Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 282 in total

  1. Abdul Kadir FA, Azizan KA, Othman R
    BMC Res Notes, 2021 Mar 25;14(1):117.
    PMID: 33766087 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-021-05532-9
    OBJECTIVES: Agarwood is the aromatic heartwood formed upon wounding of Aquilaria trees either naturally formed due to physical wound sustained from natural phenomena followed by microbial infection, or artificially induced using different inoculation methods. Different induction methods produce agarwoods with different aromas which have impacts on their commercial values. In lieu of elucidating the molecular mechanisms of agarwood formation under different treatment conditions, the transcriptome profiles of trunk tissues from healthy A. malaccensis tree, and naturally and artificially induced trees were obtained.

    DATA DESCRIPTION: The transcriptome of trunk tissues from healthy A. malaccensis, and naturally and artificially induced trees were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 4000 platform which resulted in a total of 38.4 Gb clean reads with Q30 rate of at least 91%. The transcriptome consists of 85,986 unigenes containing 1305 bases on average which were annotated against several databases. From this, 44,654 unigenes were mapped to 290 metabolic pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. These transcriptome data represent considerable contribution towards Aquilaria transcriptome data and enhance current knowledge in comprehending the molecular mechanisms underlying agarwood formation in Aquilaria spp.

    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome*
  2. Hong KW, Tee KK, Yin WF, Roberts RJ, Chan KG
    Microbiol Resour Announc, 2019 Oct 24;8(43).
    PMID: 31649075 DOI: 10.1128/MRA.00898-19
    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the etiological agent of melioidosis, which has been studied by transcriptome and secretome analyses. However, little is known about the methylome of this pathogen. Here, we present the complete genome and methylome of melioidosis-causing B. pseudomallei strain 982.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome
  3. Ahmad S, Drag MH, Salleh SM, Cai Z, Nielsen MO
    BMC Genomics, 2021 May 11;22(1):338.
    PMID: 33975549 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-021-07672-5
    BACKGROUND: Early life malnutrition is known to target adipose tissue with varying impact depending on timing of the insult. This study aimed to identify differentially expressed genes in subcutaneous (SUB) and perirenal (PER) adipose tissue of 2.5-years old sheep to elucidate the biology underlying differential impacts of late gestation versus early postnatal malnutrition on functional development of adipose tissues. Adipose tissues were obtained from 37 adult sheep born as twins to dams fed either NORM (fulfilling energy and protein requirements), LOW (50% of NORM) or HIGH (110% of protein and 150% of energy requirements) diets in the last 6-weeks of gestation. From day 3 to 6 months of age, lambs were fed high-carbohydrate-high-fat (HCHF) or moderate low-fat (CONV) diets, and thereafter the same moderate low-fat diet.

    RESULTS: The gene expression profile of SUB in the adult sheep was not affected by the pre- or early postnatal nutrition history. In PER, 993 and 186 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in LOW versus HIGH and NORM, respectively, but no DEG was found between HIGH and NORM. DEGs identified in the mismatched pre- and postnatal nutrition groups LOW-HCHF (101) and HIGH-HCHF (192) were largely downregulated compared to NORM-CONV. Out of 831 DEGs, 595 and 236 were up- and downregulated in HCHF versus CONV, respectively. The functional enrichment analyses revealed that transmembrane (ion) transport activities, motor activities related to cytoskeletal and spermatozoa function (microtubules and the cytoskeletal motor protein, dynein), and responsiveness to the (micro) environmental extracellular conditions, including endocrine and nervous stimuli were enriched in the DEGs of LOW versus HIGH and NORM. We confirmed that mismatched pre- and postnatal feeding was associated with long-term programming of adipose tissue remodeling and immunity-related pathways. In agreement with phenotypic measurements, early postnatal HCHF feeding targeted pathways involved in kidney cell differentiation, and mismatched LOW-HCHF sheep had specific impairments in cholesterol metabolism pathways.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both pre- and postnatal malnutrition differentially programmed (patho-) physiological pathways with implications for adipose functional development associated with metabolic dysfunctions, and PER was a major target.

