Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 79 in total

  1. Khan, Z.A., Siddiquee, A.N., Kamaruddin, S.
    This paper presents an effective approach for the optimization of an in-feed centreless cylindrical grindingof EN52 austenitic grade steel (DIN: X45CrSi93) with multiple performance characteristics based on thegrey relational analysis. To study the effect of the entire space of the input variables, nine experimentalruns, based on the Taguchi method of L9 orthogonal arrays, were performed to determine the best factorlevel condition. The response table and response graph for each level of the machining parameters wereobtained from the grey relational grade. In this study, the in-feed centreless cylindrical grinding processparameters, such as dressing feed, grinding feed, dwell time and cycle time, were optimized by takinginto consideration the multiple-performance characteristics like surface roughness and out of cylindricity.By analyzing the grey relational grade, it was observed that dressing feed, grinding feed and cycle timehad significant effect on the responses. The optimal multiple performance characteristics were achievedwith dressing feed at level 1 (5 mm/min), grinding feed at level 2 (6 mm/min), dwell time at level 2(2.5 s), and cycle time at level 2 (11 s). It is clearly shown that the above performance characteristics inthe in-feed Centreless cylindrical grinding process can be improved effectively through this approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stainless Steel
  2. Mohd Shahminan Ibrahim, Wen, Yap Kai, Gonzalez, Maria Angela Garcia, Noor Azlin Yahya
    Ann Dent, 2020;27(1):41-49.
    This study compared the surface roughness of selected tooth coloured restorative materials that were polished according to manufacturers’ instructions and Sof-Lex. It also assessed the surface roughness of polished materials after thermocycling.Filtek Z350XT, Beautifil-Bulk Restorative and Cention N, were used in this study. A stainless steel mould (10mm diameter x 2mm height) was used to fabricate 75 cylindrical specimens: 15 Filtek Z350XT (FZ), 30 Beautifil-Bulk Restorative (BB) and 30 Cention N (CN). All 15 FZ specimens were polished with Sof-Lex. Fifteen BB and CN specimens were polished according to manufacturers’ instructions. The remaining fifteen BB and CN specimens were polished using Sof-Lex. All the specimens were subjected to thermocycling (1000 cycles). Surface roughness was assessed quantitatively with profilometry after specimen preparation (Mylar stage), polishingand thermocycling. Data were analysed using SPSS version 25.0 at α=0.05. When polished according to manufacturers’ instructions, BB had the lowest mean surface roughness (Ra) values (0.13±0.01μm) followed sequentially by CN (0.14±0.03μm) and FZ (0.15±0.02μm). The differences were not statistically significant. When polished with Sof-Lex, BB exhibited the smoothest surface (0.116±0.03μm) followed sequentially by and FZ (0.150±0.02μm) and CN (0.157±0.02μm). Thermocycling caused an increase in the Ra. The differences were statistically significant. All materials tested had Ra values below the threshold value of 0.2 μm at Mylar stage and after polishing with their recommended polishing system and Sof-Lex. Thermocycling produced rougher surfaces that did not exceed the threshold Ra value. Polishability was material dependent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stainless Steel
  3. Baharuddin MY, Salleh ShH, Suhasril AA, Zulkifly AH, Lee MH, Omar MA, et al.
    Artif Organs, 2014 Jul;38(7):603-8.
    PMID: 24404766 DOI: 10.1111/aor.12222
    Total hip arthroplasty is a flourishing orthopedic surgery, generating billions of dollars of revenue. The cost associated with the fabrication of implants has been increasing year by year, and this phenomenon has burdened the patient with extra charges. Consequently, this study will focus on designing an accurate implant via implementing the reverse engineering of three-dimensional morphological study based on a particular population. By using finite element analysis, this study will assist to predict the outcome and could become a useful tool for preclinical testing of newly designed implants. A prototype is then fabricated using 316L stainless steel by applying investment casting techniques that reduce manufacturing cost without jeopardizing implant quality. The finite element analysis showed that the maximum von Mises stress was 66.88 MPa proximally with a safety factor of 2.39 against endosteal fracture, and micromotion was 4.73 μm, which promotes osseointegration. This method offers a fabrication process of cementless femoral stems with lower cost, subsequently helping patients, particularly those from nondeveloped countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stainless Steel/economics*; Stainless Steel/chemistry
  4. Bahnasi FI, Abd-Rahman AN, Abu-Hassan MI
    PMID: 24455081 DOI: 10.4317/jced.51113
    1) to assess different methods of recycling orthodontic brackets, 2) to evaluate Shear Bond Strength (SBS) of (a) new, (b) recycled and (c) repeated recycled stainless steel brackets (i) with and (ii) without bracket base primer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stainless Steel
  5. Tay WM
    Dent J Malaysia Singapore, 1968 Feb;8(1):24-8.
