Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 102 in total

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  1. Ibrahim M, Mikail MA, Ahmed IA, Hazali N, Abdul Rasad MSB, Abdul Ghani R, et al.
    Eur J Nutr, 2018 Aug;57(5):1817-1828.
    PMID: 28516253 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-017-1466-3
    PURPOSE: Baccaurea angulata (common names: belimbing dayak or belimbing hutan) is a Malaysian underutilized fruit. The preliminary work on B. angulata fruit juice showed that it possesses antioxidant properties. Therefore, further work is needed to confirm the efficacy and proper dosage of B. angulata as a potential natural antioxidant. The present study was thus carried out to compare the effects of three different B. angulata whole fruit (WF) juice doses administered at nutritional doses of 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50 ml/kg/day on plasma, aorta and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) as well as total antioxidant capacity in rabbits fed high-cholesterol diet.

    METHODS: Thirty-five male rabbits of New Zealand strain were randomly assigned to seven groups. For 12 weeks, group CH was fed 1% cholesterol diet only; group C1 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 0.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group C2 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 1.00 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group C3 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 1.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group N was fed standard pellet only; group N1 was fed standard pellet and 0.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; and group N2 was fed standard pellet and 1.00 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice.

    RESULTS: The three doses reduced the formation of MDA and enhanced the expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. The highest dose used (1.50 ml/kg/day) was, however, seen as the most potent.

