The research on damages of structures that are supported by deep foundations has been quite intensive in the past decade. Kinematic interaction in soil-pile interaction is evaluated based on the p-y curve approach. Existing p-y curves have considered the effects of relative density on soil-pile interaction in sandy soil. The roughness influence of the surface wall pile on p-y curves has not been emphasized sufficiently. The presented study was performed to develop a series of p-y curves for single piles through comprehensive experimental investigations. Modification factors were studied, namely, the effects of relative density and roughness of the wall surface of pile. The model tests were subjected to lateral load in Johor Bahru sand. The new p-y curves were evaluated based on the experimental data and were compared to the existing p-y curves. The soil-pile reaction for various relative density (from 30% to 75%) was increased in the range of 40-95% for a smooth pile at a small displacement and 90% at a large displacement. For rough pile, the ratio of dense to loose relative density soil-pile reaction was from 2.0 to 3.0 at a small to large displacement. Direct comparison of the developed p-y curve shows significant differences in the magnitude and shapes with the existing load-transfer curves. Good comparison with the experimental and design studies demonstrates the multidisciplinary applications of the present method.
Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is the most widely used dielectric for electronic applications. It is usually produced by thermal oxidation of silicon or by using a wide range of vacuum-based techniques. By default, the growth of SiO2 by thermal oxidation of silicon requires the use of Si substrates whereas the other deposition techniques either produce low quality or poor interface material and mostly require high deposition or annealing temperatures. Recent investigations therefore have focused on the development of alternative deposition paradigms based on solutions. Here, we report the deposition of SiO2 thin film dielectrics deposited by spray pyrolysis in air at moderate temperatures of ≈350 °C from pentane-2,4-dione solutions of SiCl4. SiO2 dielectrics were investigated by means of UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, XPS, XRD, UFM/AFM, admittance spectroscopy, and field-effect measurements. Data analysis reveals smooth (RRMS < 1 nm) amorphous films with a dielectric constant of about 3.8, an optical band gap of ≈8.1 eV, leakage current densities in the order of ≈10(-7) A/cm(2) at 1 MV/cm, and high dielectric strength in excess of 5 MV/cm. XPS measurements confirm the SiO2 stoichiometry and FTIR spectra reveal features related to SiO2 only. Thin film transistors implementing spray-coated SiO2 gate dielectrics and C60 and pentacene semiconducting channels exhibit excellent transport characteristics, i.e., negligible hysteresis, low leakage currents, high on/off current modulation ratio on the order of 10(6), and high carrier mobility.
Semi-flexible pavement surfacing is a composite pavement that utilizes the porous pavement structure of the flexible bituminous pavement, which is subsequently grouted with appropriate cementitious materials. This study aims to investigate the compressive strength, flexural strength, and workability performance of cementitious grout. The grout mixtures are designed to achieve high strength and maintain flow properties in order to allow the cement slurries to infiltrate easily through unfilled compacted skeletons. A paired-sample t-test was carried out to find out whether water/cement ratio, SP percentages, and use of silica fume influence the cementitious grout performance. The findings showed that the replacement of 5% silica fume with an adequate amount of superplasticizer and water/cement ratio was beneficial in improving the properties of the cementitious grout.
Carbon nanotubes-mesostructured silica nanoparticles (CNT-MSN) composites were prepared by a simple one step method with various loading of CNT. Their surface properties were characterized by XRD, N2 physisorption, TEM and FTIR, while the adsorption performance of the CNT-MSN composites were evaluated on the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) while varying the pH, adsorbent dosage, initial MB concentration, and temperature. The CNTs were found to improve the physicochemical properties of the MSN and led to an enhanced adsorptivity for MB. N2 physisorption measurements revealed the development of a bimodal pore structure that increased the pore size, pore volume and surface area. Accordingly, 0.05 g L(-1) CNT-MSN was able to adsorb 524 mg g(-1) (qm) of 60 mg L(-1) MB at pH 8 and 303 K. The equilibrium data were evaluated using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models, with the Langmuir model affording the best fit to the adsorption data. The adsorption kinetics were best described by the pseudo-first order model. These results indicate the potential of CNT-MSN composites as effective new adsorbents for dye adsorption.