    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome*
  4. Chen X, Li J, Xiao S, Liu X
    Gene, 2016 Jan 15;576(1 Pt 3):537-43.
    PMID: 26546834 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2015.11.001
    Paphia textile is an important, aquaculture bivalve clam species distributed mainly in China, Philippines, and Malaysia. Recent studies of P. textile have focused mainly on artificial breeding and nutrition analysis, and the transcriptome and genome of P. textile have rarely been reported. In this work, the transcriptome of P. textile foot tissue was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. A total of 20,219,795 reads were generated, resulting in 4.08 Gb of raw data. The raw reads were cleaned and assembled into 54,852 unigenes with an N50 length of 829 bp. Of these unigenes, 38.92% were successfully annotated based on their matches to sequences in seven public databases. Among the annotated unigenes, 14,571 were assigned Gene Ontology terms, 5448 were classified to Clusters of Orthologous Groups categories, and 6738 were mapped to 228 pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. For functional marker development, 5605 candidate simple sequence repeats were identified in the transcriptome and 80 primer pairs were selected randomly and amplified in a wild population of P. textile. A total of 36 loci that exhibited obvious repeat length polymorphisms were detected. The transcriptomic data and microsatellite markers will provide valuable resources for future functional gene analyses, genetic map construction, and quantitative trait loci mapping in P. textile.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome*
  5. Lee XW, Mat-Isa MN, Mohd-Elias NA, Aizat-Juhari MA, Goh HH, Dear PH, et al.
    PLoS One, 2016;11(12):e0167958.
    PMID: 27977777 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167958
    Rafflesia is a biologically enigmatic species that is very rare in occurrence and possesses an extraordinary morphology. This parasitic plant produces a gigantic flower up to one metre in diameter with no leaves, stem or roots. However, little is known about the floral biology of this species especially at the molecular level. In an effort to address this issue, we have generated and characterised the transcriptome of the Rafflesia cantleyi flower, and performed a comparison with the transcriptome of its floral bud to predict genes that are expressed and regulated during flower development. Approximately 40 million sequencing reads were generated and assembled de novo into 18,053 transcripts with an average length of 641 bp. Of these, more than 79% of the transcripts had significant matches to annotated sequences in the public protein database. A total of 11,756 and 7,891 transcripts were assigned to Gene Ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups respectively. In addition, 6,019 transcripts could be mapped to 129 pathways in Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. Digital abundance analysis identified 52 transcripts with very high expression in the flower transcriptome of R. cantleyi. Subsequently, analysis of differential expression between developing flower and the floral bud revealed a set of 105 transcripts with potential role in flower development. Our work presents a deep transcriptome resource analysis for the developing flower of R. cantleyi. Genes potentially involved in the growth and development of the R. cantleyi flower were identified and provide insights into biological processes that occur during flower development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome/genetics*
  6. Lee LK, Foo KY
    Clin Biochem, 2014 Jul;47(10-11):973-82.
    PMID: 24875852 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2014.05.053
    Infertility is a worldwide reproductive health problem which affects approximately 15% of couples, with male factor infertility dominating nearly 50% of the affected population. The nature of the phenomenon is underscored by a complex array of transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic differences which interact in unknown ways. Many causes of male factor infertility are still defined as idiopathic, and most diagnosis tends to be more descriptive rather than specific. As such, the emergence of novel transcriptomic and metabolomic studies may hold the key to more accurately diagnose and treat male factor infertility. This paper provides the most recent evidence underlying the role of transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis in the management of male infertility. A summary of the current knowledge and new discovery of noninvasive, highly sensitive and specific biomarkers which allow the expansion of this area is outlined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome*
  7. Mohd-Elias NA, Rosli K, Alias H, Juhari MA, Abu-Bakar MF, Md-Isa N, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2021 12 08;11(1):23661.
    PMID: 34880337 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-03028-x
    Rafflesia is a unique plant species existing as a single flower and produces the largest flower in the world. While Rafflesia buds take up to 21 months to develop, its flowers bloom and wither within about a week. In this study, transcriptome analysis was carried out to shed light on the molecular mechanism of senescence in Rafflesia. A total of 53.3 million high quality reads were obtained from two Rafflesia cantleyi flower developmental stages and assembled to generate 64,152 unigenes. Analysis of this dataset showed that 5,166 unigenes were differentially expressed, in which 1,073 unigenes were identified as genes involved in flower senescence. Results revealed that as the flowers progress to senescence, more genes related to flower senescence were significantly over-represented compared to those related to plant growth and development. Senescence of the R. cantleyi flower activates senescence-associated genes in the transcription activity (members of the transcription factor families MYB, bHLH, NAC, and WRKY), nutrient remobilization (autophagy-related protein and transporter genes), and redox regulation (CATALASE). Most of the senescence-related genes were found to be differentially regulated, perhaps for the fine-tuning of various responses in the senescing R. cantleyi flower. Additionally, pathway analysis showed the activation of genes such as ETHYLENE RECEPTOR, ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE 2, ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE 3, and ETHYLENE-RESPONSIVE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR, indicating the possible involvement of the ethylene hormone response pathway in the regulation of R. cantleyi senescence. Our results provide a model of the molecular mechanism underlying R. cantleyi flower senescence, and contribute essential information towards further understanding the biology of the Rafflesiaceae family.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome*
  8. Zainal Ariffin SH, Lim KW, Megat Abdul Wahab R, Zainal Ariffin Z, Rus Din RD, Shahidan MA, et al.
    PeerJ, 2022;10:e14174.
    PMID: 36275474 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.14174
    BACKGROUND: There have been promising results published regarding the potential of stem cells in regenerative medicine. However, the vast variety of choices of techniques and the lack of a standard approach to analyse human osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation may reduce the utility of stem cells as a tool in medical applications. Therefore, this review aims to systematically evaluate the findings based on stem cell differentiation to define a standard gene expression profile approach.

