Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 189 in total

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  1. Patmanathan SN, Yap LF, Murray PG, Paterson IC
    J. Cell. Mol. Med., 2015 Oct;19(10):2329-40.
    PMID: 26171944 DOI: 10.1111/jcmm.12635
    Almost all drugs approved for use in humans possess potentially beneficial 'off-target' effects in addition to their principal activity. In some cases this has allowed for the relatively rapid repurposing of drugs for other indications. In this review we focus on the potential for re-purposing FTY720 (also known as fingolimod, Gilenya(™)), an immunomodulatory drug recently approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). The therapeutic benefit of FTY720 in MS is largely attributed to the immunosuppressive effects that result from its modulation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor signalling. However, this drug has also been shown to inhibit other cancer-associated signal transduction pathways in part because of its structural similarity to sphingosine, and consequently shows efficacy as an anti-cancer agent both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we review the effects of FTY720 on signal transduction pathways and cancer-related cellular processes, and discuss its potential use as an anti-cancer drug.
    Matched MeSH terms: Signal Transduction/drug effects
  2. Phang CW, Gandah NA, Abd Malek SN, Karsani SA
    Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2019 Jun 15;853:388-399.
    PMID: 31014923 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2019.04.032
    Flavokawain C (FKC), a naturally occurring chalcone, has previously been shown to inhibit the growth of colon carcinoma HCT 116 cells through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. However, the possible underlying mechanisms of cell death as a response to FKC treatment remains unclear. In this study, we performed proteomic analysis of HCT 116 cells treated with FKC to identify proteins that change in abundance. This was followed by bioinformatic analysis to predict possible associated molecular targets or pathways involved in the observed effects of FKC. A total of 35 proteins that changed in abundance (17 increased and 18 decreased) were identified through two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). Using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), these proteins were predicted to be involved in cell death and survival, cell cycle, cellular growth and proliferation, protein synthesis, post-translational modification and amino acid metabolism by. Further analysis of the transcript levels of selected proteins using qPCR showed that some of the genes exhibited similar change of profile to that of the proteins'. Our results have provided novel insights into the potential molecular mechanisms underlying FKC-induced apoptosis or cell death in colon cancer cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Signal Transduction/drug effects
  3. Watari H, Nakajima H, Atsuumi W, Nakamura T, Nanya T, Ise Y, et al.
    PMID: 30978513 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2019.04.003
    We screened 868 marine extracts in search of hematopoietic molecules resulted in findings of several extracts that proliferated Ba/F3-HuMpl cells but not the cells expressed with other hematopoietic cytokine receptors, EPO and G-CSF. Separation of the most potent extract of a Micronesian sponge Corticium sp., guided by the cell proliferation assay using Ba/F3-HuMpl cells resulted in an isolation of thrombocorticin (ThC), a novel 14 kDa protein as an active principal. ThC displayed concentration-dependent proliferation of Ba/F3-HuMpl cells, and had a stronger activity than that of eltrombopag, a small molecule drug used to treat thrombocytopenia. ThC induced phosphorylation of STAT5, suggesting that it activates Jak/STAT pathway as in the case of TPO. These results together indicated that ThC is a specific agonist for c-Mpl, although the size and shape differs largely from TPO. Here we present isolation, characterization and biological activity of ThC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Signal Transduction/drug effects
  4. Herr DR, Reolo MJ, Peh YX, Wang W, Lee CW, Rivera R, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016 Apr 15;6:24541.
    PMID: 27080739 DOI: 10.1038/srep24541
    Ototoxic drugs, such as platinum-based chemotherapeutics, often lead to permanent hearing loss through apoptosis of neuroepithelial hair cells and afferent neurons of the cochlea. There is no approved therapy for preventing or reversing this process. Our previous studies identified a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), S1P2, as a potential mediator of otoprotection. We therefore sought to identify a pharmacological approach to prevent cochlear degeneration via activation of S1P2. The cochleae of S1pr2(-/-) knockout mice were evaluated for accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) assay. This showed that loss of S1P2 results in accumulation of ROS that precedes progressive cochlear degeneration as previously reported. These findings were supported by in vitro cell-based assays to evaluate cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and accumulation of ROS following activation of S1P2 in the presence of cisplatin. We show for the first time, that activation of S1P2 with a selective receptor agonist increases cell viability and reduces cisplatin-mediated cell death by reducing ROS. Cumulatively, these results suggest that S1P2 may serve as a therapeutic target for attenuating cisplatin-mediated ototoxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Signal Transduction/drug effects
  5. Koosha S, Alshawsh MA, Looi CY, Seyedan A, Mohamed Z
    Int J Med Sci, 2016;13(5):374-85.
