Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 290 in total

  1. Gururaj AK, Ariffin WA, Vijayakumari S, Reddy TN
    Singapore Med J, 1992 Jun;33(3):279-81.
    PMID: 1631588
    Between June 1985 and December 1988, 58 cases of gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum were admitted to the neonatal unit at the University Hospital (USM). Of these, 15 (25.9%) cases were due to penicillin-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoea. Of the 58 cases, 56 cases were treated effectively with a single dose of antibiotic given systemically. The mean period of recovery was shorter with spectinomycin in doses of 40 mg/kg than with cefotaxime (100 mg/kg). There was no permanent sequelae in the treated cases. An increasing incidence of infection with penicillin-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoea has been observed in the area of study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  2. Lew K, Barlow PJ
    Singapore Med J, 2005 Jun;46(6):282-8.
    PMID: 15902356
    INTRODUCTION: This study sets out to investigate any differences in dietary practices between adolescents in Singapore and Malaysia.
    METHODS: An adolescent dietary practices survey was conducted in Singapore and Malaysia involving 200 adolescents (100 from each country) aged 11 to 21 years in order to have a better understanding of the adolescents' dietary practices. Dietary practices were assessed by a self-administered dietary practices questionnaire (DPQ).
    RESULTS: The major differences identified between adolescents' dietary practices in Singapore and Malaysia are related to alcohol consumption and venue for taking of lunch. More Malaysian adolescents have their lunch prepared at home (32.9 percent), compared with 7.2 percent of Singaporean adolescents. More adolescents in Malaysia drink alcohol (49.4 percent), compared with only 21.7 percent of Singaporean adolescents.
    CONCLUSION: From the dietary practices survey of adolescents from Singapore and Malaysia, it may be concluded that while general dietary practices are similar, the major differences identified were significantly (p-value is less than 0.05) higher alcohol consumption by Malaysian adolescents and significantly (p-value is less than 0.05) more Malaysians took their lunch at home compared with Singaporeans. The reasons for the differences are discussed in the paper.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  3. Foo LL, Quek SJ, Ng SA, Lim MT, Deurenberg-Yap M
    Health Promot Int, 2005 Sep;20(3):229-37.
    PMID: 15814526
    The National Breastfeeding Survey 2001 was the first comprehensive study on breastfeeding conducted on a national level in Singapore. It aimed to establish the prevalence of breastfeeding among Chinese, Malay and Indian mothers and to identify factors influencing breastfeeding. A total of 2098 mothers were interviewed in this two-phase study, with the first interview conducted 2 months after delivery and the second interview 6 months after birth among mothers who were still breastfeeding at 2 months. Frequency distributions of breastfeeding prevalence and types of breastfeeding practices at different time intervals (from birth to 6 months) were produced. Multivariate logistic regression was carried out to construct a model with predictive information on factors which influence continued breastfeeding till 2 months and 6 months after delivery respectively. The study found that about 94.5% of the mothers attempted breastfeeding. At 1 month, 71.6% were still breastfeeding, 49.6% continued to do so at 2 months, and 29.8% persisted till 4 months. By 6 months, the breastfeeding prevalence rate fell to 21.1%. The results of this study show higher breastfeeding prevalence rates compared to past studies in Singapore. Despite this, exclusive breastfeeding is still not a common practice. Various factors were found to be significant in influencing mothers' decision to breastfeed. Factors such as ethnicity, age, educational attainment, religion and baby's sex are non-modifiable in the short term or at an individual level. However, factors such as awareness of breastfeeding benefits, advice from health professionals and previous breastfeeding experience are potentially modifiable. Efforts aimed at promoting breastfeeding in Singapore need to take these modifiable factors into consideration so as to better tailor health promotion efforts on breastfeeding to women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  4. Ng LC, Chem YK, Koo C, Mudin RNB, Amin FM, Lee KS, et al.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2015 Jun;92(6):1150-1155.
