic granules are characterized by well-defined shape and compact buildup, superior biomass retention, enhanced microbial functions, and resilient to toxicity and shock loading. This review provides an up-to-date account on development in aerobic granulation and its applications. Granule characterization, factors affecting granulation, and response of granules to various environmental and operating conditions are discussed. Maintaining granule of adequate structural stability is one of the main challenges for practical applications of aerobic granulation. This paper also reviews recent advances in addressing granule stability and storage for use as inoculums, and as biomass supplement to enhance treatment efficiency. Challenges and future work of aerobic granulation are also outlined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage
  4. Ahmed R, Sinnathambi CM, Eldmerdash U, Subbarao D
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:758137.
    PMID: 24672368 DOI: 10.1155/2014/758137
    Limited information is available about the thermodynamic evaluation for biomass gasification process using updraft gasifier. Therefore, to minimize errors, the gasification of dry refinery sludge (DRS) is carried out in adiabatic system at atmospheric pressure under ambient air conditions. The objectives of this paper are to investigate the physical and chemical energy and exergy of product gas at different equivalent ratios (ER). It will also be used to determine whether the cold gas, exergy, and energy efficiencies of gases may be maximized by using secondary air injected to gasification zone under various ratios (0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5) at optimum ER of 0.195. From the results obtained, it is indicated that the chemical energy and exergy of producer gas are magnified by 5 and 10 times higher than their corresponding physical values, respectively. The cold gas, energy, and exergy efficiencies of DRS gasification are in the ranges of 22.9-55.5%, 43.7-72.4%, and 42.5-50.4%, respectively. Initially, all 3 efficiencies increase until they reach a maximum at the optimum ER of 0.195; thereafter, they decline with further increase in ER values. The injection of secondary air to gasification zone is also found to increase the cold gas, energy, and exergy efficiencies. A ratio of secondary air to primary air of 0.5 is found to be the optimum ratio for all 3 efficiencies to reach the maximum values.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage*
  5. Rosli NA, Aziz HA, Selamat MR, Lim LLP
    J Environ Manage, 2020 Jun 01;263:110420.
    PMID: 32883483 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110420
    This study proposed the recycling of sewage sludge (SS) and red gypsum (RG) as potential temporary landfill cover materials. Mixtures with different SS and RG compositions were prepared and tested in determining the most suitable design mix based on the resulting physical, mechanical, and geotechnical properties, namely the hydraulic conductivity, compressive strength, and plasticity. A maximum compressive strength of 524 kPa was achieved for the optimum SS:RG composition of 1:1, corresponding to Ca:Si composition of 2.5:1, which was appropriate to form the calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel. The SS and RG compositions did not affect the hydraulic conductivity, which was in the order 10-5 cm/s for all mixtures. Mixtures with RG greater than SS in composition exhibited plastic behaviour due to the Fe content in the RG, which helped minimize the risk of cracking. The optimum mixture had compressive strength greater than the specified minimum of 345 kPa, medium hydraulic conductivity, and moderate plasticity, thus appropriate for application as an alternative material for the temporary landfill cover in the tropics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage*
  6. Iberahim N, Sethupathi S, Goh CL, Bashir MJK, Ahmad W
    J Environ Manage, 2019 Oct 15;248:109302.
    PMID: 31377539 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109302
    Palm oil sludge (POS) is an organic waste generated from the palm oil industry. POS causes environmental pollution if it is improperly disposed. In this study, the potential of activated POS biochar, as an adsorbent for the removal of SO2 gas was tested. POS biochar was physically activated using CO2 gas. The effects of activation preparation variables i.e. activation temperature (300-700 °C), activation time (30-150 min) and CO2 flow rate (100-500 ml/min) were investigated using design expert version software. Central Composite Design (CCD) was used to develop a quadratic model to correlate the operating variables with the activated biochar adsorption capacity. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to identify the significant factors on the experimental design response. The optimum preparation conditions of activated POS biochar were found to be at activation temperature of 442 °C, activation time of 63 min and CO2 flow rate of 397 ml/min. The maximum adsorption capacity at the optimum conditions was recorded as 16.65 mg/g. The adsorption capacity increased significantly after the activation process. Characteristics of the activated POS biochar proposed that SO2 was physically adsorbed. Furthermore, it was found that the adsorption capacity can be further enhanced by increasing the reaction temperature to 100 °C or with 15% of relative humidity in the inlet gas. The prepared adsorbents can be regenerated by thermal treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage*
  7. Yan W, Vadivelu V, Maspolim Y, Zhou Y
    Waste Manag, 2021 Feb 01;120:221-229.