    PMID: 27226778 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.14485
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer in the world, causing thousands of deaths annually. Although chemotherapy is known to be an effective treatment to combat colon cancer, it produces severe side effects. Natural products, on the other hand, appear to generate fewer side effects than do chemotherapeutic drugs. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds found in various fruits and vegetables known to possess antioxidant activities, and the literature shows that several of these flavonoids have anti-CRC propertiesFlavonoids are classified into five main subclasses: flavonols, flavanones, flavones, flavan-3-ols, and flavanonols. Of these subclasses, the flavanonols have a minimum effect against CRC, whereas the flavones play an important role. The main targets for the inhibitory effect of flavonoids on CRC signaling pathways are caspase; nuclear factor kappa B; mitogen-activated protein kinase/p38; matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9; p53; β-catenin; cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2 and CDK4; and cyclins A, B, D, and E. In this review article, we summarize the in vitro and in vivo studies that have been performed since 2000 on the anti-CRC properties of flavonoids. We also describe the signaling pathways affected by flavonoids that have been found to be involved in CRC. Some flavonoids have the potential to be an effective alternative to chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of colon cancer; well-controlled clinical studies should, however, be conducted to support this proposal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Signal Transduction/drug effects
  6. Tan ML, Ooi JP, Ismail N, Moad AI, Muhammad TS
    Pharm. Res., 2009 Jul;26(7):1547-60.
    PMID: 19407932 DOI: 10.1007/s11095-009-9895-1
    Apoptosis and autophagic cell deaths are programmed cell deaths and they play essential roles in cell survival, growth and development and tumorigenesis. The huge increase of publications in both apoptosis and autophagic signaling pathways has contributed to the wealth of knowledge in facilitating the understanding of cancer pathogenesis. Deciphering the molecular pathways and molecules involved in these pathways has helped scientists devise and develop targeted strategies against cancer. Various drugs targeting the apoptotic TRAIL, Bcl-2 and proteasome pathways are already in Phase II/III clinical trials. The first mTOR inhibitor, temsirolimus has already been approved by the FDA, USA for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma and more mTOR inhibitors are expected to be in the market in a few years time. Strategizing against aberrant autophagy activities in various cancers by using either pro-autophagics or autophagy inhibitors are currently been investigated. This review aims to discuss the most recent antitumor strategies targeting the apoptosis and autophagy signaling pathways and the latest outcome of clinical trials of the above drugs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Signal Transduction/drug effects*
  7. Lim R, Adhikari S, Gurusinghe S, Leaw B, Acharya R, Rahman R, et al.
    Placenta, 2015 Aug;36(8):926-31.
    PMID: 26138362 DOI: 10.1016/j.placenta.2015.06.004
    Pre-eclampsia remains a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Despite intensive research over the last 50 years, significant therapeutic advances have yet to be realised. We recently reported on the role of activin A in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia, whereby a pre-eclampsia-like disease state was induced in pregnant mice through activin A infusion. Using the same animal model, the effects of inhibiting activin A signalling on this pre-eclampsia-like disease state have now been assessed with low molecular weight compounds structurally related to activin-receptor-like kinase (ALK) inhibitors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Signal Transduction/drug effects
  8. Engström W, Darbre P, Eriksson S, Gulliver L, Hultman T, Karamouzis MV, et al.
    Carcinogenesis, 2015 Jun;36 Suppl 1:S38-60.
    PMID: 26106143 DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgv030
    The aim of this work is to review current knowledge relating the established cancer hallmark, sustained cell proliferation to the existence of chemicals present as low dose mixtures in the environment. Normal cell proliferation is under tight control, i.e. cells respond to a signal to proliferate, and although most cells continue to proliferate into adult life, the multiplication ceases once the stimulatory signal disappears or if the cells are exposed to growth inhibitory signals. Under such circumstances, normal cells remain quiescent until they are stimulated to resume further proliferation. In contrast, tumour cells are unable to halt proliferation, either when subjected to growth inhibitory signals or in the absence of growth stimulatory signals. Environmental chemicals with carcinogenic potential may cause sustained cell proliferation by interfering with some cell proliferation control mechanisms committing cells to an indefinite proliferative span.