    PMID: 25846296 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0588
    Characterization of 14,079 circulating dengue viruses in a cross-border surveillance program, UNITEDengue, revealed that the 2013 outbreaks in Singapore and Malaysia were associated with replacement of predominant serotype. While the predominant virus in Singapore switched from DENV2 to DENV1, DENV2 became predominant in neighboring Malaysia. Dominance of DENV2 was most evident on the southern states where higher fatality rates were observed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  5. Lee WL, Ong HT
    Brain Dev, 2001 Nov;23(7):584-5.
    PMID: 11701260
    The incidence of West syndrome (WS) was determined by a search of reports of electroencephalograms (EEG) recorded in 1998 and 1999 in all public hospitals in Singapore. Amongst records of patients born in 1998, nine were found with EEG features of hypsarrhythmia or modified hypsarrhythmia with onset of seizures between January 1,1998 and December 31, 1999. The medical records of these patients were reviewed. The population of children born in 1998 was 43,664. In 1998 and 1999, 67% of all hospital admissions for patients 2 years or younger in Singapore were in public hospitals. The cumulative incidence of WS in Singapore corrected for the percentage of hospital admissions to public hospitals was 3.1/10,000 live births. The corrected cumulative incidences in Chinese, Malays and Indians were 2.7, 3.1 and 3.3 per 10,000, respectively. Three cases were idiopathic; three were due to congenital structural lesions of the brain; one each had periventricular leucomalacia, intracranial hemorrhage and severe intrauterine growth retardation. None of the patients were normal at follow up. The three patients with idiopathic WS had mild global developmental delay and the other six cases had cerebral palsy and severe mental retardation. With the best modern medical treatment, possibly only two of the nine cases of WS may have been prevented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  6. Chan RK, Tan HH
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 2003 Jan;32(1):25-8.
    PMID: 12625094
    INTRODUCTION: This is a review of sexual knowledge, behaviour and the extent of sexually transmitted infections (STI), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, in Singapore adolescents.

    METHODS: Data were retrieved from relevant studies, reports and statistics concerning STI and HIV in Singapore.

    RESULTS: For many reasons, adolescents are at a higher risk of acquiring STI and HIV infections. Adolescents in Singapore are still relatively conservative in their sexual attitudes and behaviour. Most of those who had sex never used condoms. Fortunately, the incidence of STI and HIV infections among adolescents is relatively low. However, this may be changing, and there is a proportion of individuals who exhibit higher risk behaviours.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this age of rapidly changing morals and values, accurate information and skills need to be provided to young people to ensure that they are adequately prepared to protect themselves from acquiring STI/HIV infection.

    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  7. Lee LH
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 2002 Mar;31(2):248-52.
    PMID: 11957569
    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is thought to be a rare occurrence in Asian patients. The clinical features of VTE are elusive and the disease often unsuspected. Objective testing such as the duplex ultrasound scans and pulmonary imaging are necessary as clinical diagnosis alone is inaccurate. Fatality can occur in untreated patients not suspected of the disease as shown by our post-mortem studies. Indeed VTE is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality in Singapore. There is a rising trend in the incidence of VTE in Asia. Initial studies found an incidence of about 3 per 10,000 hospital admissions in Hong Kong and Malaysia in 1988 and 1990, respectively; rising to 8 and 15.8 per 10,000 hospital admissions in Singapore 1992 and 2000, respectively. The major risk factors for developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in our patients are immobilisation, surgery and malignancy. While Factor V Leiden mutation and mutation at position 20,210 in the prothrombin gene are found to be extremely rare in Chinese, the rest of the thrombophilia has not been formally studied. Studies in Singapore reported rates of 3% to 7% of DVT after general surgery, 9.7% after hip surgery and 14% after total knee replacement surgery. It is difficult to compare with studies from other centres because of differences in patient selection and diagnostic criteria. Studies in Singapore showed that the use of prophylactic low molecular weight heparin completely abolished the occurrence of DVT for patients undergoing total knee replacement and colorectal surgery without an increase in bleeding complications. In conclusion, VTE is not an uncommon problem here. Major acquired risk factors do not differ from the Caucasian populations. VTE is a preventable disease and a better understanding of its epidemiology, patient-risk factors and biological factors will allow better management of this condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  8. Teo KP, Jacob SCM, Lim SH
    Med J Malaysia, 1997 Dec;52(4):325-30.
