The most common permittivity function models are compared and identifying the best model for further studies is desired. For this study, simulations using several different models and an analytical analysis on a practical surface Plasmon structure were done with an accuracy of ∼ 94.4% with respect to experimental data. Finite element method, combined with dielectric properties extracted from the Brendel-Bormann function model, was utilized, the latter being chosen from a comparative study on four available models.
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties of metallic nanostructures, such as gold, are very sensitive to the dielectric environment of the material, which can simply be adjusted by changing its shape and size through modification of the synthesizing process. Thus, these unique properties are very promising, particularly for the detection of various types of chemicals, for example boric acid which is a non-permitted preservative employed in food preparations. For the sensing material, gold (Au) nanoplates with a variety of shapes, i.e., triangular, hexagonal, truncated pentagon and flat rod, were prepared using a seed-mediated growth method. The yield of Au nanoplates was estimated to be ca. 63% over all areas of the sensing material. The nanoplates produced two absorption bands, i.e., the transverse surface plasmon resonance (t-SPR) and the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (l-SPR) at 545 nm and 710 nm, respectively. In the sensing study, these two bands were used to examine the response of gold nanoplates to the presence of boric acid in an aqueous environment. In a typical process, when the sample is immersed into an aqueous solution containing boric acid, these two bands may change their intensity and peak centers as a result of the interaction between the boric acid and the gold nanoplates. The changes in the intensities and peak positions of t-SPR and l-SPR linearly correlated with the change in the boric acid concentration in the solution.
Ferroelectric photoelectrodes, other than conventional semiconductors, are alternative photo-absorbers in the process of water splitting. However, the capture of photons and efficient transfer of photo-excited carriers remain as two critical issues in ferroelectric photoelectrodes. In this work, we overcome the aforementioned issues by decorating the ferroelectric BiFeO3 (BFO) surface with Au nanocrystals, and thus improving the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of BFO film. We demonstrate that the internal field induced by the spontaneous polarization of BFO can (1) tune the efficiency of the photo-excited carriers' separation and charge transfer characteristics in bare BFO photoelectrodes, and (2) modulate an extra optical absorption within the visible light region, created by the surface plasmon resonance excitation of Au nanocrystals to capture more photons in the Au/BFO heterostructure. This study provides key insights for understanding the tunable features of PEC performance, composed of the heterostructure of noble metals and ferroelectric materials.
This paper proposes a novel idea to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) optical sensor for detection of dengue virus type-2 envelope proteins (DENV-2 E-proteins) using polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer biopolymer-based nanocomposite thin film. For this purpose, two ranges of DENV-2 E-protein concentrations, i.e., 0.000008-0.0001 nM and 0.00008-0.005 nM were evaluated, and the lowest detectable concentration was achieved at 0.00008 nM. The incorporation of PAMAM dendrimer-based nanocomposite thin film with an SPR sensor exhibited a significant increase in sensitivity and binding affinity to a lower range DENV-2 E-protein concentrations. Moreover, the proposed sensor displayed good selectivity towards DENV-2 E-proteins and have an average recovery of 80-120%. The findings of this study demonstrated that PAMAM dendrimer-based nanocomposite thin film combined with SPR sensor is a promising diagnostic tool for sensitive and selective detection of DENV-2 E-proteins.
High sensitivity and capturing ratio are strongly demanded for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors when applied in detection of small molecules. Herein, an SPR sensor is combined with a novel smart material, namely, MoS2 nanoflowers (MNFs), to demonstrate programmable adsorption/desorption of small bipolar molecules, i.e., amino acids. The MNFs overcoated on the plasmonic gold layer increase the sensitivity by 25% compared to an unmodified SPR sensor, because of the electric field enhancement at the gold surface. Furthermore, as the MNFs have rich edge sites and negatively charged surfaces, the MNF-SPR sensors exhibit not only much higher bipolar-molecule adsorption capability, but also efficient desorption of these molecules. It is demonstrated that the MNF-SPR sensors enable controllable detection of amino acids by adjusting solution pH according to their isoelectric points. In addition, the MNFs decorated on the plasmonic interface can be as nanostructure frameworks and modified with antibody, which allows for specific detection of proteins. This novel SPR sensor provides a new simple strategy for pre-screening of amino acid disorders in blood plasma and a universal high-sensitive platform for immunoassay.