    Matched MeSH terms: Signal Transduction/drug effects*
  9. Nahta R, Al-Mulla F, Al-Temaimi R, Amedei A, Andrade-Vieira R, Bay SN, et al.
    Carcinogenesis, 2015 Jun;36 Suppl 1:S2-18.
    PMID: 26106139 DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgv028
    As part of the Halifax Project, this review brings attention to the potential effects of environmental chemicals on important molecular and cellular regulators of the cancer hallmark of evading growth suppression. Specifically, we review the mechanisms by which cancer cells escape the growth-inhibitory signals of p53, retinoblastoma protein, transforming growth factor-beta, gap junctions and contact inhibition. We discuss the effects of selected environmental chemicals on these mechanisms of growth inhibition and cross-reference the effects of these chemicals in other classical cancer hallmarks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Signal Transduction/drug effects
  10. Zulkhernain NS, Teo SH, Patel V, Tan PJ
    Curr Cancer Drug Targets, 2014;14(8):764-73.
    PMID: 25348017 DOI: 10.2174/1568009614666141028121347
    Targeted therapy, the treatment of cancer based on an underlying genetic alteration, is rapidly gaining favor as the preferred therapeutic approach. To date, although natural products represent a rich resource of bio-diverse drug candidates, only a few have been identified to be effective as targeted cancer therapies largely due to the incompatibilities to current high-throughput screening methods. In this article, we review the utility of a zebrafish developmental screen for bioactive natural product-based compounds that target signaling pathways that are intimately shared with those in humans. Any bioactive compound perturbing signaling pathways identified from phenotypic developmental defects in zebrafish embryos provide an opportunity for developing targeted therapies for human cancers. This model provides a promising tool in the search for targeted cancer therapeutics from natural products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Signal Transduction/drug effects
  11. Teng KT, Chang CY, Chang LF, Nesaretnam K
    Nutr J, 2014;13:12.
    PMID: 24476102 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-12
    Obesity plays a pivotal role in the development of low-grade inflammation. Dietary fatty acids are important modulators of inflammatory responses. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been reported to exert pro-inflammatory effects. n-3 PUFA in particular, possess anti-inflammatory properties. Numerous clinical studies have been conducted over decades to investigate the impact of dietary fatty acids on inflammatory response in obese individuals, however the findings remained uncertain. High fat meals have been reported to increase pro-inflammatory responses, however there is limited evidence to support the role of individual dietary fatty acids in a postprandial state. Evidence in chronic studies is contradictory, the effects of individual dietary fatty acids deserves further attention. Weight loss rather than n-3 PUFA supplementation may play a more prominent role in alleviating low grade inflammation. In this context, the present review provides an update on the mechanistic insight and the influence of dietary fats on low grade inflammation, based on clinical evidence from acute and chronic clinical studies in obese and overweight individuals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Signal Transduction/drug effects
  12. Rengarajan T, Yaacob NS
    Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2016 Oct 15;789:8-16.
    PMID: 27377217 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.07.001
    Epidemiological studies show that consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with lower risks of cancer. This evidence has kindled interest into research on bioactive food components and has till date resulted in the identification of many compounds with cancer preventive and therapeutic potential. Among such compounds is fisetin (3,7,3,4-tetrahydroxyflavone), a flavonol that is commonly found in many fruits and vegetables such as apples, persimmons, grapes, kiwis, strawberries, onions and cucumbers. Fisetin has been shown to inhibit or retard the growth of various cancer cells in culture and implanted tumors in vivo. Fisetin targets many components of intracellular signaling pathways including regulators of cell survival and apoptosis, tumor angiogenic and metastatic switches by modulating a distinct set of upstream kinases, transcription factors and their regulators. Current evidence supports the idea that fisetin is a promising agent for cancer treatment. This review summarizes reported anticancer effects of fisetin, and re-emphasizes its potential therapeutic role in the treatment of cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Signal Transduction/drug effects*
  13. Arulselvan P, Fard MT, Tan WS, Gothai S, Fakurazi S, Norhaizan ME, et al.
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2016;2016:5276130.