    PMID: 10968108
    We reviewed all documented cases of septicaemia following caesarean deliveries in Kandang Kerbau Hospital between 1st January 1993 to 31st December 1995. There were 22 cases of septicaemia among 8201 caesarean births, and hence the incidence is 2.7:1000. There were 45,412 deliveries, and the overall caesarean section rate was 18.1%. Among the 22 documented cases of septicaemia which came under this study, the most common clinical conditions found were endomyometritis (7 cases), urinary tract infection (6 cases), and wound infection (3 cases). One of the three cases with wound infection also had pneumonia. There was one patient who had mild transient myocarditis. We could not determine with certainty any site of infection in five patients. The most common bloodstream bacterial isolates was Staphylococcus aureus (16), while the uncommon ones were Acinetobacter baumanii (2), Escherichia coli (1), Klebsiella sp. (1), Staphylococcus epidermidis (1), Streptococcus Group F (1), Peptostreptococcus species and Veillonella species (1). There was no mortality and prompt, vigorous treatment had led to uneventful recovery in all the cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  9. Ho SF, Phoon WH
    Med J Malaysia, 1997 Jun;52(2):134-8.
    PMID: 10968070
    Three hundred and fifteen female workers with at least three months' employment history in a factory manufacturing disk drives were studied. Each worker completed a self-administered questionnaire on their personal particulars, hours of work, opinion on the work and the workplace and the presence and severity of aches/pains experienced over the past one month. One hundred and forty one (44.8%) of the workers had complaints of aches/pains. Of these, 81 (57.5%) reported an improvement in their symptoms during their off-days. 59 (41.8%) had symptoms affecting two or more sites. The most commonly affected sites were the hands and shoulders, followed by the head and back. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of symptoms between workers from the different work stations. Ninety four (66.7%) of these workers reported that the pains that were severe enough to affect their activities. 76 (53.9%) had to seek some form of medical treatment while 33 (23.4%) had to be on medical leave. However, the physical examinations of this group of workers were normal. The symptoms appeared to be influenced by their attitude towards work. A significantly higher number of workers with symptoms expressed dissatisfaction with work and had complaints of a noisy and cold environment. The study showed that workers' morale and the quality of the work environment may play an important role in improving their general well-being.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  10. Kua EH
    Singapore Med J, 1993 Feb;34(1):26-8.
    PMID: 8266123
    This is a study of the prevalence of dementia in elderly Malays living in the Eunos district of Singapore. The subjects included all Malays 65 years and more living in public housing, and they were first interviewed and screened for any cognitive deficit using the Malay version of the Elderly Cognitive Assessment Questionnaire (ECAQ). All those who scored 5 or less in the ECAQ were assessed again with a more detailed questionnaire called the Geriatric Mental State (GMS) schedule. This is the preliminary results of 149 subjects interviewed--77 men and 72 women. Data from the GMS were analysed by a computer diagnostic programme, AGECAT. There were only 6 cases of dementia and the overall prevalence of dementia in the sample was estimated as 4.0%. In the age group 65 to 74 years the rate was 2.5% and this increased to 10.3% in those 75 years and more. The prevalence of dementia in elderly Malays is higher than elderly Chinese in Singapore, but it is similar to the results of studies in New York and Liverpool. All the subjects with dementia were living with their families and they had good social resources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  11. Kang JY
    Singapore Med J, 1992 Oct;33(5):468-71.