    PMID: 5248555
    Matched MeSH terms: Stainless Steel
  6. Wo, Yii Mei, Hidayah Shahar, Zaharudin Ahmad
    Present of 241Am in the environment is being determined as part of surveillance and research
    programs related to nuclear activities. The separation of 241Am from environmental samples was
    carried out against the IAEA’s reference material by using an improved in-house radiochemical
    separation method through anion exchange column, followed by the electro-deposition on a
    stainless steel disc, and finally assayed on alpha spectrometry counting system. The resulting
    spectra showed good isolated peak, indicating a good separation of the radionuclide of interest.
    The analytical results were in good agreement with the certified value for IAEA-326 and IAEA-368
    with the calculated U-score was 0.36 and 0.82, respectively, showing no significant difference
    between the experimental and certified value. Using this method, distributions of 241Am in seabed
    surface sediment in the Exclusive Economic Zone of East Coast Peninsular Malaysia were studied.
    Samples were collected during June 2008 where the concentrations of 241Am were found to be
    ranged from < 0.08 to 0.36 Bq/kg, dry weight.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stainless Steel
  7. Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman
    One of the non-destructive methods used for the identification and verification of metals is by the energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. EDXRF analysis provides several important advantages such as simultaneous determination of the elements present, enable to analyse a very wide concentration range, fast analysis with no tedious sample preparation. The paper shows how this technique is developed and applied in the identification and verification of different grades of stainless steels. Comparison of the results obtained from this analysis with certified reference standards show very small differences between them.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stainless Steel
  8. Md Razak Daud, Wan Nor Shela Ezwane Wan Jusoh, Syahrullail Samion
    This study investigates metal removal rate (MRR) of the biomaterial by using discharge machine Neuar CNC A50 Electrical Discharge Machine Die Sinking (EDM DS). The purpose of this study is to compare machining curvature cup for material SKD 11 and stainless steel with shape curvature cup acetabular. The result showed that electrode wear is higher when high current is applied. For each applied current 0.5A and 3.0A could result electrode wear of 0.236 mm, 0.246 mm and 0.269 mm respectively. Mean time of complete discharged for each pit with 0.3mm depth with supply 0. 5A is 6.51 minutes; 1. 5A is 3.54 minutes and 3A is 1.52 minutes. The biggest mean parameter of the pit is 0.356 mm, with 3A of current is applied. From this study, it can be concluded that low current set may give lower electrode copper wear. The experiment will help a researcher to discharge biomaterial types of metal with small size of copper electrode use of EDM DS Neuar for discharge multi hole or micro pit.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stainless Steel
  9. Ahmad S, Badshah S, Ul Haq I, Abdullah Malik S, Amjad M, Nasir Tamin M
    Materials (Basel), 2019 Oct 23;12(21).
    PMID: 31652687 DOI: 10.3390/ma12213463
    Wire ropes undergo a fretting fatigue condition when subjected to axial and bending loads. The fretting behavior of wires are classified as line contact and trellis point of contact. The experimental study on the fatigue of wire ropes indicates that most of the failure occurs due to high localized stresses at trellis point of contact. A continuum damage mechanics approach was previously proposed to estimate the fatigue life estimation of wire ropes. The approach majorly depends on the high value of localized stresses as well as the micro-slippage occurs at the contact region. Finite element approach has been used to study radial and axial distribution of stresses and displacement in order to clearly understand the evolution of stresses and existence of relative displacements between neighboring wires under various loading and frictional conditions. The relative movements of contacting wires are more when friction is not considered. In the presence of friction, the relative movement occurs at the boundaries of the contact region. The location of microslip in the presence of friction is backed by the experimental observation stating the crack is initiated at or the outer boundary of the contact spot. The existence of slip is due to different displacement of outer and central wires.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stainless Steel
  10. Saboohi S, Yap S, Chan L, Wong C
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:879-884.
    The emission of Extreme Ultra Violet (EUV) from plasma produced by vacuum spark discharge using stainless steel as anode material was investigated. The operating pressure for all the experiments carried out was maintained at below 10-4 mbar. The discharge voltage tested was from 8 kV to 20 kV. The inter-electrode distance suitable for high intensity and reproducible EUV emissions was found to be in the range of 2.6 mm to 4.6 mm. The output EUV energy scaled as ~ V02, where V0 is the discharge voltage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stainless Steel
  11. Tan KT, Norhamidi Muhamad, Muchtar A, Abu Bakar Sulong, Neo MC
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:653-658.
