Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 23 in total

  1. Ghani, S.H.A.
    Ann Dent, 1996;3(1):-.
    Fixed-removable appliance is frequently used to extrude a tooth but the idea of incorporating an acrylic capping or stop has not been documented in the literature. This article reports on a case treated with this new approach and describes the technique used.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silicone Elastomers
  2. Aziz SAA, Mazlan SA, Ubaidillah U, Mohamad N, Choi SB, Che Aziz MA, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Nov 27;21(23).
    PMID: 33260840 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21239007
    Engineering rubber composites have been widely used as main components in many fields including vehicle engineering and biomedical applications. However, when a rubber composite surface area is exposed to heat or sunlight and over a long-term accelerated exposure and lifecycle of test, the rubber becomes hard, thus influencing the mechanical and rheological behavior of the materials. Therefore, in this study, the deterioration of rheological characteristics particularly the phase shift angle (δ) of silicone rubber (SR) based magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) is investigated under the effect of thermal aging. SR-MRE with 60 wt% of CIPs is fabricated and subjected to a continuous temperature of 100 °C for 72 h. The characterization of SR-MRE before and after thermal aging related to hardness, micrograph, and rheological properties are characterized using low vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LV-SEM) and a rheometer, respectively. The results demonstrated that the morphological analysis has a rough surface and more voids occurred after the thermal aging. The hardness and the weight of the SR-MRE before and after thermal aging were slightly different. Nonetheless, the thermo-rheological results showed that the stress-strain behavior have changed the phase-shift angle (δ) of SR-MRE particularly at a high strain. Moreover, the complex mechanism of SR-MRE before and after thermal aging can be observed through the changes of the 'in-rubber structure' under rheological properties. Finally, the relationship between the phase-shift angle (δ) and the in-rubber structure due to thermal aging are discussed thoroughly which led to a better understanding of the thermo-rheological behavior of SR-MRE.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silicone Elastomers/chemistry*
  3. Rahman AM, Jamayet NB, Nizami MMUI, Johari Y, Husein A, Alam MK
    J Prosthodont, 2019 Jan;28(1):36-48.
    PMID: 30043482 DOI: 10.1111/jopr.12950
    PURPOSE: This systematic review aims to identify and interpret results of studies that evaluated the changes in the physical properties of maxillofacial prosthetic materials (1) without aging, (2) after natural or artificial accelerated aging, and (3) after outdoor weathering.

    METHODS: Relevant articles written in English only, before January 15, 2017, were identified using an electronic search in the PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Furthermore, a manual search of the related major journals was also conducted to identify more pertinent articles. The relevancy of the articles was verified by screening the title, abstract, and full text if they met the inclusion criteria. A total of 37 articles satisfied the criteria, from which data were extracted for qualitative synthesis.

    RESULTS: Among the 37 included articles, 14 were without aging, 15 were natural or artificial accelerated aging, 7 were outdoor weathering, and 1 contained both artificial aging and outdoor weathering. Only 4 studies out of the 14 without aging had significant observations; whereas 9 articles with natural or artificial aging published significant results, and 3 out of 7 outdoor weathering articles showed significant changes in the evaluated silicone elastomers.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite the varying research, it seems that the single "ideal" maxillofacial prosthetic material that can provide sufficient resistance against different aging conditions is yet to be identified. Therefore, it is imperative for standardization organizations, the scientific community, and academia to develop modified prosthetic silicones possessing improved physical properties and color stability, limiting the clinical problems regarding degradation of maxillofacial prostheses.