The adsorption of tributyltin (TBT), onto three mesoporous silica adsorbents functionalized with calixarene, p-tert-butylcalixarene and p-sulfonatocalixarene (MCM-TDI-C4, MCM-TDI-PC4 and MCM-TDI-C4S, respectively) has been compared. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out and the effect of contact time, initial TBT concentration, pH and temperature were studied. The Koble-Corrigan isotherm was the most suitable for data fitting. Based on a Langmuir isotherm model, the maximum adsorption capacities were 12.1212, 16.4204 and 7.5757 mg/g for MCM-TDI-C4, MCM-TDI-PC4 and MCM-TDI-C4S, respectively. The larger uptake and stronger affinity of MCM-TDI-PC4 than MCM-TDI-C4 and MCM-TDI-C4S probably results from van der Waals interactions and the pore size distribution of MCM-TDI-PC4. Gibbs free energies for the three adsorption processes of TBT presented a negative value, reflecting that TBT/surface interactions are thermodynamic favorable and spontaneous. The interaction processes were accompanied by an increase of entropy value for MCM-TDI-C4 and MCM-TDI-C4S (43.7192 and 120.7609 J/mol K, respectively) and a decrease for MCM-TDI-PC4 (-37.4704 J/mol K). It is obviously observed that MCM-TDI-PC4 spontaneously adsorbs TBT driven mainly by enthalpy change, while MCM-TDI-C4 and MCM-TDI-C4S do so driven mainly by entropy changes.
The Critical State Soil Mechanic (CSSM) is a globally recognised framework while the critical states for sand and clay are both well established. Nevertheless, the development of the critical state of sand matrix soils is lacking. This paper discusses the development of critical state lines and corresponding critical state parameters for the investigated material, sand matrix soils using sand-kaolin mixtures. The output of this paper can be used as an interpretation framework for the research on liquefaction susceptibility of sand matrix soils in the future. The strain controlled triaxial test apparatus was used to provide the monotonic loading onto the reconstituted soil specimens. All tested soils were subjected to isotropic consolidation and sheared under undrained condition until critical state was ascertain. Based on the results of 32 test specimens, the critical state lines for eight different sand matrix soils were developed together with the corresponding values of critical state parameters, M, λ, and Γ. The range of the value of M, λ, and Γ is 0.803-0.998, 0.144-0.248, and 1.727-2.279, respectively. These values are comparable to the critical state parameters of river sand and kaolin clay. However, the relationship between fines percentages and these critical state parameters is too scattered to be correlated.
Grouped and single pile behavior differs owing to the impacts of the pile-to-pile interaction. Ultimate lateral resistance and lateral subgrade modulus within a pile group are known as the key parameters in the soil-pile interaction phenomenon. In this study, a series of experimental investigation was carried out on single and group pile subjected to monotonic lateral loadings. Experimental investigations were conducted on twelve model pile groups of configurations 1 × 2, 1 × 3, 2 × 2, 3 × 3, and 3 × 2 for embedded length-to-diameter ratio l/d = 32 into loose and dense sand, spacing from 3 to 6 pile diameter, in parallel and series arrangement. The tests were performed in dry sand from Johor Bahru, Malaysia. To reconstruct the sand samples, the new designed apparatus, Mobile Pluviator, was adopted. The ultimate lateral load is increased 53% in increasing of s/d from 3 to 6 owing to effects of sand relative density. An increasing of the number of piles in-group decreases the group efficiency owing to the increasing of overlapped stress zones and active wedges. A ratio of s/d more than 6d is large enough to eliminate the pile-to-pile interaction and the group effects. It may be more in the loose sand.