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a novel optical sensing technique with a unique ability to monitor molecular binding in real-time for biological and chemical sensor applications. Interferometry is an excellent tool for accurate measurement of SPR changes, the measurement and comparison is made for the sensitivity, dynamic range and resolution of the different analytes using interferometry techniques. SPR interferometry can also employ phase detection in addition to the amplitude of the reflected light wave, and the phase changes more rapidly compared with other approaches, i.e., intensity, angle and wavelength. Therefore, the SPR phase interferometer offers the advantages of spatial phase resolution and high sensitivity. This work discusses the advancements in interferometric SPR methods to measure the phase shifts due to refractive index changes. The main application areas of SPR sensors are demonstrated, i.e., the Fabry-Perot interferometer, Michelson interferometer and Mach-Zehnder interferometer, with different configurations. The three interferometers are discussed in detail, and solutions are suggested to enhance the performance parameters that will aid in future biological and chemical sensors.
Widefield surface plasmon resonance (WSPR) microscopy provides high resolution imaging of interfacial interactions. We report the application of the WSPR imaging system in the study of the interaction between keratinocytes and liquid crystals (LC). Imaging of fixed keratinocytes cultured on gold coated surface plasmon substrates functionalized with a thin film of liquid crystals was performed in air using a 1.45NA objective based system. Focal adhesion of the cells adhered to glass and LC were further studied using immunofluorescence staining of the vinculin. The imaging system was also simulated with 2×2 scattering matrix to investigate the optical reflection of the resonant plasmonic wave via the glass/gold/cell and glass/gold/LC/cell layers. WSPR imaging indicated that keratinocytes are less spread and formed distinct topography of cell-liquid crystal couplings when cultured on liquid crystal coated substrates. The simulation indicates that glass/LC shifted the surface plasmon excitation angle to 75.39° as compared to glass/air interface at 44°. The WSPR microcopy reveals that the cells remodelled their topography of adhesion at different interfaces.
Surface phonon polariton (SPP) characteristics of In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N/AlN/Al(2)O(3) heterostructure are investigated by means of p-polarized infrared (IR) attenuated total reflection spectroscopy. Two absorption dips corresponding to In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N SPP modes are observed. In addition, two prominent dips and one relatively weak and broad dip corresponding to the Al(2)O(3) SPP mode, In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N/Al(2)O(3) interface mode, and Al(2)O(3) bulk polariton mode, respectively, are clearly seen. No surface mode feature originating from the AlN layer is observed because it is too thin. Overall, the observations are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.
We propose a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor based on photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with selectively filled analyte channels. Silver is used as the plasmonic material to accurately detect the analytes and is coated with a thin graphene layer to prevent oxidation. The liquid-filled cores are placed near to the metallic channel for easy excitation of free electrons to produce surface plasmon waves (SPWs). Surface plasmons along the metal surface are excited with a leaky Gaussian-like core guided mode. Numerical investigations of the fiber's properties and sensing performance are performed using the finite element method (FEM). The proposed sensor shows maximum amplitude sensitivity of 418 Refractive Index Units (RIU-1) with resolution as high as 2.4 × 10(-5) RIU. Using the wavelength interrogation method, a maximum refractive index (RI) sensitivity of 3000 nm/RIU in the sensing range of 1.46-1.49 is achieved. The proposed sensor is suitable for detecting various high RI chemicals, biochemical and organic chemical analytes. Additionally, the effects of fiber structural parameters on the properties of plasmonic excitation are investigated and optimized for sensing performance as well as reducing the sensor's footprint.