    Matched MeSH terms: Silicone Elastomers*
  4. Goh TH, Puvan IS, Wong WP, Sivanesaratnam V, Sinnathuray TA
    Int. J. Fertil., 1981;26(2):116-9.
    PMID: 6114062
    The menstrual patterns of 281 women undergoing laparoscopic sterilization with silastic rings were studied prospectively. A significant increase in dysmenorrhea and irregular periods was seen soon after sterilization but this was transient, returning to presterilization levels by 12 months. Menorrhagia was not observed and the amount of menstrual blood loss showed a trend towards normal following sterilization. No permanent adverse effects on menstrual patterns were seen in the 1st year after sterilization. It is suggested that factors other than the sterilization procedure may be responsible for the high prevalence of menstrual dysfunction that has been reported following sterilization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silicone Elastomers*
  5. Nor Azura Abdul Rahim, Zulkifli Mohamad Ariff, Azlan Ariffin
    A study of kaolin addition in polypropylene (PP-kaolin) melt was carried out to characterize its flow behaviour and viscoelasticity at different temperatures. The compound of 20 wt% kaolin was prepared by melt mixing using two roll-mill heated at 185°C, while the compounded composites were put through a single screw extruder to evaluate its melt flow properties. The prepared PPKaolin composites exhibited a shear thinning behaviour and appeared to be strongly dependent on temperature. Moreover, it was also found that the power law index was constantly increased as the temperature increased. Meanwhile, a similar trend was observed for swelling ratio, whereby it also increased with increasing temperature. It was also observed that changes in the die temperatures would result in the formation of obvious bubble like surface morphology, and it became more prominent when the temperature was lowered.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silicone Elastomers
  6. Khalaf S, Ariffin Z, Husein A, Reza F
    J Prosthodont, 2015 Jul;24(5):419-23.
    PMID: 25219956 DOI: 10.1111/jopr.12213
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the surface roughness of maxillofacial silicone elastomers fabricated in noncoated and coated gypsum materials. This study was also conducted to characterize the silicone elastomer specimens after surfaces were modified.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A gypsum mold was coated with clear acrylic spray. The coated mold was then used to produce modified silicone experimental specimens (n = 35). The surface roughness of the modified silicone elastomers was compared with that of the control specimens, which were prepared by conventional flasking methods (n = 35). An atomic force microscope (AFM) was used for surface roughness measurement of silicone elastomer (unmodified and modified), and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to evaluate the topographic conditions of coated and noncoated gypsum and silicone elastomer specimens (unmodified and modified) groups. After the gypsum molds were characterized, the fabricated silicone elastomers molded on noncoated and coated gypsum materials were evaluated further. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis of gypsum materials (noncoated and coated) and silicone elastomer specimens (unmodified and modified) was performed to evaluate the elemental changes after coating was conducted. Independent t test was used to analyze the differences in the surface roughness of unmodified and modified silicone at a significance level of p < 0.05.

    RESULTS: Roughness was significantly reduced in the silicone elastomers processed against coated gypsum materials (p < 0.001). The AFM and SEM analysis results showed evident differences in surface smoothness. EDX data further revealed the presence of the desired chemical components on the surface layer of unmodified and modified silicone elastomers.

    CONCLUSIONS: Silicone elastomers with lower surface roughness of maxillofacial prostheses can be obtained simply by coating a gypsum mold.