    PMID: 33310598 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2020.11.047
    Anaerobic digestion is a promising way for resource recovery from waste cooking oil (WCO) due to its high bio-methanation potential. In-situ mild alkaline (pH 8) enhanced two-stage continuous stirred tank reactors (ALK-2-CSTRs) were implemented to explore its efficiency in co-digesting WCO and sewage sludge with stepwise increase of WCO in the co-substrates. Results demonstrate that the ALK-2-CSTRs effectively promoted methane yield from the co-substrates via promoting hydrolysis, long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) degradation and protecting methanogens from exposure to high concentration of LCFAs directly. The maximum methane yield of the ALK-2-CSTRs is 39.2% higher than that of a single stage CSTR system at the optimal feed mixture of 45:55 (WCO:SS [VS]). The thermophilic operation applied to the stage-1 of the ALK-2-CSTRs failed to improve the methane yield when the methanogenic performance was stable; while upon WCO overloaded, the elevated temperature mitigated the deterioration of methanogenesis by stimulating the bioconversion of the toxic LCFAs, especially the unsaturated oleic acid. Microbial community analysis reveals the ALK-2-CSTRs stimulated the growth of lipolytic bacteria and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, which suggests the hydrogenotrophic methanogenic pathway was promoted. Cost evaluation demonstrates the economical superiority of the ALK-2-CSTR over the prevailing strategies developed for enhancing methane yield from the co-substrates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage*
  8. Liew CS, Kiatkittipong W, Lim JW, Lam MK, Ho YC, Ho CD, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2021 Aug;277:130310.
    PMID: 33774241 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130310
    Sewage sludge has long been regarded as a hazardous waste by virtue of the loaded heavy metals and pathogens. Recently, more advanced technologies are introduced to make use of the nutrients from this hazardous sludge. Successful recovery of sludge's carbon content could significantly convert waste to energy and promote energy sustainability. Meanwhile, the recovery of nitrogen and trace minerals allows the production of fertilizers. This review is elucidating the performances of modern thermal treatment technologies in recovering resources from sewage sludge while reducing its environmental impacts. Exhaustive investigations show that most modern technologies are capable of recovering sludge's carbon content for energy generation. Concurrently, the technologies could as well stabilize heavy metals, destroy harmful pathogens, and reduce the volume of sludge to minimize the environmental impacts. Nevertheless, the high initial investment cost still poses a huge hurdle for many developing countries. Since the initial investment cost is inevitable, the future works should focus on improving the profit margin of thermal technologies; so that it would be more financially attractive. This can be done through process optimization, improved process design as well as the use of suitable co-substrates, additives, and catalyst as propounded in the review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage*
  9. Naqvi SR, Hameed Z, Tariq R, Taqvi SA, Ali I, Niazi MBK, et al.
    Waste Manag, 2019 Feb 15;85:131-140.
    PMID: 30803566 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2018.12.031
    This study investigates the thermal decomposition, thermodynamic and kinetic behavior of rice-husk (R), sewage sludge (S) and their blends during co-pyrolysis using thermogravimetric analysis at a constant heating rate of 20 °C/min. Coats-Redfern integral method is applied to mass loss data by employing seventeen models of five major reaction mechanisms to calculate the kinetics and thermodynamic parameters. Two temperature regions: I (200-400 °C) and II (400-600 °C) are identified and best fitted with different models. Among all models, diffusion models show high activation energy with higher R2(0.99) of rice husk (66.27-82.77 kJ/mol), sewage sludge (52.01-68.01 kJ/mol) and subsequent blends (45.10-65.81 kJ/mol) for region I and for rice husk (7.31-25.84 kJ/mol), sewage sludge (1.85-16.23 kJ/mol) and blends (4.95-16.32 kJ/mol) for region II, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters are calculated using kinetics data to assess the co-pyrolysis process enthalpy, Gibbs-free energy, and change in entropy. Artificial neural network (ANN) models are developed and employed on co-pyrolysis thermal decomposition data to study the reaction mechanism by calculating Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). The co-pyrolysis results from a thermal behavior and kinetics perspective are promising and the process is viable to recover organic materials more efficiently.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage*
  10. Hamiruddin NA, Awang NA, Mohd Shahpudin SN, Zaidi NS, Said MAM, Chaplot B, et al.
    Water Sci Technol, 2021 Nov;84(9):2113-2130.