In this study, the authors investigated the effects of a single layer graphene as a coating layer on top of metal thin films such as silver, gold, aluminum and copper using finite-difference time domain method. To enhance the resolution of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor, it is necessary to increase the SPR reflectivity and decrease the full-width-half maximum (FWHM) of the SPR curve so that there is minimum uncertainty in the determination of the resonance dip. Numerical data was verified with analytical and experimental data where all the data were in good agreement with resonance angle differing in <10% due to noise present in components such as humidity and temperature. In further analysis, reflectivity and FWHM were compared among four types of metal with various thin film thicknesses where graphene was applied on top of the metal layers, and data was compared against pure conventional metal thin films. A 60 nm-thick Au thin film results in higher performance with reflectivity of 92.4% and FWHM of 0.88° whereas single layer graphene-on-60 nm-thick Au gave reflectivity of 91.7% and FWHM of 1.32°. However, a graphene-on-40 nm-thick Ag also gave good performance with narrower FWHM of 0.88° and reflection spectra of 89.2%.
Graphene and its hybrids are being employed as potential materials in light-sensing devices due to their high optical and electronic properties. However, the absence of a bandgap in graphene limits the realization of devices with high performance. In this work, a boron-doped reduced graphene oxide (B-rGO) is proposed to overcome the above problems. Boron doping enhances the conductivity of graphene oxide and creates several defect sites during the reduction process, which can play a vital role in achieving high-sensing performance of light-sensing devices. Initially, the B-rGO is synthesized using a modified microwave-assisted hydrothermal method and later analyzed using standard FESEM, FTIR, XPS, Raman, and XRD techniques. The content of boron in doped rGO was found to be 6.51 at.%. The B-rGO showed a tunable optical bandgap from 2.91 to 3.05 eV in the visible spectrum with an electrical conductivity of 0.816 S/cm. The optical constants obtained from UV-Vis absorption spectra suggested an enhanced surface plasmon resonance (SPR) response for B-rGO in the theoretical study, which was further verified by experimental investigations. The B-rGO with tunable bandgap and enhanced SPR could open up the solution for future high-performance optoelectronic and sensing applications.
For a healthy life, the human biological system should work in order. Scheduled lifestyle and lack of nutrients usually lead to fluctuations in the biological entities levels such as neurotransmitters (NTs), proteins, and hormones, which in turns put the human health in risk. Dopamine (DA) is an extremely important catecholamine NT distributed in the central nervous system. Its level in the body controls the function of human metabolism, central nervous, renal, hormonal, and cardiovascular systems. It is closely related to the major domains of human cognition, feeling, and human desires, as well as learning. Several neurological disorders such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease are related to the extreme abnormalities in DA levels. Therefore, the development of an accurate, effective, and highly sensitive method for rapid determination of DA concentrations is desired. Up to now, different methods have been reported for DA detection such as electrochemical strategies, high-performance liquid chromatography, colorimetry, and capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry. However, most of them have some limitations. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy was widely used in biosensing. However, its use to detect NTs is still growing and has fascinated impressive attention of the scientific community. The focus in this concise review paper will be on the principle of SPR sensors and its operation mechanism, the factors that affect the sensor performance. The efficiency of SPR biosensors to detect several clinically related analytes will be mentioned. DA functions in the human body will be explained. Additionally, this review will cover the incorporation of nanomaterials into SPR biosensors and its potential for DA sensing with mention to its advantages and disadvantages.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs)-nanoscale phospholipid vesicles secreted by cells-present new opportunities for molecular diagnosis from non-invasive liquid biopsies. Single EV protein analysis can be extremely valuable in studying EVs as circulating cancer biomarkers, but it is technically challenging due to weak detection signals associated with limited amounts of epitopes and small surface areas for antibody labeling. Here, a new, simple method that enables multiplexed analyses of EV markers with improved sensitivities is reported. Specifically, plasmon-enhanced fluorescence detection is implemented that amplifies fluorescence signals using surface plasmon resonances excited by periodic gold nanohole structures. It is shown that fluorescence signals in multiple channels are amplified by one order of magnitude, and both transmembrane and intravesicular markers can be detected at the single EV level. This approach can offer additional insight into understanding subtypes, heterogeneity, and production dynamics of EVs during disease development and progression.