    Matched MeSH terms: Silicone Elastomers
  7. M. Hafiz, C.M.Salmi, M.Kamarol, M.Mariatti
    Nowadays Silicone Rubber (SiR) is recommended in high voltage cable accessories fabrication as it offers excellent electrical and mechanical properties. Electrical tree is one of the phenomenon which contributes to the main factor of SiR insulation breakdown. Recently, a new approach has been applied in order to enhance the insulation strength properties by introducing nano filler in undoped material. Thus, this paper presents the influence of nano-alumina and halloysite nanoclay on electrical tree growth in SiR at 0, 1 vol%, 2 vol% and 3 vol% concentration. The electrical tree growth was investigated at 8kVrms after tree inception voltage (TIV) within 30 minutes under room temperature. The results show reductions of electrical tree growth speed and accumulate damage (%) up to 2 vol% nano-alumina and up to 3 vol% halloysite nanoclay. Nevertheless the presence of 3 vol% nano-alumina in SiR leads to the faster electrical tree growth rate and the worst accumulate damage within 1 minute of electrical tree growth process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silicone Elastomers
  8. Singh R, Singh G, Singh J, Kumar R, Rahman MM, Ramakrishna S
    Proc Inst Mech Eng H, 2019 Nov;233(11):1196-1203.
    PMID: 31545132 DOI: 10.1177/0954411919877979
    In this experimental study, a composite of poly-ether-ketone-ketone by reinforcement of hydroxyapatite and chitosan has been prepared for possible applications as orthopaedic scaffolds. Initially, different weight percentages of hydroxyapatite and chitosan were reinforced in the poly-ether-ketone-ketone matrix and tested for melt flow index in order to check the flowability of different compositions/proportions. Suitable compositions revealed by the melt flow index test were then taken forward for the extrusion of filament required for fused deposition modelling. For thermomechanical investigations, Taguchi-based design of experiments has been used with input variables in the extrusion process as follows: temperature, load applied and different composition/proportions. The specimens in the form of feedstock filament produced by the extrusion process were made to undergo tensile testing. The specimens were also inspected by differential scanning calorimetry and photomicrographs. Finally, the specimen showing the best performance from the thermomechanical viewpoint has been selected to extrude the filament for the fused deposition modelling process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silicone Elastomers
  9. Barman A, Rashid F, Farook TH, Jamayet NB, Dudley J, Yhaya MFB, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Jul 12;12(7).
    PMID: 32664615 DOI: 10.3390/polym12071536
    Although numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of incorporating filler particles into maxillofacial silicone elastomer (MFPSE), a review of the types, concentrations and effectiveness of the particles themselves was lacking. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to review the effect of different types of filler particles on the mechanical properties of MFPSE. The properties in question were (1) tensile strength, (2) tear strength, (3) hardness, and (4) elongation at break. The findings of this study can assist operators, technicians and clinicians in making relevant decisions regarding which type of fillers to incorporate based on their needs. The systematic review was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 26 original articles from 1970 to 2019 were selected from the databases, based on predefined eligibility criteria by two reviewers. The meta-analyses of nine papers were carried out by extracting data from the systematic review based on scoring criteria and processed using Cochrane Review Manager 5.3. Overall, there were significant differences favoring filler particles when incorporated into MFPSE. Nano fillers (69.23% of all studies) demonstrated superior comparative outcomes for tensile strength (P < 0.0001), tear strength (P < 0.00001), hardness (P < 0.00001) and elongation at break (P < 0.00001) when compared to micro fillers (30.76% of all studies). Micro fillers demonstrated inconsistent outcomes in mechanical properties, and meta-analysis of elongation at break argued against (P < 0.01) their use. Current findings suggest that 1.5% ZrSiO4, 3% SiO2, 1.5% Y2O3, 2-6% TiO2, 2-2.5% ZnO, 2-2.5% CeO2, 0.5% TiSiO4 and 1% Ag-Zn Zeolite can be used to reinforce MFPSE, and help the materials better withstand mechanical degradation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silicone Elastomers
  10. Lee, S.Y.
    Tapioca starch, poly(lactic acid) and Cloisite 10A nanocomposite foams were prepared by twin screw extrusion. Residence time distribution (RTD) in an extruder is a useful means of determining optimal processing conditions for mixing, cooking and shearing reactions during the process. RTD was obtained by inputting a pulse-like stimulus and measuring its profile at the exit or other point in the extruder. During processing, after the steady state had been reached, a fixed amount of tracer was instantaneously fed into the extruder and its concentration was measured from the samples collected at fixed time intervals in the extruder exit. The tracer concentration was the value of the redness, a* was used as a measure of red colour intensity of the concentration of tracer in the extrudate. Meanwhile, the effects of two screw configurations (compression and mixing screws) and two barrel temperatures (150 and 160ºC) on RTD of nanocomposite foams were also studied. The influences of screw configurations and barrel temperatures on RTD were analyzed using the mean residence time (MRT) and variance. Screw configurations and temperatures had significant effects (P