    PMID: 34810301 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2021.415
    Currently, research trends on aerobic granular sludge (AGS) have integrated the operating conditions of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) towards the stability of AGS systems in various types of wastewater with different physical and biochemical characteristics. More attention is given to the stability of the AGS system for real site applications. Although recent studies have reported comprehensively the mechanism of AGS formation and stability in relation to other intermolecular interactions such as microbial distribution, shock loading and toxicity, standard operating condition control strategies for different types of wastewater have not yet been discussed. Thus, the dimensional multi-layer structural model of AGS is discussed comprehensively in the first part of this review paper, focusing on diameter size, thickness variability of each layer and diffusion factor. This can assist in facilitating the interrelation between disposition and stability of AGS structure to correspond to the changes in wastewater types, which is the main objective and novelty of this review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage*
  11. Isa MH, Bashir MJK, Wong LP
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2022 Jun;29(29):44779-44793.
    PMID: 35138542 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-022-19022-3
    In this study, palm oil mill effluent (POME) treated by ultrasonication at optimum conditions (sonication power: 0.88 W/mL, sonication duration: 16.2 min and total solids: 6% w/v) obtained from a previous study was anaerobically digested at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The reactor biomass was subjected to metagenomic study to investigate the impact on the anaerobic community dynamics. Experiments were conducted in two 5 L continuously stirred fill-and-draw reactors R1 and R2 operated at 30 ± 2 °C. Reactor R1 serving as control reactor was fed with unsonicated POME with HRT of 15 and 20 days (R1-15 and R1-20), whereas reactor R2 was fed with sonicated POME with the same HRTs (R2-15 and R2-20). The most distinct archaea community shift was observed among Methanosaeta (R1-15: 26.6%, R2-15: 34.4%) and Methanobacterium (R1-15: 7.4%, R2-15: 3.2%). The genus Methanosaeta was identified from all reactors with the highest abundance from the reactors R2. Mean daily biogas production was 6.79 L from R2-15 and 4.5 L from R1-15, with relative methane gas abundance of 85% and 73%, respectively. Knowledge of anaerobic community dynamics allows process optimization for maximum biogas production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/microbiology
  12. Roslee NF, Kamil NAFM, Alias S, Senthil Kumar P, Alkhadher S, Muthusamy G, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2023 Sep;334:139037.
    PMID: 37244559 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2023.139037
    Palm oil fuel ash (POFA) has limited use as a fertilizer, while contribute effectively to the environmental contamination and health risks. Petroleum sludge poses a serious effect on the ecological environment and human health. The present work aimed to present a novel encapsulation process with POFA binder for treating petroleum sludge. Among 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, four compounds were selected for the optimization of encapsulation process due to their high risk as carcinogenic substrates. Percentage PS (10-50%) and curing days (7-28 days) factors were used in the optimization process. The leaching test of PAHs was assessed using a GC-MS. The best operating parameters to minimize PAHs leaching from solidified cubes with OPC and10% POFA were recorded with 10% PS and after 28 days, at which PAH leaching was 4.255 and 0.388 ppm with R2 is 0.90%. Sensitivity analysis of the actual and predicted results for both the control and the test (OPC and 10% POFA) revealed that the actual results of the 10% POFA experiments have a high consistency with the predicted data (R2 0.9881) while R2 in the cement experiments was 0.8009. These differences were explained based on the responses of PAH leaching toward percentage of PS and days of cure. In the OPC encapsulation process, the main role was belonged to PS% (94.22%), while with 10% POFA, PS% contributed by 32.36 and cure day contributed by 66.91%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/chemistry
  13. Chang JY, Syauqi TA, Sudesh K, Ng SL
    Bioresour Technol, 2024 Feb;393:130054.
