RESULTS: Most of the tested compounds showed insecticidal activity compared to fluralaner as positive control and commercially available insecticide. Especially, the isoxazoline-secondary sulfonamides containing halogens (Br and Cl) on the phenyl group attached to the isoxazoline, 6g (LC50 = 0.31 mg/mL), 6j (LC50 = 0.38 mg/mL), 6k (LC50 = 0.18 mg/mL), 6L (LC50 = 0.49 mg/mL), 6m (LC50 = 0.24 mg/mL), 6q (LC50 = 0.46 mg/mL), exhibited much higher larvicidal activity than fluralaner (LC50 = 0.99 mg/mL).
CONCLUSION: Novel isoxazolines containing sulfonamide moieties were designed, synthesized and confirmed by two single-crystal structures of 4e and 6q. Their bioassay results showed significant larvicidal activity with significant morphological changes in vivo. These results will lay the foundation for the further discovery and development of isoxazoline-sulfonamide derivatives as novel crop protection larvicides of cork oak. © 2023 Society of Chemical Industry.
Methods: Each 24-well plate of Vero cells infected with all four DENV serotypes, singly, was subjected to treatments with various doses of AR-12. Following 48 h of incubation, inhibitory efficacies of AR-12 against the different DENV serotypes were evaluated by conducting a virus yield reduction assay whereby DENV RNA copy numbers present in the collected supernatant were quantified using qRT-PCR. The underlying mechanism(s) possibly involved in the compound's inhibitory activities were then investigated by performing molecular docking on several potential target human and DENV protein domains.
Results: The qRT-PCR data demonstrated that DENV-3 was most potently inhibited by AR-12, followed by DENV-1, DENV-2 and DENV-4. Our molecular docking findings suggested that AR-12 possibly exerted its inhibitory effects by interfering with the chaperone activities of heat shock proteins.
Conclusions: These results serve as vital information for the design of future studies involving in vitro mechanistic studies and animal models, aiming to decipher the potential of AR-12 as a potential therapeutic option for DENV infection.
METHODOLOGY: The present study was carried out to determine the role of TLR-4 on eliciting the immunomodulatory effects of recombinant BCG expressing MSP-1C of Plasmodium falciparum leading to the production of NO and IL-10, as well as the expression of iNOS. Six groups of mice (n = 6 per group) were immunised thrice, three weeks apart with intraperitoneal phosphate buffered saline T80 (PBS-T80), BCG or rBCG in the presence or absence of a TLR-4 inhibitor; TAK-242, given one hour prior to each immunisation. Peritoneal macrophages were harvested from the mice and cultured for the determination of NO, iNOS and IL-10 via Griess assay, ELISA and Western blot respectively.
RESULTS: The results showed significant inhibition of the production of NO and IL-10 and the expression of iNOS in all groups of mice in the presence of TAK-242.
CONCLUSIONS: These results presented evidence of the role of TLR-4/rBCG attachment mechanism in modulating the production of NO and IL-10 and the expression of iNOS in response to our rBCG-based malaria vaccine candidate expressing MSP-1C of P. falciparum.