    Matched MeSH terms: Silicone Elastomers
  11. Al-Saleh MA, Yussuf AA, Al-Enezi S, Kazemi R, Wahit MU, Al-Shammari T, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2019 Nov 27;12(23).
    PMID: 31783544 DOI: 10.3390/ma12233924
    In this research work, graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) were selected as alternative reinforcing nanofillers to enhance the properties of polypropylene (PP) using different compatibilizers called polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) and ethylene-octene elastomer grafted maleic anhydride (POE-g-MA). A twin screw extruder was used to compound PP, GNP, and either the PP-g-MA or POE-g-MA compatibilizer. The effect of GNP loading on mechanical and thermal properties of neat PP was investigated. Furthermore, the influence and performance of different compatibilizers on the final properties, such as mechanical and thermal, were discussed and reported. Tensile, flexural, impact, melting temperature, crystallization temperature, and thermal stability were evaluated by using a universal testing system, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). For mechanical properties, it was found that increasing GNP content from 1 wt.% to 5 wt.% increased tensile strength of the neat PP up to 4 MPa. The influence of compatibilizers on the mechanical properties had been discussed and reported. For instance, the addition of PP-g-MA compatibilizer improved tensile strength of neat PP with GNP loading. However, the addition of compatibilizer POE-g-MA slightly decreased the tensile strength of neat PP. A similar trend of behavior was observed for flexural strength. For thermal properties, it was found that both GNP loading and compatibilizers have no significant influence on both crystallization and melting temperature of neat PP. For thermal stability, however, it was found that increasing the GNP loading had a significant influence on improving the thermal behavior of neat PP. Furthermore, the addition of compatibilizers into the PP/GNP nanocomposite had slightly improved the thermal stability of neat PP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silicone Elastomers
  12. Ishak Ahmad, Mohd Khairil Saat, Ibrahim Abdullah, Azizah Baharum
    Blends of fibre-reinforced rubber based on natural rubber-thermoplastic (NR/LLDPE) reinforced by aramid fibre have been done using melt blending process. Two different processing methods were used; internal mixer and extrusion compounding in twin screw extruder. Twaron loading in the system was varied from 0 to 30%. It was found that increasing the amount of aramid fibre led to an increase in the tensile strength, tensile modulus and hardness of the composites while the strain decreased rapidly. The results showed that the optimum composition of filler loading in NR/LLDPE blend is 20%. The ,echanical behaviour was caused by the strong Twaron-matrices interaction in the composites and effective stress concentrating function of Twaron. Composites prepared using the twin-screw extruder have a higher tensile strength and tensile using the twin-screw extruder have a higher tensile stength and tensile modulus but lower impact strength compared to those prepared using internal mixer. Study of the fracture surface by scanning electron microscopy showed that the composite prepared using the internal mixer produced random fiber orientation while the twin-screw extruder produced the fibers aligned to the longitudinal direction. The results indicate that the mechanical properties of the composite were significantly influenced by the processing technique.
    Penyediaan komposit getah asli termoplastik daripada NR/LLDPE yang diperkuat gentian Twaron telah dijalankan melalui proses adunan leburan. Dua kaedah penyediaan yang berbeza digunakan iaitu menggunakan mesin pencampur dalaman manakala kaedah kedua menggunakan pengekstrud skru kembar. Kandungan Twaron di dalam komposit telah diubah daripada 0 hingga 30%. Keputusan menunjukkan bahawa penambahan Twaron telah meningkatkan nilai tegasan maksima, modulus Young dan kekuatan hentaman komposit tetapi menurunkan nilai terikan maksima. Kandungan Twaron yang optimum adalah 20%. Kehadiran Twaron telah membentuk satu jaringan saling tindak gentian-matriks menyebabkan kekuatan regangan komposit meningkat. Twaron juga berfungsi sebagai penyerap hentaman yang berkesan. Penyediaan komposit menggunakan pengekstrud skru berkembar telah menghasilkan nilai kekuatan regangan yang lebih tinggi berbanding penggunaan pencampur dalaman sebaliknya kekuatan hentaman yang lebih rendah. Kajian morfologi menggunakan mikroskop imbasan elektron mendapati komposit yang disediakan menggunakan pencampur dalaman menghasilkan gentian dengan orientasi rawak manakala pengekstrud skru kembar menghasilkan orientasi gentian yang selari. Keputusan ini menunjukkan bahawa sifat mekanik komposit NR/LLDPE yang diperkuat Twaron sangat dipengaruhi oleh teknik pemprosesan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silicone Elastomers