    CONCLUSION: Higher doses of B. angulata juice exerted better antioxidant activity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
  2. Reddy NS, Navanesan S, Sinniah SK, Wahab NA, Sim KS
    PMID: 22898370 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-128
    The leaves of Leea indica (Vitaceae), commonly known as 'Huo Tong Shu' in Malaysia, have been traditionally used as natural remedy in folk medicine by the locals. The current study reports the outcome of antioxidant and cytotoxic investigation of L. indica leaves. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of L. indica leaf crude ethanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water) for evaluation of total phenolic content, antioxidant effect and cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cell lines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
  3. Chia YY, Kanthimathi MS, Khoo KS, Rajarajeswaran J, Cheng HM, Yap WS
    PMID: 26415532 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0867-1
    Three species of seaweeds (Padina tetrastromatica, Caulerpa racemosa and Turbinaria ornata) are widely consumed by Asians as nutraceutical food due to their antioxidant properties. Studies have shown that these seaweeds exhibit bioactivities which include antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-hypertensive and anticoagulant activities. However, investigations into the mechanisms of action pertaining to the cytotoxic activity of the seaweeds are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of whole extracts of P. tetrastromatica, C. racemosa and T. ornata, including the cellular events leading to the apoptotic cell death of the extract treated-MCF-7 cells. Bioassay guided fractionation was carried out and the compounds identified.
    Matched MeSH terms: Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
  4. Taufek NM, Aspani F, Muin H, Raji AA, Razak SA, Alias Z
    Fish Physiol Biochem, 2016 Aug;42(4):1143-55.
    PMID: 26886132 DOI: 10.1007/s10695-016-0204-8
    This study was conducted to investigate the growth performance, biomarkers of oxidative stress, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as the haematological response of African catfish after being fed with fish feed containing different levels of cricket meal. The juvenile fish were assigned to three different treatments with isonitrogenous (35 %) and isoenergetic (19 kJ g(-1)) diets containing 100 % cricket meal (100 % CM), 75 % cricket meal (75 % CM), and 100 % fishmeal (100 % FM) as control groups for 7 weeks. The results indicated that a diet containing 100 % CM and 75 % CM improved growth performance in terms of body weight gain and specific growth rate, when compared to 100 % FM. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) did not differ significantly between all diets, but reduced FCR and increased PER were observed with a higher inclusion of cricket meal. A haematological examination of fish demonstrated no significant difference of red blood cells in all diets and white blood cells showed a significantly higher value in fishmeal-fed fish. On the other hand, haemoglobin and haematocrit significantly increased with increasing amounts of cricket meal in the diet. Antioxidant activity of CAT was higher in the 100 % CM group compared to fish fed other diets, whereas GST and SOD showed increasing trends with a higher incorporation of cricket, although insignificant differences were observed between all diets. These results suggest that cricket meal could be an alternative to fishmeal as a protein source in the African catfish diet.
    Matched MeSH terms: Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
  5. Newaz MA, Nawal NN
    Am J Hypertens, 1998 Dec;11(12):1480-5.
    PMID: 9880131
    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of alpha-tocopherol on lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant status of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), comparing them with normal Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. SHR were divided into three groups and treated with different doses of alpha-tocopherol (alpha1, 17 mg/kg diet; alpha2, 34 mg/kg diet; and alpha3, 170 mg/kg diet). Normal WKY and untreated SHR were used as normal (N) and hypertensive control (HC). Blood pressures were recorded every 10 days for 3 months. At the end of the trial, animals were killed and measurement of plasma total antioxidant status, plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lipid peroxide levels in plasma and blood vessels was carried out following well-established methods. From our study it was found that lipid peroxides in thoracic aorta (N, 0.47 +/- 0.17; H, 0.96 +/- 0.37; P < .0001) and plasma (N, 0.06 +/- 0.01; H, 0.13 +/- 0.01) were significantly higher in hypertensives than in normal rats. SOD activity was significantly lower in hypertensive than normal rats (N, 172.93 +/- 46.91; H, 110.08 +/- 14.38; P < .005). Total antioxidant status was significantly higher in normal than hypertensive rats (N, 0.88 +/- 0.05; H, 0.83 +/- 0.02; P < .05). After the antioxidant trial, it was found that in the treated groups rise of blood pressure was prevented significantly (P < .001) and lipid peroxides in blood vessels were significantly reduced more than in the controls (P < .001). For plasma lipid peroxide it was only significant for groups alpha2 (P < .001) and alpha3 (P < .05). Although all three treated groups showed improved total antioxidant status, only groups alpha2 (0.87 +/- 0.04, P < .005) and alpha3 (1.20 +/- 0.18, P < .001) were statistically significant. All the three groups showed significant increases in their SOD activity (P < .001). Correlation studies showed that total antioxidant status and SOD were significantly negatively correlated with blood pressure in normal rats (P = .007; P = .008). Lipid peroxides in both blood vessel and plasma showed a positive correlation. In the treated groups, lipid peroxides in blood vessels maintained a significant positive correlation with blood pressure in all groups (alpha1, P = .021; alpha2, P = .019; alpha3, P = .002), whereas for plasma lipid peroxides the correlation was in groups alpha1 (P = .005) and alpha2 (P = .009). For SOD activity, significant negative correlations were found with blood pressure in the alpha2 (P = .017) and alpha3 (P = .025) groups. Total antioxidant status maintained a significant negative correlation with blood pressure in all three groups (alpha1, P = .012; alpha2, P = .044; alpha3, P = .014). In conclusion it was found that supplement of alpha-tocopherol may prevent development of increased blood pressure, reduce lipid peroxides in plasma and blood vessels, and enhance the total antioxidant status, including SOD activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism*
  6. Chan KL, Dhaliwal SS, Yong HS
    Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B, 1979;64(4):329-37.
    PMID: 318313
    1. Nine erythrocyte proteins coded by a separate locus each were analysed in and among seven Malayan species of Rattus belonging to three subgenera. 2. Electrophoretic data obtained confirm the specific status of the seven taxa and divide the seven species into three groups which correspond with Ellerman's (1949) subgenera Stenomys, Maxomys and Leopoldamys. 3. A comparative study together with 11 other species of Malayan Rattus previously analysed show that, with few exceptions, the overall relationships among the 18 species based on electrophoretic data correspond well with conclusions based on morphological evidence. 4. Malayan species of Rattus are relatively very diverse genetically (S = 0.27, range 0.01-0.94).