    PMID: 37995876 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2023.130054
    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are promising alternatives to non-degradable polymers in various applications. This study explored the use of biologically recovered PHA as a biofilm carrier in a moving bed biofilm reactor for acid orange 7 treatment. The PHA was comprised of 86 ± 1 mol% of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 14 ± 1 mol% of 3-hydroxyhexanoate and was melt-fused at 140 °C into pellets. The net positive surface charge of the PHA biocarrier facilitated attachment of negatively charged activated sludge, promoting biofilm formation. A 236-µm mature biofilm developed after 26 days. The high polysaccharides-to-protein ratio (>1) in the biofilm's extracellular polymeric substances indicated a stable biofilm structure. Four main microbial strains in the biofilm were identified as Leclercia adecarboxylata, Leuconostoc citreum, Bacillus cereus, and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, all of which exhibited decolourization abilities. In conclusion, PHA holds promise as an effective biocarrier for biofilm development, offering a sustainable alternative in wastewater treatment applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/chemistry
  14. Abioye KJ, Harun NY, Sufian S, Yusuf M, Jagaba AH, Waqas S, et al.
    Environ Res, 2024 Apr 01;246:118027.
    PMID: 38159670 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2023.118027
    The study explores co-gasification of palm oil decanter cake and alum sludge, investigating the correlation between input variables and syngas production. Operating variables, including temperature (700-900 °C), air flow rate (10-30 mL/min), and particle size (0.25-2 mm), were optimized to maximize syngas production using air as the gasification agent in a fixed bed horizontal tube furnace reactor. Response Surface Methodology with the Box-Behnken design was used employed for optimization. Fourier Transformed Infra-Red (FTIR) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopic (FESEM) analyses were used to analyze the char residue. The results showed that temperature and particle size have positive effects, while air flow rate has a negative effect on the syngas yield. The optimal CO + H2 composition of 39.48 vol% was achieved at 900 °C, 10 mL/min air flow rate, and 2 mm particle size. FTIR analysis confirmed the absence of C─Cl bonds and the emergence of Si─O bonds in the optimized char residue, distinguishing it from the raw sample. FESEM analysis revealed a rich porous structure in the optimized char residue, with the presence of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and aluminosilicates. These findings provide valuable insights for sustainable energy production from biomass wastes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage*
  15. Chang JS, Chong MN, Poh PE, Ocon JD, Md Zoqratt MZH, Lee SM
    Environ Pollut, 2020 Apr;259:113867.
    PMID: 31896479 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113867
    This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of morphological-controlled ZnO nanoarchitectures on aerobic microbial communities during real wastewater treatment in an aerobic-photocatalytic system. Results showed that the antibacterial properties of ZnO nanoarchitectures were significantly more overwhelming than their photocatalytic properties. The inhibition of microbial activities in activated sludge by ZnO nanoarchitectures entailed an adverse effect on wastewater treatment efficiency. Subsequently, the 16S sequencing analysis were conducted to examine the impacts of ZnO nanoarchitectures on aerobic microbial communities, and found the significantly lower microbial diversity and species richness in activated sludge treated with 1D-ZnO nanorods as compared to other ZnO nanoarchitectures. Additionally, 1D-ZnO nanorods reduced the highest proportion of Proteobacteria phylum in activated sludge due to its higher proportion of active polar surfaces that facilitates Zn2+ ions dissolution. Pearson correlation coefficients showed that the experimental data obtained from COD removal efficiency and bacterial log reduction were statistically significant (p-value 
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/microbiology; Sewage/chemistry
  16. Wong YM, Juan JC, Ting A, Wu TY, Gan HM, Austin CM
    Genome Announc, 2014;2(2).
    PMID: 24604640 DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.00078-14
    Clostridium sp. strain Ade.TY is potentially a new biohydrogen-producing species isolated from landfill leachate sludge. Here we present the assembly and annotation of its genome, which may provide further insights into its gene interactions for efficient biohydrogen production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage
  17. Muzaini K, Yasin SM, Ismail Z, Ishak AR
    Front Public Health, 2021;9:646790.