Bioregeneration of mono-amine modified silica gel (MAMS) adsorbent loaded with Acid Orange 7 (AO7), Acid Yellow 9 (AY9) and Acid Red 14 (AR14), respectively, was investigated under two different operational conditions, namely absence/presence of sucrose/bacto-peptone as the co-substrate and different biomass acclimation concentrations. The results revealed that the AY9- and AR14-loaded MAMS adsorbents could almost be completely bioregenerated but only in the presence of co-substrate whereas the bioregeneration of AO7-loaded MAMS could achieve up to 71% in the absence of the co-substrate. These differences could be related to the structural properties of the investigated azo dyes. In addition, the results showed that the bioregeneration duration of AO7-loaded MAMS could be progressively shortened by using biomass acclimated to increasingly higher AO7 concentration. However, the bioregeneration efficiencies were found to be relatively unchanged under different biomass acclimation concentrations.
In this work, mesostructured silica nanoparticles (MSN(AP)) with high adsorptivity were prepared by a modification with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) as a pore expander. The performance of the MSN(AP) was tested by the adsorption of MB in a batch system under varying pH (2-11), adsorbent dosage (0.1-0.5 g L(-1)), and initial MB concentration (5-60 mg L(-1)). The best conditions were achieved at pH 7 when using 0.1 g L(-1) MSN(AP) and 60 mg L(-1)MB to give a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 500.1 mg g(-1) at 303 K. The equilibrium data were evaluated using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Harkins-Jura isotherms and fit well to the Freundlich isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics was best described by the pseudo-second order model. The results indicate the potential for a new use of mesostructured materials as an effective adsorbent for MB.
Experimental extraction tests are conducted to investigate feasibility of saturated palm kernel oil (PKO) and unsaturated soybean oil (SO) to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated sand. The extraction rates and efficiencies for lowly contaminated (LC) and highly contaminated (HC) sands at temperatures of 30 °C and 70 °C are evaluated using empirical first order kinetic dissolution models. In LC sand, the extraction is dominated by the diffusion of PAHs adsorbed onto particle surfaces and the direct dissolution of PAH phase. In HC sand, a rapid diffusion of PAHs adsorbed onto particle surfaces and a direct dissolution of PAH phase occur followed by a slower diffusion of PAHs entrapped within the pores and micropores. Larger diffusion resistance during HC sand extractions results in an average 10.8% reduction in extraction efficiencies compared to LC sand. Increased temperature generally increases the mass transfer rates and extraction efficiencies. Additionally, the physicochemical properties of both oils and PAHs also determine the extent of PAH extraction into oil.
We have calculated the vibrational frequencies of clusters of atoms from the first principles by using the density-functional theory in the local density approximation (LDA). We are also able to calculate the electronic binding energy for all of the clusters of atoms from the optimized structure. We have made clusters of BanOm (n, m=1-6) and have determined the bond lengths, vibrational frequencies as well as intensities in each case. We find that the peroxide cluster BaO2 occurs with the O-O vibrational frequency of 836.3 cm(-1). We also find that a glass network occurs in the material which explains the vibrational frequency of 67 cm(-1). The calculated values agree with those measured from the Raman spectra of barium peroxide and Ba-B-oxide glass. We have calculated the vibrational frequencies of BaO4, GeO4 and SiO4 each in tetrahedral configuration and find that the vibrational frequencies in these systems depend on the inverse square root of the atomic mass.