    METHODS: This review was performed following the PRISMA guidelines. A systematic search of the study was conducted by retrieving articles from the electronic databases PubMed and Web of Science to identify articles focussed on gene expression and approaches for osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation.

    RESULTS: Six articles were included in this review; there were original articles of in vitro human stem cell differentiation into osteoblasts and osteoclasts that involved gene expression profiling. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was the most used technique for gene expression to detect differentiated human osteoblasts and osteoclasts. A total of 16 genes were found to be related to differentiating osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation.

    CONCLUSION: Qualitative information of gene expression provided by qPCR could become a standard technique to analyse the differentiation of human stem cells into osteoblasts and osteoclasts rather than evaluating relative gene expression. RUNX2 and CTSK could be applied to detect osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively, while RANKL could be applied to detect both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. This review provides future researchers with a central source of relevant information on the vast variety of gene expression approaches in analysing the differentiation of human osteoblast and osteoclast cells. In addition, these findings should enable researchers to conduct accurately and efficiently studies involving isolated human stem cell differentiation into osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome*
  9. Isaac IL, Walter AWCY, Bakar MFA, Idris AS, Bakar FDA, Bharudin I, et al.
    Data Brief, 2018 Apr;17:1108-1111.
    PMID: 29876468 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2018.02.027
    Ganoderma boninense is known to be the causal agent for basal stem rot (BSR) affecting the oil palm industry worldwide thus cumulating to high economic losses every year. Several reports have shown that a compatible monokaryon pair needs to mate; producing dikaryotic mycelia to initiate the infection towards the oil palm. However, the molecular events occurs during mating process are not well understood. We performed transcriptome sequencing using Illumina RNA-seq technology and de novo assembly of the transcripts from monokaryon, mating junction and dikaryon mycelia of G. boninense. Raw reads from these three libraries were deposited in the NCBI database with accession number SRR1745787, SRR1745773 and SRR1745777, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome
  10. Ilias IA, Airianah OB, Baharum SN, Goh HH
    Data Brief, 2017 Dec;15:320-323.
    PMID: 29214193 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2017.09.050
    Expansin increases cell wall extensibility to allow cell wall loosening and cell expansion even in the absence of hydrolytic activity. Previous studies showed that excessive overexpression of expansin gene resulted in defective growth (Goh et al., 2014; Rochange et al., 2001) [1,2] and altered cell wall chemical composition (Zenoni et al., 2011) [3]. However, the molecular mechanism on how the overexpression of non-enzymatic cell wall protein expansin can result in widespread effects on plant cell wall and organ growth remains unclear. We acquired transcriptomic data on previously reported transgenic Arabidopsis line (Goh et al., 2014) [1] to investigate the effects of overexpressing a heterologus cucumber expansin gene (CsEXPA1) on the global gene expression pattern during early and late phases of etiolated hypocotyl growth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome
  11. Jazamuddin FM, Aizat WM, Goh HH, Low CF, Baharum SN
    Data Brief, 2018 Feb;16:466-469.
    PMID: 29255779 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2017.11.024
    Vibriosis disease by Vibrio spp. greatly reduced productivity of aquaculture, such as brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus), which is an economically important fish species in Malaysia. Preventive measures and immediate treatment are critical to reduce the mortality of E. fuscoguttatus from vibriosis. To investigate the molecular mechanisms associated with immune response and host-bacteria interaction, a transcriptomic analysis was performed to compare between healthy and Vibrio-infected groupers. This permits the discovery of immune-related genes, specifically the resistance genes upon infection. Herein, we provide the raw transcriptome data from Illumina HiSeq. 4000 that have been deposited into NCBI SRA database with the BioProject accession number PRJNA396437. A total of 493,403,076 raw sequences of 74.5 Gb were obtained. Trimming of the raw data produced 437,186,232 clean reads of ~58 Gb. These datasets will be useful to elucidate the defence mechanisms of E. fuscoguttatus against Vibrio vulnificus infection for future development of effective prevention and treatment of vibriosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome
  12. Othman NQ, Sulaiman S, Lee YP, Tan JS
    Data Brief, 2019 Aug;25:104288.
    PMID: 31453289 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2019.104288
    To date, Ganoderma boninense is known to be the causal agent of basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). This disease causes rotting in the roots, basal and upper stem of oil palm. Infection causes progressive destruction of the basal tissues at the oil palm trunk and internal dry rotting, particularly at the intersection between the bole and trunk. Molecular responses of oil palm during infection are not well study although this information is crucial to strategize effective measures to control or eliminate BSR. Here we report three sets of transcriptome data from samples of near-rot section of basal stem tissue of oil palm tree infected with G. boninense (IPIT), healthy section of basal stem tissue of the same G. boninense infected palm (IPHT) and the healthy section of basal stem tissue of the healthy palm (HPHT). The raw reads were deposited into NCBI database and can be accessed via BioProject accession number PRJNA530030.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome
  13. Azli B, Ravi S, Hair-Bejo M, Omar AR, Ideris A, Mat Isa N
    BMC Genomics, 2021 Jun 19;22(1):461.
    PMID: 34147086 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-021-07690-3
    BACKGROUND: Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an economically very important issue to the poultry industry and it is one of the major threats to the nation's food security. The pathogen, a highly pathogenic strain of a very virulent IBD virus causes high mortality and immunosuppression in chickens. The importance of understanding the underlying genes that could combat this disease is now of global interest in order to control future outbreaks. We had looked at identified novel genes that could elucidate the pathogenicity of the virus following infection and at possible disease resistance genes present in chickens.