    PMID: 1455270
    Several lines of evidence suggest that, of the three main races of Singapore, peptic ulcers are more common among the Chinese and Indians when compared to the Malays. These include studies on hospital series of patients with or without appropriate control groups, studies on the incidence of surgery for perforated ulcer as well as mortality statistics. A reduction in the Chinese:Malay difference in the incidence of perforated ulcer over three decades suggests that environmental factors are involved in producing these racial differences. However, we have to date been unable to determine the factor(s) responsible. The incidence of perforated ulcer in Singapore is increasing while ulcer mortality is declining. This is similar to the situation in Hong Kong but different from that in the western countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  12. Umapathi T, Kam YW, Ohnmar O, Ng BCJ, Ng Y, Premikha M, et al.
    J Peripher Nerv Syst, 2018 09;23(3):197-201.
    PMID: 30070025 DOI: 10.1111/jns.12284
    Although individuals with Zika virus (ZIKV) antibodies were reported in Malaya in mid-1950s, entomological and human surveillance in Singapore did not identify autochthonous transmission until the outbreak of August-November, 2016. A total of 455 cases from 15 separate clusters were identified. We asked if this ZIKV outbreak increased the incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and aimed to characterize these cases. Eleven GBS cases, consecutively enrolled into our prospective GBS database from onset to 4 weeks after outbreak, and six controls, comprising three GBS patients enrolled before outbreak and three non-GBS patients, were examined for evidence of recent ZIKV infection. We performed serum, urine ZIKV RT-PCR, ZIKV serology, and virus neutralization assays, accounting for cross-reaction and co-infection with dengue (DENV). We found five GBS cases with only serological evidence of recent ZIKV infection (including one ZIKV-DENV co-infection). A temporal relationship with ZIKV outbreak was unlikely as two cases were GBS controls enrolled 3 months before outbreak. None reported symptoms of ZIKV infection. In addition, compared to last 10 years the national number of GBS hospitalizations did not increase during and immediately after outbreak. We conclude the 2016 Singapore ZIKV outbreak did not cause a change in GBS epidemiology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  13. Cheong HT, Ng KT, Ong LY, Chook JB, Chan KG, Takebe Y, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(10):e111236.
    PMID: 25340817 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111236
    A novel HIV-1 recombinant clade (CRF51_01B) was recently identified among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Singapore. As cases of sexually transmitted HIV-1 infection increase concurrently in two socioeconomically intimate countries such as Malaysia and Singapore, cross transmission of HIV-1 between said countries is highly probable. In order to investigate the timeline for the emergence of HIV-1 CRF51_01B in Singapore and its possible introduction into Malaysia, 595 HIV-positive subjects recruited in Kuala Lumpur from 2008 to 2012 were screened. Phylogenetic relationship of 485 amplified polymerase gene sequences was determined through neighbour-joining method. Next, near-full length sequences were amplified for genomic sequences inferred to be CRF51_01B and subjected to further analysis implemented through Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling and maximum likelihood methods. Based on the near full length genomes, two isolates formed a phylogenetic cluster with CRF51_01B sequences of Singapore origin, sharing identical recombination structure. Spatial and temporal information from Bayesian MCMC coalescent and maximum likelihood analysis of the protease, gp120 and gp41 genes suggest that Singapore is probably the country of origin of CRF51_01B (as early as in the mid-1990s) and featured a Malaysian who acquired the infection through heterosexual contact as host for its ancestral lineages. CRF51_01B then spread rapidly among the MSM in Singapore and Malaysia. Although the importation of CRF51_01B from Singapore to Malaysia is supported by coalescence analysis, the narrow timeframe of the transmission event indicates a closely linked epidemic. Discrepancies in the estimated divergence times suggest that CRF51_01B may have arisen through multiple recombination events from more than one parental lineage. We report the cross transmission of a novel CRF51_01B lineage between countries that involved different sexual risk groups. Understanding the cross-border transmission of HIV-1 involving sexual networks is crucial for effective intervention strategies in the region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  14. Ang LW, Cutter J, James L, Goh KT
    Epidemiol Infect, 2015 Jun;143(8):1585-93.