    Matched MeSH terms: Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
  7. Farzinebrahimi R, Mat Taha R, Rashid K, Syafawati Yaacob J
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:407284.
    PMID: 24967432 DOI: 10.1155/2014/407284
    The leaf of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis was used as explants and was cultured on MS and WPM media supplemented with various concentrations of NAA, IAA, 2,4-D, IBA, TDZ, and Kn (0 to 5 mg L(-1) with 0.5 increment). After six months, the higher percentage of callus (100%) and the best dry and fresh weight of callus were formed on WPM medium supplemented with 2,4-D and NAA (2.0-3.0 mg L(-1)) and this amount was decreased from (84%) to (69%) when this media supplemented with Kinetin and TDZ (1 mg L(-1)) respectively were used. Leaf segments cultured on WPM media added with Kn (1 mg L(-1)) and TDZ (2 mg L(-1)) yielded the least amount of callus. It was found that WPM media added with IAA (4.5-5.0 mg L(-1)) were optimum for root induction from G. jasminoides plantlets. Antibacterial screening of leaf extracts (in vivo) showed no inhibitory effect against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and B. cereus, in contrast to callus extracts from leaf cultures supplemented with NAA, which showed inhibition activity against E. coli and B. cereus. The callus extracts from leaf cultures grown on both MS and WPM media showed higher antioxidant and superoxide dismutase activities than leaf extracts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
  8. Ibrahim MH, Jaafar HZ
    Molecules, 2013 Jul 05;18(7):7957-76.
    PMID: 23884129 DOI: 10.3390/molecules18077957
    An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2-, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX)] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA) application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM) for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2-, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC) were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05) and O2- (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05). This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
  9. Makpol S, Yeoh TW, Ruslam FA, Arifin KT, Yusof YA
    PMID: 23948056 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-210
    Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular ageing. Even though beneficial effects of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) have been reported, ongoing studies in relation to ageing is of interest to determine possible protective effects that may reverse the effect of ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF in preventing cellular ageing of HDFs by determining the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz.; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
  10. Alkiyumi SS, Abdullah MA, Alrashdi AS, Salama SM, Abdelwahab SI, Hadi AH
    Molecules, 2012;17(5):6146-55.
    PMID: 22617138 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17056146
    In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda) it is recommended to consume Ipomoea aquatica to mitigate disorders like jaundice. In this study, the protective effects of ethanol extract of I. aquatica against liver damage were evaluated in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. There was no sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity study, in which Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were orally fed with I. aquatica (250 and 500 mg/kg) for two months along with administration of TAA (i.p injection 200 mg/kg three times a week for two months). The results showed that the treatment of I. aquatica significantly lowered the TAA-induced serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALP, ALT, AST, protein, albumin, bilirubin and prothrombin time). The hepatic content of activities and expressions SOD and CAT that were reduced by TAA were brought back to control levels by the plant extract supplement. Meanwhile, the rise in MDA level in the TAA receiving groups also were significantly reduced by I. aquatica treatment. Histopathology of hepatic tissues by H&E and Masson trichrome stains displayed that I. aquatica has reduced the incidence of liver lesions, including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, infiltration, hepatic necrosis, and fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by TAA in rats. Therefore, the results of this study show that the protective effect of I. aquatica in TAA-induced liver damage might be contributed to its modulation on detoxification enzymes and its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects. Moreover, it confirms a scientific basis for the traditional use of I. aquatica for the treatment of liver disorders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
  11. Budin SB, Han CM, Jayusman PA, Taib IS
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2012 Jun 01;15(11):517-23.
    PMID: 24191625
    Fenitrothion (FNT) is extensively used as pesticide and may induce oxidative stress in various organs. Tocotrienol, a form of vitamin E found in palm oil, reduces oxidative impairments in pathological conditions. This study aims to investigate the effects of palm oil tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) on fenitrothion-induced oxidative damage in rat pancreas. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control group, FNT group, TRF group and FNT+TRF group. Regimens FNT (20 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) and TRF (200 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) were force-fed for 28 consecutive days with control group only receiving corn oil. Chronic administration of fenitrothion significantly (p < 0.05) induced oxidative damage in pancreas of rats with elevated malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl level. Depletion of glutathione and significant (p < 0.05) reduction in antioxidant enzyme activities in pancreas homogenate additionally suggested induction of oxidative stress. Despite these changes in pancreas of intoxicated rats, no significant (p < 0.05) changes in blood glucose and pancreas histology were observed. Co-administration of FNT with TRF alleviated these oxidative changes and significantly (p < 0.05) restored antioxidant status. Enzymatic activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) were normalized. In conclusion, tocotrienol rich fraction of palm oil prevents fenitrothion-induced pancreatic oxidative damage in rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
  12. Tudave D, Radhakrishnan A, Chakravarthi S, Haleagrahara N
    Inflamm Res, 2011 Oct;60(10):897-907.
    PMID: 21633874 DOI: 10.1007/s00011-011-0349-y
    OBJECTIVES: The study investigated the effect of collagen-induced arthritis in Dark Agouti (DA) rats on the level of C-reactive protein and inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α).