Gold nanorods (Au NRs) are elongated nanoparticles with unique optical properties which depend on their shape anisometry. The Au NR-based longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance (longitudinal LSPR) band is very sensitive to the surrounding local environment and upon the addition of target analytes, the interaction between the analytes and the surface of the Au NRs leads to a change in the longitudinal LSPR band. This makes it possible to devise Au NR probes with application potential to the detection of toxic metal ions with an improved limit of detection, response time, and selectivity for the fabrication of sensing devices. The effective surface modification of Au NRs helps in improving their selectivity and sensitivity toward the detection of toxic metal ions. In this review, we discuss different methods for the preparation of surface modified Au NRs for the detection of toxic metal ions based on the LSPR band of the Au NRs and the types of interactions between the surface of Au NRs and metal ions. We summarize the work that has been done on Au NR-based longitudinal LSPR detection of environmentally toxic metal ions, sensing mechanisms, and the current progress in various modified Au NR-based longitudinal LSPR sensors for toxic metal ions. Finally, we discuss the applications of Au NR-based longitudinal LSPR sensors to real sample analysis and some of the future challenges facing longitudinal LSPR-based sensors for the detection of toxic metal ions toward commercial devices.
The emergence of unintentional poisoning and uncontrolled vector diseases have contributed to sensor technologies development, leading to the more effective detection of diseases. In this study, we present the combination of graphene-based material with surface plasmon resonance technique. Two different graphene-based material sensor chips were prepared for rapid and quantitative detection of dengue virus (DENV) and cobalt ion (Co2+) as an example of typical metal ions. As the fundamental concept of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor that relies on the refractive index of the sensor chip surface, this research focused on the SPR signal when the DENV and Co2+ interact with the graphene-based material sensor chip. The results demonstrated that the proposed sensor-based graphene layer was able to detect DENV and Co2+ as low as 0.1 pM and 0.1 ppm respectively. Further details in the detection and quantification of analyte were also discussed in terms of sensitivity, affinity, and selectivity of the sensor.
In this paper, we report the effects of a side-polished fiber (SPF) coated with titanium (Ti) films in different thicknesses, namely 5 nm, 13 nm, and 36 nm, protected by a thin layer of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten disulfide (WS2), which provide ultra-sensitive sensor-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) covering from the visible to mid-infrared region. The SPF deposited with Ti exhibits strong evanescent field interaction with the MoS2 and WS2, and good optical absorption, hence resulting in high-sensitivity performance. Incremental increases in the thickness of the Ti layer contribute to the enhancement of the intensity of transmission with redshift and broad spectra. The findings show that the optimum thickness of Ti with 36 nm combined with MoS2 causes weak redshifts of the longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) mode, while the same thickness of Ti with WS2 causes large blueshifts. The redshifts are possibly due to a reduced plasmon-coupling effect with the excitonic region of MoS2. The observed blueshifts of the LSPR peak position are possibly due to surface modification between WS2 and Ti. Changing the relative humidity from 58% to 88% only elicited a response in Ti/MoS2. Thus, MoS2 shows more sensitivity on 36-nm thickness of Ti compared with WS2. Therefore, the proposed fiber-optic sensor with integration of 2D materials is capable of measuring humidity in any environment.