    PMID: 25245094 DOI: 10.1017/S0950268814002507
    To assess the impact of past dengue epidemics in Singapore, we undertook a national seroepidemiological study to determine the prevalence of past dengue virus (DENV) infection in the adult population in 2010 and make comparisons with the seroprevalence in 2004. The study involved residual sera from 3293 adults aged 18-79 years who participated in a national health survey in 2010. The overall prevalence of anti-DENV IgG antibodies was 56·8% (95% confidence interval 55·1-58·5) in 2010. The seroprevalence increased significantly with age. Males had significantly higher seroprevalence than females (61·5% vs. 53·2%). Among the three major ethnic groups, Malays had the lowest seroprevalence (50·2%) compared to Chinese (57·0%) and Indians (62·0%). The age-standardized seroprevalence in adults was significantly lower in 2010 (54·4%) compared to 2004 (63·1%). Older age, male gender, Indian ethnicity, permanent residency and being home-bound were independent risk factors significantly associated with seropositivity. About 43% of the Singapore adult resident population remain susceptible to DENV infection as a result of the successful implementation of a comprehensive nationwide Aedes surveillance and control programme since the 1970s. Vector suppression and concerted efforts of all stakeholders in the community remain the key strategy in the prevention and control of dengue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  15. de Carvalho LP, Gao F, Chen Q, Hartman M, Sim LL, Koh TH, et al.
    Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care, 2014 Dec;3(4):354-62.
    PMID: 24598820 DOI: 10.1177/2048872614527007
    the purpose of this study was to investigate differences in long-term mortality following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients from three major ethnicities of Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  16. Ng KT, Ng KY, Khong WX, Chew KK, Singh PK, Yap JK, et al.
    PLoS One, 2013;8(12):e80884.
    PMID: 24312505 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080884
    HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE are the predominant infecting subtypes among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Singapore. The genetic history, population dynamics and pattern of transmission networks of these genotypes remain largely unknown. We delineated the phylodynamic profiles of HIV-1 subtype B, CRF01_AE and the recently characterized CRF51_01B strains circulating among the MSM population in Singapore. A total of 105 (49.5%) newly-diagnosed treatment-naïve MSM were recruited between February 2008 and August 2009. Phylogenetic reconstructions of the protease gene (HXB2: 2239 - 2629), gp120 (HXB2: 6942 - 7577) and gp41 (HXB2: 7803 - 8276) of the env gene uncovered five monophyletic transmission networks (two each within subtype B and CRF01_AE and one within CRF51_01B lineages) of different sizes (involving 3 - 23 MSM subjects, supported by posterior probability measure of 1.0). Bayesian coalescent analysis estimated that the emergence and dissemination of multiple sub-epidemic networks occurred between 1995 and 2005, driven largely by subtype B and later followed by CRF01_AE. Exponential increase in effective population size for both subtype B and CRF01_AE occurred between 2002 to 2007 and 2005 to 2007, respectively. Genealogical estimates suggested that the novel CRF51_01B lineages were probably generated through series of recombination events involving CRF01_AE and multiple subtype B ancestors. Our study provides the first insight on the phylodynamic profiles of HIV-1 subtype B, CRF01_AE and CRF51_01B viral strains circulating among MSM in Singapore.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  17. Chong SA, Abdin E, Vaingankar JA, Heng D, Sherbourne C, Yap M, et al.
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 2012 Feb;41(2):49-66.
    PMID: 22498852
    INTRODUCTION: Mental illnesses are not only a growing public health concern but also a major social and economic issue affecting individuals and families throughout the world. The prevalence of mental disorders, the extent of disability caused by these disorders, and services utilisation of these patients has been well studied in developed countries. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of select mental disorders and their associated sociodemographic correlates in the adult Singapore resident population.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, populationbased, epidemiological study of adult Singapore residents aged 18 years and above. The subjects were randomly selected using a disproportionate stratified sampling method. The diagnoses of selected mental disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD), dysthymia, bipolar (bipolar I & II) disorders, generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, which is a fully structured diagnostic instrument that assesses lifetime and 12-month prevalence of mental disorders.