    SUBJECTS: Female Dark Agouti (DA) rats.

    METHODS: Three different dosages of (2 mg/kg of body weight, 3 mg/kg of body weight and 4 mg/kg of body weight) collagen and complete Freund's adjuvant suspension were tested. After 45 days, serum C-reactive protein, TNF-α, superoxide dismutase and total glutathione assays were done. Radiographic and histopathological changes in the joints were compared.

    RESULTS: All three groups showed signs of arthritic changes, confirmed by histopathological and radiographic changes. Severe arthritic changes were seen in the rats injected with 4 mg/kg of body weight of collagen. There was a significant increase in C-reactive protein, TNF-α, super oxide dismutase and total glutathione levels in the plasma in arthritis rats and the changes were more significant with 4 mg/kg of collagen.

    CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that the optimal dose to inject to experimental animals in order to get server arthritic changes was 4 mg/kg of collagen with complete Freund's adjuvant suspension. Severe arthritis changes induced significant elevation in plasma C-reactive protein and TNF-α levels.

    Matched MeSH terms: Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
  13. Abd Hamid NA, Hasrul MA, Ruzanna RJ, Ibrahim IA, Baruah PS, Mazlan M, et al.
    Nutr J, 2011;10:37.
    PMID: 21513540 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-10-37
    Exercise is beneficial to health, but during exercise the body generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are known to result in oxidative stress. The present study analysed the effects of vitamin E (Tri E®) on antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (Cat) activity and DNA damage in rats undergoing eight weeks exercise.
    Matched MeSH terms: Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
  14. Dauqan E, Sani HA, Abdullah A, Kasim ZM
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2011 Mar 15;14(6):399-403.
    PMID: 21902064
    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of four different vegetable oils [red palm olein (RPO), palm olein (PO), corn oil (CO), coconut oil (COC)] on antioxidant enzymes activity of rat liver. Sixty six Sprague Dawley male rats which were randomly divided into eleven groups of 6 rats per group and were treated with 15% of RPO, PO, CO and COC for 4 and 8 weeks. Rats in the control group were given normal rat pellet only while in treated groups, 15% of additional different vegetable oils were given. After 4 weeks of treatment the catalase (CAT) activity results showed that there was no significance difference (p > or = 0.05) between the control group and treated groups while after 8 weeks of treatment showed that there was no significant different (p > or = 0.05) between control group and RPO group but the treated rat liver with PO, CO and COC groups were the lowest and it were significantly lower (> or = 0.05) than control group. For superoxide dismutase (SOD) there was no significance difference (p > or = 0.05) between the control group and treated groups of vegetable oils after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Thus the study indicated that there was no significant (p > or = 0.05) effect on antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase) but there was significant effect (p > or = 0.05) on catalase in rat liver.
    Matched MeSH terms: Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
  15. Appukutty M, Radhakrishnan AK, Ramasamy K, Ramasamy R, Abdul Majeed AB, Noor MI, et al.
    BMC Res Notes, 2012;5:649.
    PMID: 23173926 DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-649
    This study examined the effects of bovine colostrum on exercise -induced modulation of antioxidant parameters in skeletal muscle in mice. Adult male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups (control, colostrum alone, exercise and exercise with colostrum) and each group had three subgroups (day 0, 21 and 42). Colostrum groups of mice were given a daily oral supplement of 50 mg/kg body weight of bovine colostrum and the exercise group of mice were made to exercise on the treadmill for 30 minutes per day. Total antioxidants, lipid hydroperoxides, xanthine oxidase and super oxide dismutase level was assayed from the homogenate of hind limb skeletal muscle.
    Matched MeSH terms: Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
  16. Kuppusamy UR, Dharmani M, Kanthimathi MS, Indran M
    Biol Trace Elem Res, 2005 Jul;106(1):29-40.
    PMID: 16037608