Methane hydrates (MHs) are present in large amounts in the ocean floor and permafrost regions. Methane and hydrogen hydrates are being studied as future energy resources and energy storage media. To develop a method for gas production from natural MH-bearing sediments and hydrate-based technologies, it is imperative to understand the thermal properties of gas hydrates. The thermal properties' measurements of samples comprising sand, water, methane, and MH are difficult because the melting heat of MH may affect the measurements. To solve this problem, we performed thermal properties' measurements at supercooled conditions during MH formation. The measurement protocol, calculation method of the saturation change, and tips for thermal constants' analysis of the sample using transient plane source techniques are described here. The effect of the formation heat of MH on measurement is very small because the gas hydrate formation rate is very slow. This measurement method can be applied to the thermal properties of the gas hydrate-water-guest gas system, which contains hydrogen, CO2, and ozone hydrates, because the characteristic low formation rate of gas hydrate is not unique to MH. The key point of this method is the low rate of phase transition of the target material. Hence, this method may be applied to other materials having low phase-transition rates.
Separation of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from gaseous mixture is an important issue for the removal of CO(2) in natural gas processing and power plants. The ordered mesoporous silicas (OMS) with uniform pore structure and high density of silanol groups, have attracted the interest of researchers for separation of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) using adsorption process. These mesoporous silicas after functionalization with amino groups have been studied for the removal of CO(2). The potential of functionalized ordered mesoporous silica membrane for separation of CO(2) is also recognized. The present paper reviews the synthesis of mesoporous silicas and important issues related to the development of mesoporous silicas. Recent studies on the CO(2) separation using ordered mesoporous silicas (OMS) as adsorbent and membrane are highlighted. The future prospectives of mesoporous silica membrane for CO(2) adsorption and separation are also presented and discussed.
Photocatalytic degradation of phenol was investigated using the supported nano-TiO(2)/ZSM-5/silica gel (SNTZS) as a photocatalyst in a batch reactor. The prepared photocatalyst was characterized using XRD, TEM, FT-IR and BET surface area analysis. The synthesized photocatalyst composition was developed using nano-TiO(2) as the photoactive component and zeolite (ZSM-5) as the adsorbents, all supported on silica gel using colloidal silica gel binder. The optimum formulation of SNTZS catalyst was observed to be (nano-TiO(2):ZSM-5:silica gel:colloidal silica gel=1:0.6:0.6:1) which giving about 90% degradation of 50mg/L phenol solution in 180 min. The SNTZS exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than that of the commercial Degussa P25 which only gave 67% degradation. Its high photocatalytic activity was due to its large specific surface area (275.7 m(2)/g), small particle size (8.1 nm), high crystalline quality of the synthesized catalyst and low electron-hole pairs recombination rate as ZSM-5 adsorbent was used. The SNTZS photocatalyst synthesized in this study also has been proven to have an excellent adhesion and reusability.
This work reports a new method to covalently attach calixarene derivatives onto MCM-41, using a diisocyanate as a linker. The modified mesoporous silicates were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis. The FTIR spectra and TGA analysis verified that the calixarene derivates are covalently attached to the mesoporous silica. The preservation of the MCM-41 channel system was checked by X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption analysis.
Steady efforts in using ultrasonic energy to treat oil-contaminated sand started in the early 2000s until today, although pilot studies on the area can be traced to even earlier dates. Owing to the unique characteristics of the acoustic means, the separation of oil from sand has been showing good results in laboratories. This review provides the compilation of researches and insights into the mechanism of separation thus far. Related topics in the areas of oil-contaminated sand characterizations, fundamental ultrasonic cleaning, and cavitation effects are also addressed. Nevertheless, many of the documented works are only at laboratory or pilot-scale level, and the comprehensive interaction between ultrasonic parameters towards cleaning efficiencies may not have been fully unveiled. Gaps and opportunities are also presented at the end of this article.