    RESULTS: Among the 6616 respondents (response rate of 75.9%), 12.0% had at least one lifetime affective, anxiety, or alcohol use disorders. The lifetime prevalence of MDD was 5.8% and that of bipolar disorder was 1.2%. The combined lifetime prevalence of the 2 anxiety disorders, GAD and OCD was 3.6%, with the latter being more common than GAD (0.9% and 3.0% respectively). The lifetime prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence were found to be 3.1% and 0.5% respectively. Age, gender, ethnicity, marital status and chronic physical illnesses were all significant correlates of mental disorders.

    CONCLUSION: The identified associated factors would help guide resource allocation, policy formulation and programme development in Singapore.

    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  18. Rajadurai J, Lopez EA, Rahajoe AU, Goh PP, Uboldejpracharak Y, Zambahari R
    Nat Rev Cardiol, 2012 Aug;9(8):464-77.
    PMID: 22525668 DOI: 10.1038/nrcardio.2012.59
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an under-recognized major health problem among women in South-East Asia. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, physical inactivity, and being overweight or obese has shown a significantly increasing trend among women in the region, with the exception of Singapore. The problem is compounded by low awareness that CVD is a health problem for women as well as for men, by misconceptions about the disease, and by the lack of suitable, locally available health literature. Efforts have been made by the national heart associations and other organizations to increase heart health awareness and promote healthy lifestyles. Singapore initiated these prevention programs in the early 1990s and has been successful in reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The governments of the region, in accordance with the Noncommunicable Disease Alliance, have begun implementing appropriate preventive strategies and improving health-delivery systems. However, psychological, social, and cultural barriers to cardiovascular health awareness in women need to be addressed before these programs can be fully and successfully implemented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  19. Chan MF, Devi MK
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Mar;27(2):136-46.
    PMID: 22865722 DOI: 10.1177/1010539512454163
    The authors aim to examine the impact of demographic changes, socioeconomic inequality, and the availability of health care resources on life expectancy in Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand. This is a cross-country study collecting annual data from 3 Southeast Asian countries from 1980 to 2008. Life expectancy is the dependent variable with demographics, socioeconomic status, and health care resources as the 3 main determinants. A structural equation model is used, and results show that the availability of more health care resources and higher levels of socioeconomic advantages are more likely to increase life expectancy. In contrast, demographic changes are more likely to increase life expectancy by way of health care resources. The authors suggest that more effort should be taken to expand and improve the coverage of health care programs to alleviate regional differences in health care use and improve the overall health status of people in these 3 Southeast Asian countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  20. Chang G, Chan CW, Hartman M
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2011;12(6):1635-9.
    PMID: 22126512
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Singaporean women and the rate of increase in incidence is one of the highest in the world. In view of the significant contribution of delayed presentation to the disease burden in South East Asia, we reviewed the incidence of late presentation of breast cancer and the contributing factors in Singapore. Disease presentation was analysed using studies based on the Singapore Cancer Registry 2004-2008 and with data from women with breast cancer at the National University Hospital (NUH) in Singapore 1990-2007. Available literature from Singapore on factors contributing to delayed presentation was reviewed and presented here. The overall age-standardized 5-year relative survival for Singaporean women was 70% with only half diagnosed with localized cancer. Of all women diagnosed at NUH close to 20% presented at Stages III and IV. Given the magnitude of the problem of women presenting with more advanced stages of breast cancer, the National University of Singapore has joined a collaborative team with the University of Leeds (UK), the University of Malaya, and University of UAE to set up the UK-SEA-ME Psychosocial-Cultural Cancer Research Network to better understand late presentation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
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