    RESULTS: A set of sequences retrieved from IBD virus-infected chickens that did not map to the chicken reference genome were de novo assembled, clustered and analysed. From six inbred chicken lines, we managed to assemble 10,828 uni-transcripts and screened 618 uni-transcripts which were the most significant sequences to known genes, as determined by BLASTX searches. Based on the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis, 12 commonly upregulated and 18 downregulated uni-genes present in all six inbred lines were identified with false discovery rate of q-value

    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome
  14. Wan Afifudeen CL, Aziz A, Wong LL, Takahashi K, Toda T, Abd Wahid ME, et al.
    Phytochemistry, 2021 Dec;192:112936.
    PMID: 34509143 DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2021.112936
    The non-model microalga Messastrum gracile SE-MC4 is a potential species for biodiesel production. However, low biomass productivity hinders it from passing the life cycle assessment for biodiesel production. Therefore, the current study was aimed at uncovering the differences in the transcriptome profiles of the microalgae at early exponential and early stationary growth phases and dissecting the roles of specific differential expressed genes (DEGs) involved in cell division during M. gracile cultivation. The transcriptome analysis revealed that the photosynthetic integral membrane protein genes such as photosynthetic antenna protein were severely down-regulated during the stationary growth phase. In addition, the signaling pathways involving transcription, glyoxylate metabolism and carbon metabolism were also down-regulated during stationary growth phase. Current findings suggested that the coordination between photosynthetic integral membrane protein genes, signaling through transcription and carbon metabolism classified as prominent strategies during exponential growth stage. These findings can be applied in genetic improvement of M. gracile for biodiesel application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome
  15. Hindmarch CC, Ferguson AV
    J. Physiol. (Lond.), 2016 Mar 15;594(6):1581-9.
    PMID: 26227400 DOI: 10.1113/JP270726
    The subfornical organ (SFO) is a circumventricular organ recognized for its ability to sense and integrate hydromineral and hormonal circulating fluid balance signals, information which is transmitted to central autonomic nuclei to which SFO neurons project. While the role of SFO was once synonymous with physiological responses to osmotic, volumetric and cardiovascular challenge, recent data suggest that SFO neurons also sense and integrate information from circulating signals of metabolic status. Using microarrays, we have confirmed the expression of receptors already described in the SFO, and identified many novel transcripts expressed in this circumventricular organ including receptors for many of the critical circulating energy balance signals such as adiponectin, apelin, endocannabinoids, leptin, insulin and peptide YY. This transcriptome analysis also identified SFO transcripts, the expressions of which are significantly changed by either 72 h dehydration, or 48 h starvation, compared to fed and euhydrated controls. Expression and potential roles for many of these targets are yet to be confirmed and elucidated. Subsequent validation of data for adiponectin and leptin receptors confirmed that receptors for both are expressed in the SFO, that discrete populations of neurons in this tissue are functionally responsive to these adipokines, and that such responsiveness is regulated by physiological state. Thus, transcriptomic analysis offers great promise for understanding the integrative complexity of these physiological systems, especially with development of technologies allowing description of the entire transcriptome of single, carefully phenotyped, SFO neurons. These data will ultimately elucidate mechanisms through which these uniquely positioned neurons respond to and integrate complex circulating signals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome*
