METHODS: This paper used data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analyses were based on the responses of 3374 ever-married men. Exposure to IPV was determined by men's self-reports of witnessing inter-parental violence in childhood. We used adjusted binary logistic regression models to assess the influence of exposure on husbands' perpetration of IPV and their endorsement of attitudes justifying wife beating.
RESULTS: Nearly 60% of men reported violent behaviour towards an intimate partner and 35.7% endorsed attitudes justifying spousal abuse. Men who witnessed father-to-mother violence had higher odds of reporting any physical or sexual IPV (adjusted OR [AOR] = 3.26; 95% CI = 2.61, 4.06). Men who had witnessed father-to-mother violence were also 1.34 times (95% CI = 1.08, 1.65) more likely endorse attitudes justifying spousal abuse.
CONCLUSIONS: Committing violence against an intimate partner is an all too frequent practice among men in Bangladesh. The study indicated that men who had witnessed father-to-mother violence were more likley to perpetrate IPV, suggesting an intergenerational transmission of violence. This transmission of violence may operate through the learning and modelling of attitudes favourable to spousal abuse. In support of this, witnnessing inter-parental violence was also associated with the endorsement of attitudes justifying spousal abuse. Our findings indicate the continued importance of efforts to identify and assist boys who have witnessed domestic violence and suggest such efforts should aim to change not just behaviours but also attitudes that facilitate such violence.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted which involved 210 women aged between 21 and 60 years old at the public in Malaysia, a subsequent statistical analysis was performed by SPSS version 22.
Results: In comparison with other studies, there is still lacking of awareness on CC and these induced informal cluelessness and poor attitudes toward it. In terms of risk factors, there are two factors with some degree of awareness among women in Malaysia, i.e., multiple sexual partners and sexually transmitted diseases. Women in Malaysia have less awareness on the causes and clinical manifestations of the disease (P < 0.05). They are aware that regular papanicolaou (Pap) smear would screen CC and surgery could be a treatment of choice. In addition, women in Malaysia also have moderate awareness about Pap smear as prevention to detect and prevent CC at the early stage.
Conclusions: Women in Malaysia only has a good awareness about multiple sex partner and sexually transmitted disease as a risk factor for CC, they also have good knowledge on regular Pap smear as a tool to diagnose and surgery as a treatment. Future, further effort is required to promote awareness of women's perception and attitudes toward CC.
METHODS: We conducted 30 semi-structured in-depth interviews with self-identifying GBMSM between the ages of 18-39 in Singapore following a purposive sampling strategy. Interview topics included participants' perceptions of drug use among GBMSM in Singapore, perceptions towards chemsex, reasons for drug use and chemsex, and recommendations to address the harms associated with chemsex in Singapore. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and analysed using thematic analysis.
RESULTS: Participants reported that it was common to encounter chemsex among GBMSM in Singapore as it could be easily accessed or initiated using social networking phone apps. Enhancement and prolongation of sexual experiences, fear of rejection from sexual partners and peers, and its use as a means of coping with societal rejection were three main reasons cited for engaging in chemsex. The impact of punitive drug laws on disclosure and stigmatisation of GBMSM who use drugs were reported to be key barriers towards addressing chemsex. Participants suggested using gay-specific commercial venues as avenues for awareness and educational campaigns, and social media to reach out to younger GBMSM.
CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the complexities behind chemsex use among GBMSM in Singapore, and the range of individual to institutional factors to be addressed. We recommend that community-based organisations and policy-makers find ways to destigmatise discussion of chemsex and provide safe spaces to seek help for drug use.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted involving sexually active women with or without SUI aged at least 21 years old, and their respective partners. Both partners completed the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS), a 28-item multidimensional measure with separate forms for male and female designed to assess sexual satisfaction of both partners. Spearman rank correlation coefficient was used to analyze bivariate association, whereas multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors for overall sexual function as measured using GRISS score.
RESULTS: Sixty-six couples with SUI partners and 95 couples with continent partners were recruited. Overall GRISS scores and thus sexual function of men and women were strongly correlated. The correlation coefficient was higher in couples with SUI partners (r = 0.702, P sexual function of couples with SUI partners. In multivariate analysis, poorer sexual function (lower GRISS score) in women, increasing age, and less frequency of sexual intercourse were significant predictors of poorer overall GRISS score in couples (P sexual function is strongly correlated with male partners' sexual function, with a stronger correlation observed in couples with SUI partners. Poorer sexual function in women, increasing age, and less frequency of sexual intercourse are predictive of poorer sexual function in a couple.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sexually active females at least 21 years old with or without stress urinary incontinence and their partners were recruited for study. To assess sexual function the couples completed GRISS (Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction) and a 1-item question on overall sexual experience, "Over the past 4 weeks, how satisfied have you been with your overall sexual life?" Additionally, females completed ICIQ-LUTSqol (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Quality of Life) to assess quality of life.
RESULTS: For sexual function assessment 66 of 134 couples with (49.3%) and 95 of 176 without (54.0%) stress urinary incontinence were recruited. Females with stress urinary incontinence had lower overall sexual function, lower frequency of sexual intercourse, less satisfaction (each p <0.001) and higher avoidance behavior (p = 0.026). Partners of females with stress urinary incontinence had more problems with erectile dysfunction (p = 0.027), less satisfaction (p = 0.006) and lower frequency of sexual intercourse (p = 0.001) but no difference in overall GRISS score (p = 0.093). Couples with stress urinary incontinence had poorer overall sexual experience (p <0.05). Females with stress urinary incontinence had poorer quality of life than those without stress urinary incontinence (120 of 134, response rate 89.6% vs 145 of 176, response rate 82.4%, p <0.001). Sexual function and quality of life did not significantly correlate (r = 0.001, p = 0.997).
CONCLUSIONS: Stress urinary incontinence in females is negatively associated not only with female quality of life and sexual function but also with partner sexual function.
METHODS: Ten focus group discussions were held with opinion leaders (chiefs, elders, assemblymen, leaders of women groups) and 16 in-depth interviews were conducted with healthcare workers (District Directors of Health, Medical Assistants in-charge of health centres, and district Public Health Nurses and Midwives). The interviews and discussions were audio recorded, transcribed into English and imported into NVivo 10 for content analysis.
RESULTS: As heads of the family, men control resources, consult soothsayers to determine the health seeking or treatment for pregnant women, and serve as the final authority on where and when pregnant women should seek medical care. Beyond that, they have no expectation of any further role during antenatal care and therefore find it unnecessary to attend clinics with their partners. There were conflicting views about whether men needed to provide any extra support to their pregnant partners within the home. Health workers generally agreed that men provided little or no support to their partners. Although health workers had facilitated the formation of father support groups, there was little evidence of any impact on antenatal support.
CONCLUSIONS: In patriarchal settings, the role of men can be complex and social and cultural traditions may conflict with public health recommendations. Initiatives to promote male involvement should focus on young men and use chiefs and opinion leaders as advocates to re-orient men towards more proactive involvement in ensuring the health of their partners.