  13. Atikah Ismail, Azman Hassan, Aznizam Abu Bakar, Jawaid M
    Sains Malaysiana, 2013;42:429-434.
    The effects of ammonium polyphosphate (APP) as flame retardant and kenaf as fillers on flammability, thermal and mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP) composites were determined. Test specimens were prepared by using a corotating twin screw extruder for the compounding process followed by injection molding. The flame retardancy of the composites was determined by using limiting oxygen index (LOI) test. Addition of flame retardant into kenaf-PP composites significantly increased the LOI values that indicated the improvement of flame retardancy. Thermogravimetric analysis was done to examine the thermal stability of the composites. The addition of kenaf fiber in PP composites decreased the thermal stability significantly but the influence of APP on thermal properties of the kenaf-filled PP composites was not significant. The flexural strength and modulus of the composites increased with the addition of APP into kenaf filled
    PP composite. The addition of APP into kenaf filled PP causes increase in the impact strength while increasing the APP content in the kenaf filled PP composite show decrease in impact strength.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silicone Elastomers
  14. Koh KH, Sreekumar M, Ponnambalam SG
    Materials (Basel), 2014 Jun 25;7(7):4963-4981.
    PMID: 28788114 DOI: 10.3390/ma7074963
    This paper investigates the effect of driving voltage on the attachment force of an electroadhesion actuator, as the existing literature on the saturation of the adhesive force at a higher electric field is incomplete. A new type of electroadhesion actuator using normally available materials, such as aluminum foil, PVC tape and a silicone rubber sheet used for keyboard protection, has been developed with a simple layered structure that is capable of developing adhesive force consistently. The developed actuator is subjected to the experiment for the evaluation of various test surfaces; aluminum, brick, ceramic, concrete and glass. The driving high voltage is varied in steps to determine the characteristics of the output holding force. Results show a quadratic relation between F (adhesion force) and V (driving voltage) within the 2 kV range. After this range, the F-V responses consistently show a saturation trend at high electric fields. Next, the concept of the leakage current that can occur in the dielectric material and the corona discharge through air has been introduced. Results show that the voltage level, which corresponds to the beginning of the supply current, matches well with the beginning of the force saturation. With the confirmation of this hypothesis, a working model for electroadhesion actuation is proposed. Based on the experimental results, it is proposed that such a kind of actuator can be driven within a range of optimum high voltage to remain electrically efficient. This practice is recommended for the future design, development and characterization of electroadhesion actuators for robotic applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silicone Elastomers
  15. Sukumaran P, Fenlon MR
    J Indian Prosthodont Soc, 2017 6 7;17(2):207-211.
    PMID: 28584424 DOI: 10.4103/0972-4052.203194
    This paper describes a method used for the fabrication of a two-piece denture obturator for a patient who had surgical removal of the premaxilla due to squamous cell carcinoma. The patient had been wearing a two-piece obturator but encountered difficulty in inserting the prosthesis. In this case report, a lock-and-key mechanism was used to easily assemble the two-piece prosthesis intraorally. A keyhole was designed on the obturator to act as the lock while the denture was used as the key that fitted into the keyhole. This mechanism facilitated insertion and provided retention for the prosthesis. Heat-cured resilient acrylic material (Molloplast B®), which was used to fabricate the obturator, was a nonirritant, nontoxic, tissue-compatible material. It also did not contain plasticizers, therefore eliminating the problems associated with leaching out of plasticizers. The use of this flexible and resilient material allowed the obturator to engage in the undercuts without causing trauma and irritation to the soft tissues in the region of the defect. To conclude, the "lock-and-key" mechanism used in the fabrication of the two-piece denture obturator provided the patient with a lightweight, comfortable, and user-friendly form of prostheses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silicone Elastomers
  16. Khalaf S, Ariffin Z, Husein A, Reza F
    J Prosthodont, 2017 Dec;26(8):664-669.
    PMID: 28177575 DOI: 10.1111/jopr.12460
    PURPOSE: To compare the adhesion of three microorganisms on modified and unmodified silicone elastomer surfaces with different surface roughnesses and porosities.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, and Staphylococcus aureus were incubated with modified and unmodified silicone groups (N = 35) for 30 days at 37°C. The counts of viable microorganisms in the accumulating biofilm layer were determined and converted to cfu/cm2 unit surface area. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to evaluate the microbial adhesion. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test, one-way ANOVA, and post hoc tests as indicated.