    PMID: 27803762
    Inflammation is a comprehensive array of physiological response to a foreign organism, including human pathogens, dust particles, and viruses. Inflammations are mainly divided into acute and chronic inflammation depending on various inflammatory processes and cellular mechanisms. Recent investigations have clarified that inflammation is a major factor for the progression of various chronic diseases/disorders, including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, eye disorders, arthritis, obesity, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory bowel disease. Free radical productions from different biological and environmental sources are due to an imbalance of natural antioxidants which further leads to various inflammatory associated diseases. In this review article, we have outlined the inflammatory process and its cellular mechanisms involved in the progression of various chronic modern human diseases. In addition, we have discussed the role of free radicals-induced tissue damage, antioxidant defence, and molecular mechanisms in chronic inflammatory diseases/disorders. The systematic knowledge regarding the role of inflammation and its associated adverse effects can provide a clear understanding in the development of innovative therapeutic targets from natural sources that are intended for suppression of various chronic inflammations associated diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Signal Transduction/drug effects
  14. Break MKB, Hossan MS, Khoo Y, Qazzaz ME, Al-Hayali MZK, Chow SC, et al.
    Fitoterapia, 2018 Mar;125:161-173.
    PMID: 29355749 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2018.01.006
    Cardamonin is a natural chalcone that has been shown to exhibit high anticancer activity. In an attempt to discover analogues of cardamonin with enhanced anticancer activity, 19 analogues were synthesized and tested against A549 and HK1 cell lines. Results of the MTS cell viability assay showed that several derivatives possessed cytotoxic activities that were several-fold more potent than cardamonin. SAR analysis showed the importance of the ketone and alkene groups for bioactivity, while substituting cardamonin's phenolic groups with more polar moieties resulted in activity enhancement. As part of the SAR study and further exploration of chemical space, the effect of metal coordination on cytotoxicity was also investigated, but it was only possible to successfully obtain the Cu (II) complex of cardamonin (19). Compound 19 was the most active analogue possessing IC50 values of 13.2μM and 0.7μM against A549 and HK1 cells, corresponding to a 5- and 32-fold increase in activity, respectively. It was also able to significantly inhibit the migration of A549 and HK1 cells. Further mode of action studies have shown that the most active analogue, 19, induced DNA damage resulting in G2/M-phase cell- cycle arrest in both cell lines. These events further led to the induction of apoptosis by the compound via caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 activation, PARP cleavage and downregulation of Mcl-1 expression. Moreover, 19 inhibited the expression levels of p-mTOR and p-4EBP1, which indicated that it exerted its anticancer activity, at least in part, via inhibition of the mTOR signalling pathway.
    Matched MeSH terms: Signal Transduction/drug effects*
  15. Arulselvan P, Tan WS, Gothai S, Muniandy K, Fakurazi S, Esa NM, et al.
    Molecules, 2016 Oct 31;21(11).
    PMID: 27809259
    In the present investigation, we prepared four different solvent fractions (chloroform, hexane, butanol, and ethyl acetate) of Moringa oleifera extract to evaluate its anti-inflammatory potential and cellular mechanism of action in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. Cell cytotoxicity assay suggested that the solvent fractions were not cytotoxic to macrophages at concentrations up to 200 µg/mL. The ethyl acetate fraction suppressed LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines in macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner and was more effective than the other fractions. Immunoblot observations revealed that the ethyl acetate fraction effectively inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators including cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 through suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, it upregulated the expression of the inhibitor of κB (IκBα) and blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. These findings indicated that the ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated macrophages via suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway.
    Matched MeSH terms: Signal Transduction/drug effects*
  16. Loh YC, Tan CS, Ch'ng YS, Ahmad M, Asmawi MZ, Yam MF
    Molecules, 2016 Apr 15;21(4):495.
    PMID: 27092479 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21040495
    This paper is a review on the types of antagonists and the signaling mechanism pathways that have been used to determine the mechanisms of action employed for vasodilation by test compounds. Thus, we exhaustively reviewed and analyzed reports related to this topic published in PubMed between the years of 2010 till 2015. The aim of this paperis to suggest the most appropriate type of antagonists that correspond to receptors that would be involved during the mechanistic studies, as well as the latest signaling pathways trends that are being studied in order to determine the route(s) that atest compound employs for inducing vasodilation. The methods to perform the mechanism studies were included. Fundamentally, the affinity, specificity and selectivity of the antagonists to their receptors or enzymes were clearly elaborated as well as the solubility and reversibility. All the signaling pathways on the mechanisms of action involved in the vascular tone regulation have been well described in previous review articles. However, the most appropriate antagonists that should be utilized have never been suggested and elaborated before, hence the reason for this review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Signal Transduction/drug effects
  17. Tan JW, Kim MK
    Molecules, 2016 Apr 25;21(5).