Due to the crucial role of dopamine (DA) in health and peripheral nervous systems, it is particularly important to develop an efficient and accurate sensor to monitor and determine DA concentrations for diagnostic purposes and diseases prevention. Up to now, using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors in DA determination is very limited and its application still at the primary stage. In this work, a simple and ultra-sensitive SPR sensor was constructed for DA detection by preparation of chitosan- graphene quantum dots (CS-GQDs) thin film as the sensing layer. Other SPR measurements were conducted using different sensing layers; GQDs, CS for comparison. The proposed thin films were prepared by spin coating technique. The developed CS-GQDs thin film-based SPR sensor was successfully tested in DA concentration range from 0 fM to 1 pM. The designed SPR sensor showed outstanding performance in detecting DA sensitively (S = 0.011°/fM, R2 = 0.8174) with low detection limit of 1.0 fM has been achieved for the first time. The increased angular shift of SPR dip, narrow full width half maximum of the SPR curves, excellent signal-to-noise ratio and figure of merit, and a binding affinity constant (KA) of 2.962 PM-1 demonstrated the potential of this sensor to detect DA with high accuracy. Overall, it was concluded that the proposed sensor would serve as a valuable tool in clinical diagnostic for the serious neurological disorders. This in turns has a significant socio-economic impact.
In this study, novel active nanolayers in combination with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) system for zinc ion (Zn(2+)) detection has been developed. The gold surface used for the SPR system was modified with the novel developed active nanolayers, i.e. chitosan and chitosan-tetrabutyl thiuram disulfide (chitosan-TBTDS). Both chitosan and chitosan-TBTDS active layers were fabricated on the gold surface by spin coating technique. The system was used to monitor SPR signal for Zn(2+) in aqueous media with and without sensitivity enhancement by TBTDS. For both active nanolayers, the shift of resonance angle is directly proportional to the concentration of Zn(2+) in aqueous media. The higher shift of resonance angle was obtained for chitosan-TBTDS active nanolayer due to a specific binding of TBTDS with Zn(2+). The chitosan-TBTDS active nanolayer enhanced the sensitivity of detection down to 0.1 mg/l and also induced a selective detection towards Zn(2+).
The effect of morphology on the plasmonic sensing of the presence of formaldehyde in water by gold nanostructures has been investigated. The gold nanostructures with two different morphologies, namely spherical and rod, were prepared using a seed-mediated method. In typical results, it was found that the plasmonic properties of gold nanostructures were very sensitive to the presence of formaldehyde in their surrounding medium by showing the change in both the plasmonic peaks position and the intensity. Spherical nanoparticles (GNS), for example, indicated an increase in the sensitivity when the size was increased from 25 to 35 nm and dramatically decreased when the size was further increased. An m value, the ratio between plasmonic peak shift and refractive index change, as high as 36.5 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) was obtained so far. An expanded sensing mode to FD was obtained when gold nanostructures with nanorods morphology (GNR) were used because of the presence of two plasmonic modes for response probing. However, in the present study, effective plasmonic peak shift was not observed due to the intense plasmonic coupling of closely packed nanorod structures on the surface. Nevertheless, the present results at least provide a potential strategy for response enhancement via shape-effects. High performance plasmonic sensors could be obtained if controlled arrays of nanorods can be prepared on the surface.
This work investigates the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) response of 50-nm thick nano-laminated gold film using Kretschmann-based biosensing for detection of urea and creatinine in solution of various concentrations (non-enzymatic samples). Comparison was made with the presence of urease and creatininase enzymes in the urea and creatinine solutions (enzymatic samples), respectively. Angular interrogation technique was applied using optical wavelengths of 670 nm and 785 nm. The biosensor detects the presence of urea and creatinine at concentrations ranging from 50-800 mM for urea samples and 10-200 mM for creatinine samples. The purpose of studying the enzymatic sample was mainly to enhance the sensitivity of the sensor towards urea and creatinine in the samples. Upon exposure to 670 nm optical wavelength, the sensitivity of 1.4°/M was detected in non-enzymatic urea samples and 4°/M in non-enzymatic creatinine samples. On the other hand, sensor sensitivity as high as 16.2°/M in urea-urease samples and 10°/M in creatinine-creatininase samples was detected. The enhanced sensitivity possibly attributed to the increase in refractive index of analyte sensing layer due to urea-urease and creatinine-creatininase coupling activity. This work has successfully proved the design and demonstrated a proof-of-concept experiment using a low-cost and easy fabrication of Kretschmann based nano-laminated gold film SPR biosensor for detection of urea and creatinine using urease and creatininase enzymes.