    PMID: 33763402 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.646790
    Background: Sewage workers have a higher risk of exposure to various potential occupational respiratory hazards found in sewage plants. Although previous studies discuss occupational respiratory hazard concentration impacting sewage workers' respiratory health, the results are scarce and mixed. Hence, there is a need to identify the potential respiratory hazards in sewage plants so as to clarify the short- and long-term respiratory health effects. Therefore, this systematic review (SR) aims to critically review previous studies investigating potential respiratory hazards found at sewage plants and their effects on sewage workers' respiratory health. Methods: An SR was conducted using PubMed, EBSCO Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar on peer-reviewed studies published between January 1994 and October 2020 evaluating the impact of potential exposure to respiratory hazards and its effects on respiratory health among sewage workers. "Sewage treatment plant," "respiratory hazards," and "respiratory health effects" were the three main search terms chosen in this SR. The inclusion criteria were (1) studies on potential occupational respiratory hazard exposure among sewage workers, (2) manuscripts written in English, and (3) studies published in the peer-reviewed literature. The human observational studies' quality was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool. Results: We identified 5,660 articles through an initial database search. Only 26 items met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review; 15 human observational studies and 11 environmental assessment studies were conducted in the sewage industries. Most of the human observational studies were rated as moderate quality, two studies were rated as weak quality, and one study with strong quality was identified. Hydrogen sulfide, bioaerosols, particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5), and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were found to be potential respiratory hazards. Most of the risks contributed to adverse outcomes on the sewage workers' respiratory health with some inconsistent findings on the relationship between respiratory hazard exposure and respiratory health effects. Conclusion: Our review finds that, although this area is of great importance, quality studies are still lacking. There is a need for additional studies to clarify the effects of respiratory hazard exposure on sewage workers and respiratory health, especially PM 2.5 and VOC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage
  18. Dahalan FA, Abdullah N, Yuzir A, Olsson G, Salmiati, Hamdzah M, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2015 Apr;181:291-6.
    PMID: 25661308 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.01.062
    Aerobic granulation is increasingly used in wastewater treatment due to its unique physical properties and microbial functionalities. Granule size defines the physical properties of granules based on biomass accumulation. This study aims to determine the profile of size development under two physicochemical conditions. Two identical bioreactors namely Rnp and Rp were operated under non-phototrophic and phototrophic conditions, respectively. An illustrative scheme was developed to comprehend the mechanism of size development that delineates the granular size throughout the granulation. Observations on granules' size variation have shown that activated sludge revolutionised into the form of aerobic granules through the increase of biomass concentration in bioreactors which also determined the changes of granule size. Both reactors demonstrated that size transformed in a similar trend when tested with and without illumination. Thus, different types of aerobic granules may increase in size in the same way as recommended in the aerobic granule size development scheme.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage/chemistry*
  19. Ong YH, Chua AS, Lee BP, Ngoh GC, Hashim MA
    Water Environ Res, 2012 Jan;84(1):3-8.
    PMID: 22368821
    A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) seeded with flocculated sludge and fed with synthetic wastewater was operated for an enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process. Eight weeks after reactor startup, sludge granules were observed. The granules had a diameter of 0.5 to 3.0 mm and were brownish in color and spherical or ellipsoidal in shape. No significant change was observed in sludge granule size when operational pH was changed from 7 to 8. The 208-day continuous operation of the SBR showed that sludge granules were stably maintained with a sludge volume index (SVI) between 30 to 55 mL/g while securing a removal efficiency of 83% for carbon and 97% for phosphorus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed the enrichment of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in the SBR. The observations of sludge granulation in this study encourage further studies in the development of granules-based EBPR process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage*
  20. Liew AG, Idris A, Wong CH, Samad AA, Noor MJ, Baki AM
    Waste Manag Res, 2004 Aug;22(4):226-33.
    PMID: 15462329
    This study reports the use of sewage sludge generated from sewage treatment plant (STP) as raw material in a clay brick-making process. The physico-chemical and mineralogical characterization of the sewage sludge and clay were carried out in order to identify the major technological constraints and to define the sludge pretreatment requirements if necessary. Moreover, the effects on processing conditions and/or on changes of typical final characteristics are also evaluated. Bricks were produced with sewage sludge additions ranging from 10 to 40% by dry weight. The texture and finishing of the surface of sludge-amended clay bricks were rather poor. As for the physical and chemical properties, bricks with a sludge content of up to 40 wt.% were capable of meeting the relevant technical standards. However, bricks with more than 30 wt.% sludge addition are not recommended for use since they are brittle and easily broken even when handled gently. A tendency for a general degradation of brick properties with sludge additions was observed due to its refractory nature. Therefore, sludge bricks of this nature are only suitable for use as common bricks, which are normally not exposed to view, because of poor surface finishing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sewage*
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