    The trace elements copper, zinc, and selenium are important immune modulators and essential cofactors of the antioxidant enzymes. In the present study, the proliferative effect of human peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that have been exposed to copper, zinc, and selenium and the corresponding activities of antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase, were determined. Zinc and copper stimulated the PBMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner within the dose range 25-200 micromol/L. SOD and GPx activities in PBMCs exposed to zinc were inhibited, whereas catalase activity was unaffected. All the three antioxidant enzymes in the cells exposed to copper were inhibited. Selenium exerted more potent inhibition of the cell proliferation while causing stimulation of the antioxidant enzymes at the lowest dose (25 micromol/L) than at the highest dose (200 micromol/L) tested. A significant negative correlation was observed between proliferation and antioxidant enzyme (SOD and GPx) activities in trace-element-exposed PBMC. The present findings substantiate the importance of trace elements as immune modulators and the involvement of enzymatic antioxidant system in the immune cell regulation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
  17. Zhang SS, Noordin MM, Rahman SO, Haron J
    Vet Hum Toxicol, 2000 Oct;42(5):261-4.
    PMID: 11003114
    The influence of copper (Cu) overload on hepatic lipid peroxidation and antioxidation defense capacity was studied by overloading rats with copper sulphate orally (500 mg Cu/kg bw) 5 d/w for 8 w. Malondialdehyde (MDA), Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), and Se-glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured in serum and liver homogenate at 2, 4 and 8 w of dosing. Liver Cu concentration and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity were also determined. As Cu loading progressed, there were multiparameter changes with significant ALT elevation, increased MDA concentrations in serum and liver homogenate, and dramatic declines of SOD and GSH-Px activities in erythrocytes and whole blood respectively, along with marked elevation of hepatic Cu in the Cu-dosed group. Excessive Cu accumulation in the liver depressed SOD and GSH-Px activities and resulted in high MDA in serum and liver homogenate due to the lipid peroxidation induced by the Cu overload.
    Matched MeSH terms: Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
  18. Ma NL, Che Lah WA, Abd Kadir N, Mustaqim M, Rahmat Z, Ahmad A, et al.
    PLoS One, 2018;13(2):e0192732.
    PMID: 29489838 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0192732
    Salinity threat is estimated to reduce global rice production by 50%. Comprehensive analysis of the physiological and metabolite changes in rice plants from salinity stress (i.e. tolerant versus susceptible plants) is important to combat higher salinity conditions. In this study, we screened a total of 92 genotypes and selected the most salinity tolerant line (SS1-14) and most susceptible line (SS2-18) to conduct comparative physiological and metabolome inspections. We demonstrated that the tolerant line managed to maintain their water and chlorophyll content with lower incidence of sodium ion accumulation. We also examined the antioxidant activities of these lines: production of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) were significantly higher in the sensitive line while superoxide dismutase (SOD) was higher in the tolerant line. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) score plots show significantly different response for both lines after the exposure to salinity stress. In the tolerant line, there was an upregulation of non-polar metabolites and production of sucrose, GABA and acetic acid, suggesting an important role in salinity adaptation. In contrast, glutamine and putrescine were noticeably high in the susceptible rice. Coordination of different strategies in tolerant and susceptible lines show that they responded differently after exposure to salt stress. These findings can assist crop development in terms of developing tolerance mechanisms for rice crops.
    Matched MeSH terms: Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
  19. Hussain RM, Abdullah NF, Amom Z
    J Integr Med, 2016 Nov;14(6):456-464.
    PMID: 27854197 DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(16)60279-0
    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of allylpyrocatechol (APC), the major component in ethanolic extract of Piper betle, on key oxidative stress resistance enzymes important for the survival of Staphylococcus aureus, a major pathogen in the human host.