    Metallic foams are a new class of materials that have a great potential to be used in various functional and structural applications. Due to their competitive price compared to aluminium, metallic foams are anticipated to become an alternative material for light-weight structures. In this study, stainless steel foams are fabricated using a powder space holder method. The materials used include stainless steel powder, a novel space holder glycine and binders consisting of palm stearin and of polyethylene (PE). The stainless steel foams are sintered at 1100o C, 1200o C and 1300o C with sintering times of 1, 2 and 3 h, respectively, to investigate the effects of the sintering parameters on the compressive yield strength of the stainless steel foams. The results showed that all of the stainless steel foams produced exhibit the general behaviours of metal foams. The sintering time is the most significant parameter that influences the compressive yield strength of stainless steel foams. Increasing the sintering temperature and sintering time will increase the compressive yield strength. The interaction between the sintering temperature and sintering time is found to be not statistically significant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stainless Steel
  12. Sim KS, Kho YY, Tso CP, Nia ME, Ting HY
    Scanning, 2013 Mar-Apr;35(2):75-87.
    PMID: 22777599 DOI: 10.1002/sca.21037
    Detection of cracks from stainless steel pipe images is done using contrast stretching technique. The technique is based on an image filter technique through mathematical morphology that can expose the cracks. The cracks are highlighted and noise removal is done efficiently while still retaining the edges. An automated crack detection system with a camera platform has been successfully implemented. We compare crack extraction in terms of quality measures with those of Otsu's threshold technique and the another technique (Iyer and Sinha, 2005). The algorithm shown is able to achieve good results and perform better than these other techniques.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stainless Steel
  13. Abd Aziz SN, Pung SY, Ramli NN, Lockman Z
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:252851.
    PMID: 24587716 DOI: 10.1155/2014/252851
    The photodegradation efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles in removal of organic pollutants deteriorates over time as a high percentage of the nanoparticles can be drained away by water during the wastewater treatment. This problem can be solved by growing the ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire. In this work, ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on stainless steel wire by chemical vapour deposition. The SAED analysis indicates that ZnO nanorod is a single crystal and is preferentially grown in [0001] direction. The deconvoluted O 1s peak at 531.5 eV in XPS analysis is associated with oxygen deficient, revealing that the ZnO nanorods contain many oxygen vacancies. This observation is further supported by the finding of the small I(uv)/I(vis) ratio, that is, ~1 in the photoluminescence analysis. The growth of ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire was governed by vapour-solid mechanism as there were no Fe particles observed at the tips of the nanorods. The photodegradation of Rhodamine B solution by ZnO nanorods followed the first-order kinetics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stainless Steel/chemistry*
  14. Nasution AK, Murni NS, Sing NB, Idris MH, Hermawan H
    J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater, 2015 Jan;103(1):31-8.
    PMID: 24757071 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.b.33174
    This article describes the development of a partially degradable metal bone pin, proposed to minimize the occurrence of bone refracture by avoiding the creation of holes in the bone after pin removal procedure. The pin was made by friction welding and composed of two parts: the degradable part that remains in the bone and the nondegradable part that will be removed as usual. Rods of stainless steel 316L (nondegradable) and pure iron (degradable) were friction welded at the optimum parameters: forging pressure = 33.2 kPa, friction time = 25 s, burn-off length = 15 mm, and heat input = 4.58 J/s. The optimum tensile strength and elongation was registered at 666 MPa and 13%, respectively. A spiral defect formation was identified as the cause for the ductile fracture of the weld joint. A 40-µm wide intermetallic zone was identified along the fusion line having a distinct composition of Cr, Ni, and Mo. The corrosion rate of the pin gradually decreased from the undeformed zone of pure iron to the undeformed zone of stainless steel 316L. All metallurgical zones of the pin showed no toxic effect toward normal human osteoblast cells, confirming the ppb level of released Cr and Ni detected in the cell media were tolerable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stainless Steel*
  15. Harith H, Schmutz B, Malekani J, Schuetz MA, Yarlagadda PK
    Med Eng Phys, 2016 Mar;38(3):280-5.
    PMID: 26739124 DOI: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2015.11.012
    Anatomically precontoured plates are commonly used to treat periarticular fractures. A well-fitting plate can be used as a tool for anatomical reduction of the fractured bone. Recent studies highlighted that some plates fit poorly for many patients due to considerable shape variations between bones of the same anatomical site. While it is impossible to design one shape that fits all, it is also burdensome for the manufacturers and hospitals to produce, store and manage multiple plate shapes without the certainty of utilization by a patient population. In this study, we investigated the number of shapes required for maximum fit within a given dataset, and if they could be obtained by manually deforming the original plate. A distal medial tibial plate was automatically positioned on 45 individual tibiae, and the optimal deformation was determined iteratively using finite element analysis simulation. Within the studied dataset, we found that: (i) 89% fit could be achieved with four shapes, (ii) 100% fit was impossible through mechanical deformation, and (iii) the deformations required to obtain the four plate shapes were safe for the stainless steel plate for further clinical use. The proposed framework is easily transferable to other orthopaedic plates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stainless Steel
  16. Wan Dagang WR, Bowen J, O'Keeffe J, Robbins PT, Zhang Z
    Biotechnol Lett, 2016 May;38(5):787-92.