    RESULTS: Significant differences in microbial adhesion were observed between modified and unmodified silicone elastomers after the cells were incubated for 30 days (p < 0.001). SEM showed evident differences in microbial adhesion on modified silicone elastomer compared with unmodified silicone elastomer.

    CONCLUSIONS: Surface modification of silicone elastomer yielding a smoother and less porous surface showed lower adhesion of different microorganisms than observed on unmodified surfaces.

    Matched MeSH terms: Silicone Elastomers*
  17. Mohd Basri MS, Yek TH, A Talib R, Mohamed Amin Tawakkal IS, Kamarudin SH, Mazlan N, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Mar 23;13(6).
    PMID: 33806990 DOI: 10.3390/polym13060985
    Geopolymer coating using rice husk ash (RHA) as the aluminosilicate source has shown excellent fire retardant properties. However, incorporation of rice husk ash into the geopolymer matrix increased water absorption properties of the polymer composite. As such, silicone rubber (SiR) was introduced to improve the moisture absorption and fire retardant properties of the composite. Additionally, the less efficient one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) approach was conventionally used in past studies on the RHA-based geopolymer composite. In understanding the optimum value and significant effect of factors on the fire retardant and moisture absorption properties of the binary blended geopolymer coating composite, the use of statistical analysis and regression coefficient model (mathematical model) was considered essential. The objectives of this study are to identify the significant effect of factors on moisture absorption and fire retardant properties, to determine the optimum composition, and to study the microstructure of the rice husk ash/silicone rubber (RHA/SiR)-based binary blended geopolymer coating composite. The RHA/AA and SiR/Ge ratios were chosen as factors, and the response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to design experiments and conduct analyses. Fire retardant and moisture absorption tests were conducted. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the microstructure of geopolymer samples. The RHA/alkaline activator (AA) and SiR/Ge ratios were shown to have a significant effect on the responses (temperature at equilibrium and moisture absorption). The high ratio of RHA/AA and SiR/Ge resulted in a lower temperature at equilibrium (TAE) below 200°C and at moisture absorption below 16%. The optimum formulation for the geopolymer coating composite can be achieved when the RHA/AA ratio, SiR/Ge ratio, and sodium hydroxide concentration are set at 0.85, 0.70, and 14 M, respectively. SEM micrographs of samples with good fire retardant properties showed that the char residue of the geopolymer composite coating, which is a layer of excess silicone rubber, is porous and continuous, thus providing a shielding effect for the layer of geopolymer underneath. The sample with good moisture absorption showed the formation of a thin outer layer of silicone rubber without any cracks. The unreacted SiR formed a thin layer beneath the geopolymer composite matrix providing a good moisture barrier.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silicone Elastomers
  18. Sindi R, Wong YH, Yeong CH, Sun Z
    Quant Imaging Med Surg, 2020 Jun;10(6):1237-1248.
    PMID: 32550133 DOI: 10.21037/qims-20-251
    Background: Despite increasing reports of 3D printing in medical applications, the use of 3D printing in breast imaging is limited, thus, personalized 3D-printed breast model could be a novel approach to overcome current limitations in utilizing breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantitative assessment of breast density. The aim of this study is to develop a patient-specific 3D-printed breast phantom and to identify the most appropriate materials for simulating the MR imaging characteristics of fibroglandular and adipose tissues.