    METHODS: Effects of APC on expressions of genes encoding catalase (katA), superoxide dismutases (SODs), including sodA and sodM, and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (ahpC) in S· aureus were quantitated by RT-qPCR in reference to gyrA and 16S rRNA. Corresponding activities of the enzymes were also investigated. The Livak analysis was performed for verification of gene-fold expression data. Effects of APC on intracellular and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were determined using the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assay.

    RESULTS: APC-treated S· aureus cells had higher sodA and sodM transcripts at 1.5-fold and 0.7-fold expressions respectively with corresponding increase in total SOD activity of 12.24 U/mL compared to untreated cells, 10.85 U/mL (P<0.05). Expression of ahpC was highest in APC-treated cells with 5.5-fold increased expression compared to untreated cells (P<0.05). Correspondingly, ahpC activity was higher in APC-treated cells at 0.672 (A310nm) compared to untreated cells which was 0.394 (A310nm). In contrast, katA expression was 1.48-fold and 0.33-fold lower respectively relative to gyrA and 16S rRNA. Further, APC-treated cells showed decreased catalase activity of 1.8 ×10-4 (U/L or μmol/(min·L)) compared to untreated cells, which was 4.8 ×10-4 U/L (P<0.05). Absorbance readings (A575nm) for the NBT reduction assay were 0.709 and 0.695 respectively for untreated and treated cells, which indicated the presence of ROS. APC-treated S· aureus cells had lower ROS levels both extracellularly and intracellularly, but larger amounts remained intracellularly compared to extracellular levels with absorbances of 0.457 and 0.137 respectively (P<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: APC induced expressions of both sodA and sodM, resulting in increased total SOD activity in S· aureus. Higher sodA expression indicated stress induced intracellularly involving O2- , presumably leading to higher intracellular pools of H2O2. A concommittant decrease in katA expression and catalase activity possibly induced ahpC expression, which was increased the highest in APC-treated cells. Our findings suggest that in the absence of catalase, cells are propelled to seek an alternate pathway involving ahpC to reduce stress invoked by O2- and H2O2. Although APC reduced levels of ROS, significant amounts eluded its antioxidative action and remained intracellularly, which adds to oxidative stress in treated cells.

    Matched MeSH terms: Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
  20. Lee SK, Sirajudeen KN, Sundaram A, Zakaria R, Singh HJ
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol, 2011 Dec;38(12):854-9.
    PMID: 21973174 DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1681.2011.05624.x
    1. The hypotensive effect of cross-fostering in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) is thought to involve adjustments in renal function. However, its association with renal anti-oxidant/oxidant balance during cross-fostering is not known. 2. The present study examined the effect of cross-fostering and in-fostering of 1-day-old offspring between SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) dams on renal anti-oxidant/oxidant status and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Renal anti-oxidant/oxidant status and SBP were determined in the offspring from 4-16 weeks of age. 3. Cross-fostered SHR had significantly lower SBP than in-fostered SHR at 6, 8 and 12 weeks, but not at 16 weeks (127 ± 1 vs 144 ± 2, 138 ± 1 vs 160 ± 1, 174 ± 2 vs 184 ± 2 and 199 ± 2 vs 194 ± 3 mmHg at 6, 8, 12 and 16 weeks, respectively). No differences in SBP were evident between cross-fostered and in-fostered WKY rats. There were no significant differences in levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl and total anti-oxidant status (TAS) or superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase activity between cross-fostered and in-fostered SHR or WKY offspring. However, compared with WKY rats, catalase activity was higher at 6 and 16 weeks, TAS was higher at 16 weeks and GPx activity and TBARS were lower at 16 weeks in SHR. 4. It appears that cross-fostering of SHR offspring to WKY dams during the early postnatal period causes a transient delay in the rise in blood pressure in SHR and that this does not involve the renal anti-oxidant/oxidant system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism*
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