    PMID: 27120593 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21050548
    Alzheimer's disease is considered one of the major neurodegenerative diseases and is characterized by the production of β-amyloid (Aβ) proteins and progressive loss of neurons. Biochanin A, a phytoestrogen compound found mainly in Trifolium pratense, was used in the present study as a potential alternative to estrogen replacement therapy via the investigation of its neuroprotective effects against Aβ25-35-induced toxicity, as well as of its potential mechanisms of action in PC12 cells. Exposure of these cells to the Aβ25-35 protein significantly increased cell viability loss and apoptosis. However, the effects induced by Aβ25-35 were markedly reversed in the present of biochanin A. Pretreatment with biochanin A attenuated the cytotoxic effect of the Aβ25-35 protein by decreasing viability loss, LDH release, and caspase activity in cells. Moreover, we found that expression of cytochrome c and Puma were reduced, alongside with the restoration of Bcl-2/Bax and Bcl-xL/Bax ratio in the presence of biochanin A, which led to a decrease in the apoptotic rate. These data demonstrate that mitochondria are involved in the protective effect of biochanin A against Aβ25-35 and that this drug attenuated Aβ25-35-induced PC12 cell injury and apoptosis by preventing mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, biochanin A might raise a possibility as a potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease and other related neurodegenerative diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Signal Transduction/drug effects
  18. Vijayarathna S, Gothai S, Jothy SL, Chen Y, Kanwar JR, Sasidharan S
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(17):7435-9.
    PMID: 26625740
    A failure of a cell to self destruct has long been associated with cancer progression and development. The fact that tumour cells may not instigate cell arrest or activate cell death mechanisms upon cancer drug delivery is a major concern. Autophagy is a mechanism whereby cell material can be engulfed and digested while apoptosis is a self-killing mechanism, both capable of hindering multiplication after cell injury. In particular situations, autophagy and apoptosis seem to co-exist simultaneously or interdependently with the aid of mutual proteins. This review covers roles of microRNAs and chemopreventive agents and makes an attempt at outlining possible partnerships in maximizing cancer cell death with minimal normal cell damage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Signal Transduction/drug effects
  19. Achike FI, Kwan CY
    Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol., 2003 Sep;30(9):605-15.
    PMID: 12940876
    1. Nitric oxide (NO) is formed enzymatically from l-arginine in the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Nitric oxide is generated constitutively in endothelial cells via sheer stress and blood-borne substances. Nitric oxide is also generated constitutively in neuronal cells and serves as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerve endings. Furthermore, NO can also be formed via enzyme induction in many tissues in the presence of cytokines. 2. The ubiquitous presence of NO in the living body suggests that NO plays an important role in the maintenance of health. Being a free radical with vasodilatory properties, NO exerts dual effects on tissues and cells in various biological systems. At low concentrations, NO can dilate the blood vessels and improve the circulation, but at high concentrations it can cause circulatory shock and induce cell death. Thus, diseases can arise in the presence of the extreme ends of the physiological concentrations of NO. 3. The NO signalling pathway has, in recent years, become a target for new drug development. The high level of flavonoids, catechins, tannins and other polyphenolic compounds present in vegetables, fruits, soy, tea and even red wine (from grapes) is believed to contribute to their beneficial health effects. Some of these compounds induce NO formation from the endothelial cells to improve circulation and some suppress the induction of inducible NOS in inflammation and infection. 4. Many botanical medicinal herbs and drugs derived from these herbs have been shown to have effects on the NO signalling pathway. For example, the saponins from ginseng, ginsenosides, have been shown to relax blood vessels (probably contributing to the antifatigue and blood pressure-lowering effects of ginseng) and corpus cavernosum (thus, for the treatment of men suffering from erectile dysfunction; however, the legendary aphrodisiac effect of ginseng may be an overstatement). Many plant extracts or purified drugs derived from Chinese medicinal herbs with proposed actions on NO pathways are also reviewed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Signal Transduction/drug effects*
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