    Methods: A patient-specific 3D-printed breast model was generated using 3D-printing techniques for the construction of the hollow skin and fibroglandular region shells. Then, the T1 relaxation times of the five selected materials (agarose gel, silicone rubber with/without fish oil, silicone oil, and peanut oil) were measured on a 3T MRI system to determine the appropriate ones to represent the MR imaging characteristics of fibroglandular and adipose tissues. Results were then compared to the reference values of T1 relaxation times of the corresponding tissues: 1,324.42±167.63 and 449.27±26.09 ms, respectively. Finally, the materials that matched the T1 relaxation times of the respective tissues were used to fill the 3D-printed hollow breast shells.

    Results: The silicone and peanut oils were found to closely resemble the T1 relaxation times and imaging characteristics of these two tissues, which are 1,515.8±105.5 and 405.4±15.1 ms, respectively. The agarose gel with different concentrations, ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 wt%, was found to have the longest T1 relaxation times.

    Conclusions: A patient-specific 3D-printed breast phantom was successfully designed and constructed using silicone and peanut oils to simulate the MR imaging characteristics of fibroglandular and adipose tissues. The phantom can be used to investigate different MR breast imaging protocols for the quantitative assessment of breast density.

    Matched MeSH terms: Silicone Elastomers
  19. Okolo C, Rafique R, Iqbal SS, Saharudin MS, Inam F
    Molecules, 2020 Jun 27;25(13).
    PMID: 32605124 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25132960
    Multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT)-filled high density polyethylene (HDPE) nanocomposites were prepared by extrusion and considered for their suitability in the offshore sheathing applications. Transmission electron microscopy was conducted to analyse dispersion after bulk extrusion. Monolithic and nanocomposite samples were subjected to accelerated weathering and photodegradation (carbonyl and vinyl indices) characterisations, which consisted of heat, moisture (seawater) and UV light, intended to imitate the offshore conditions. The effects of accelerated weathering on mechanical properties (tensile strength and elastic modulus) of the nanocomposites were analysed. CNT addition in HDPE produced environmentally resilient nanocomposites with improved mechanical properties. The energy utilised to extrude nanocomposites was also less than the energy used to extrude monolithic HDPE samples. The results support the mass substitution of CNT-filled HDPE nanocomposites in high-end offshore applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silicone Elastomers
  20. Sharip NS, Ariffin H, Yasim-Anuar TAT, Andou Y, Shirosaki Y, Jawaid M, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Jan 27;13(3).
    PMID: 33513876 DOI: 10.3390/polym13030404
    The major hurdle in melt-processing of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) nanocomposite lies on the high melt viscosity of the UHMWPE, which may contribute to poor dispersion and distribution of the nanofiller. In this study, UHMWPE/cellulose nanofiber (UHMWPE/CNF) bionanocomposites were prepared by two different blending methods: (i) melt blending at 150 °C in a triple screw kneading extruder, and (ii) non-melt blending by ethanol mixing at room temperature. Results showed that melt-processing of UHMWPE without CNF (MB-UHMWPE/0) exhibited an increment in yield strength and Young's modulus by 15% and 25%, respectively, compared to the Neat-UHMWPE. Tensile strength was however reduced by almost half. Ethanol mixed sample without CNF (EM-UHMWPE/0) on the other hand showed slight decrement in all mechanical properties tested. At 0.5% CNF inclusion, the mechanical properties of melt-blended bionanocomposites (MB-UHMWPE/0.5) were improved as compared to Neat-UHMWPE. It was also found that the yield strength, elongation at break, Young's modulus, toughness and crystallinity of MB-UHMWPE/0.5 were higher by 28%, 61%, 47%, 45% and 11%, respectively, as compared to the ethanol mixing sample (EM-UHMWPE/0.5). Despite the reduction in tensile strength of MB-UHMWPE/0.5, the value i.e., 28.4 ± 1.0 MPa surpassed the minimum requirement of standard specification for fabricated UHMWPE in surgical implant application. Overall, melt-blending processing is more suitable for the preparation of UHMWPE/CNF bionanocomposites as exhibited by their characteristics presented herein. A better mechanical interlocking between UHMWPE and CNF at high temperature mixing with kneading was evident through FE-SEM observation, explains the higher mechanical properties of MB-UHMWPE/0.5 as compared to EM-UHMWPE/0.5.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silicone Elastomers
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