    PMID: 26892223 DOI: 10.1007/s10529-016-2047-x
    The adhesion of colloidal probes of stainless steel, glass and cellulose to Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms was examined using atomic force microscopy (AFM) to allow comparisons between surfaces to which biofilms might adhere.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stainless Steel
  17. Muhamad Hafizuddin Mohamad Basir, Bulan Abdullah, Siti Khadijah Alias
    This research investigates and analyzes wear properties of 316 stainless steel before and after applying paste boronizing process and to investigate the effect of shot blasting process in enhancing boron dispersion into the steel. In order to enhance the boron dispersion into 316 stainless steel, surface deformation method by shot blasting process was deployed. Boronizing treatment was conducted using paste medium for 8 hours under two different temperatures which were 8500 C and 9500 C. Wear behaviour was evaluated using pin-on-disc test for abrasion properties. The analysis on microstructure, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and density were also carried out before and after applying boronizing treatment. Boronizing process that had been carried out on 316 stainless steel increases the wear resistance of the steel compared to the unboronized 316 stainless steel. The effect of boronizing treatment together with the shot blasting process give a greater impact in increasing the wear resistance of 316 stainless steel. This is mainly because shot blasted samples initiated surface deformation that helped more boron dispersion due to dislocation of atom on the deformed surface. Increasing the boronizing temperature also increases the wear resistance of 316 stainless steel. In industrial application, the usage of the components that have been fabricated using the improved 316 stainless steel can be maximized because repair and replacement of the components can be reduced as a result of improved wear resistance of the 316 stainless steel.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stainless Steel
  18. Muhamat Omar, Zalina Laili, Abd Khalik Wood, Julia Abdul Karim, Zarina Masood, Mohd Fazli Zakaria, et al.
    A systematic study to assess the concentration of radionuclides in primary coolant and associated water samples from the operation of a TRIGA Mark II reactor has been carried out. The samples were transferred into appropriate counting container and were counted by efficiency-calibrated gamma spectrometer systems for several hours to obtain statistically adequate data for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the radioactive materials presence. The primary coolant was found to contain various gamma emitting radionuclides including 24Na, 41Ar, 42K, 51Cr, , 54Mn, 56Mn, 60Co, 99mTc, 122Sb, 124Sb and 187W. Most of the detected radionuclides were inferred to be originated from activation products of (n,) nuclear reactions of elements of reactor components such as stainless steel and aluminium alloy used in the reactor system. The study confirms the integrity of the reactor system with no apparent release of any fission products radionuclide into the coolant water system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stainless Steel
  19. Meor Yusoff, M.S., Masliana, M., Wilfred, P.
    Even though EDXRF analysis has major advantages in the analysis of stainless steel samples such as simultaneous determination of the minor elements, analysis can be done without sample preparation and non-destructive analysis, the matrix issue arised from the inter element interaction can make the the final quantitative result to be in accurate. The paper relates a comparative quantitative analysis using standard and standardless methods in the determination of these elements. Standard method was done by plotting regression calibration graphs of the interested elements using BCS certified stainless steel standards. Different calibration plots were developed based on the available certified standards and these stainless steel grades include low alloy steel, austentic, ferritic and high speed. The standardless method on the other hand uses a mathematical modelling with matrix effect correction derived from Lucas-Tooth and Price model. Further
    improvement on the accuracy of the standardless method was done by inclusion of pure elements into the development of the model. Discrepancy tests were then carried out for these quantitative methods on different certified samples and the results show that the high speed method is most reliable for determining of Ni and the standardless method for Mn.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stainless Steel
  20. Mohd Noor Halmy, Siti Khadijah Alias, Radzi Abdul Rasih, Mohd Ghazali Mohd Hamami, Norhisyam Jenal, Siti Aishah Taib
    This study focuses on the effect of boronizing medium on the boride layer thickness of pack boronized 304 stainless steel after surface modification. Pack boronizing treatment was conducted in temperature of 900oC for a duration of eight hours. The treatment was performed using two different boronizing mediums which are powder and paste inside a tight box in an induction furnace. The characteristics of the samples were then observed using optical microscopy and XRD analyser. The thickness of boride layer was then measured using MPS digital image analysis software. The results showed that boronizing medium significantly affected the thickness of boride layer as paste boronized samples exhibited thicker boride layer thickness. The enhancement was mainly due to the size of boron particle in the paste medium which was smaller than powder medium that enabled better diffusion. It is expected that the enhancement of the boride layer thickness would result in further improvement of the mechanical and wear properties of this material.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stainless Steel
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