Recent developments propose renewed use of surface-modified nanoparticles (NPs) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) due to improved stability and reduced porous media retention. The enhanced surface properties render the nanoparticles more suitable compared to bare nanoparticles, for increasing the displacement efficiency of waterflooding. However, the EOR mechanisms using NPs are still not well established. This work investigates the effect of in-situ surface-modified silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) on interfacial tension (IFT) and wettability behavior as a prevailing oil recovery mechanism. For this purpose, the nanoparticles have been synthesized via a one-step sol-gel method using surface-modification agents, including Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) and polyethylene glycol (polymer), and characterized using various techniques. These results exhibit the well-defined spherical particles, particularly in the presence of Triton X-100 (TX-100), with particle diameter between 13 to 27 nm. To this end, SiO2 nanofluids were formed by dispersing nanoparticles (0.05 wt.%, 0.075 wt.%, 0.1 wt.%, and 0.2 wt.%) in 3 wt.% NaCl to study the impact of surface functionalization on the stability of the nanoparticle suspension. The optimal stability conditions were obtained at 0.1 wt.% SiO2 NPs at a basic pH of 10 and 9.5 for TX-100/ SiO2 and PEG/SiO nanofluids, respectively. Finally, the surface-treated SiO2 nanoparticles were found to change the wettability of treated (oil-wet) surface into water-wet by altering the contact angle from 130° to 78° (in case of TX-100/SiO2) measured against glass surface representing carbonate reservoir rock. IFT results also reveal that the surfactant treatment greatly reduced the oil-water IFT by 30%, compared to other applied NPs. These experimental results suggest that the use of surface-modified SiO2 nanoparticles could facilitate the displacement efficiency by reducing IFT and altering the wettability of carbonate reservoir towards water-wet, which is attributed to more homogeneity and better dispersion of surface-treated silica NPs compared to bare-silica NPs.
In the present study, the feasibility of soil used as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Pb(2+) ions from aqueous solution was investigated. The kinetics for adsorption of the heavy metal ions from aqueous solution by soil was examined under batch mode. The influence of the contact time and initial concentration for the adsorption process at pH of 4.5, under a constant room temperature of 25 ± 1 °C were studied. The adsorption capacity of the three heavy metal ions from aqueous solution was decreased in order of Pb(2+) > Cu(2+) > Zn(2+). The soil was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopic-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area analyzer. From the FTIR analysis, the experimental data was corresponded to the peak changes of the spectra obtained before and after adsorption process. Studies on SEM-EDX showed distinct adsorption of the heavy metal ions and the mineral composition in the study areas were determined to be silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), and iron(III) oxide (FeO3). A distinct decrease of the specific surface area and total pore volumes of the soil after adsorption was found from the BET analysis. The experimental results obtained were analyzed using four adsorption kinetic models, namely pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion. Evaluating the linear correlation coefficients, the kinetic studies showed that pseudo-second-order equation described the data appropriable than others. It was concluded that soil can be used as an effective adsorbent for removing Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Pb(2+) ions from aqueous solution.
Thermal characteristics of turbulent nanofluid flow in a rectangular pipe have been investigated numerically. The continuity, momentum, and energy equations were solved by means of a finite volume method (FVM). The symmetrical rectangular channel is heated at the top and bottom at a constant heat flux while the sides walls are insulated. Four different types of nanoparticles Al2O3, ZnO, CuO, and SiO2 at different volume fractions of nanofluids in the range of 1% to 5% are considered in the present investigation. In this paper, effect of different Reynolds numbers in the range of 5000 < Re < 25000 on heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids flowing through the channel is investigated. The numerical results indicate that SiO2-water has the highest Nusselt number compared to other nanofluids while it has the lowest heat transfer coefficient due to low thermal conductivity. The Nusselt number increases with the increase of the Reynolds number and the volume fraction of nanoparticles. The results of simulation show a good agreement with the existing experimental correlations.
A new microring resonator system is proposed for the detection of the Salmonella bacterium in drinking water, which is made up of SiO2-TiO2 waveguide embedded inside thin film layer of the flagellin. The change in refractive index due to the binding of the Salmonella bacterium with flagellin layer causes a shift in the output signal wavelength and the variation in through and drop port's intensities, which leads to the detection of Salmonella bacterium in drinking water. The sensitivity of proposed sensor for detecting of Salmonella bacterium in water solution is 149 nm/RIU and the limit of detection is 7 × 10(-4)RIU.