  16. Tan TK, Tan KY, Hari R, Mohamed Yusoff A, Wong GJ, Siow CC, et al.
    Database (Oxford), 2016;2016.
    PMID: 27616775 DOI: 10.1093/database/baw063
    Pangolins (order Pholidota) are the only mammals covered by scales. We have recently sequenced and analyzed the genomes of two critically endangered Asian pangolin species, namely the Malayan pangolin (Manis javanica) and the Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla). These complete genome sequences will serve as reference sequences for future research to address issues of species conservation and to advance knowledge in mammalian biology and evolution. To further facilitate the global research effort in pangolin biology, we developed the Pangolin Genome Database (PGD), as a future hub for hosting pangolin genomic and transcriptomic data and annotations, and with useful analysis tools for the research community. Currently, the PGD provides the reference pangolin genome and transcriptome data, gene sequences and functional information, expressed transcripts, pseudogenes, genomic variations, organ-specific expression data and other useful annotations. We anticipate that the PGD will be an invaluable platform for researchers who are interested in pangolin and mammalian research. We will continue updating this hub by including more data, annotation and analysis tools particularly from our research consortium.Database URL: http://pangolin-genome.um.edu.my.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome/physiology
  17. Muhammad Aliff M, Muhammad Shazwan S, Nur Fariha MM, Hayati AR, Nur Syahrina AR, Maizatul Azma M, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2016 Dec;38(3):285-294.
    PMID: 28028299 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a multisystem disease that may present as venous or arterial thrombosis and/or pregnancy complications with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Until today, heterogeneity of pathogenic mechanism fits well with various clinical manifestations. Moreover, previous studies have indicated that genes are differentially expressed between normal and in the disease state. Hence, this study systematically searched the literature on human gene expression that was differentially expressed in Obstetric APS.

    METHODOLOGY: Electronic search was performed until 31st March 2015 through PubMed and Embase databases; where the following Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms were used and they had been specified as the primary focus of the articles; gene, antiphospholipid, obstetric, and pregnancy in the title or abstract. From 502 studies retrieved from the search, only original publications that had performed gene expression analyses of human placental tissue that reported on differentially expressed gene in pregnancies with Obstetric APS were included. Two reviewers independently scrutinized the titles and the abstracts before examining the eligibility of studies that met the inclusion criteria. For each study; diagnostic criteria for APS, method for analysis, and the gene signature were extracted independently by two reviewers. The genes listed were further analysed with the DAVID and the KEGG pathways.

    RESULTS: Three eligible gene expression studies involving obstetric APS, comprising the datasets on gene expression, were identified. All three studies showed a reduction in transcript expression on PRL, STAT5, TF, DAF, ABCA1, and HBEGF in Obstetric APS. The high enrichment score for functionality in DAVID had been positive regulation of cell proliferation. Meanwhile, pertaining to the KEGG pathway, two pathways were associated with some of the listed genes, which were ErBb signalling pathway and JAK-STAT signalling pathway.

    CONCLUSION: Ultimately, studies on a genetic level have the potential to provide new insights into the regulation and to widen the basis for identification of changes in the mechanism of Obstetric APS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome/genetics*
  18. Chin KCJ, Taylor TD, Hebrard M, Anbalagan K, Dashti MG, Phua KK
    BMC Genomics, 2017 Oct 31;18(1):836.
    PMID: 29089020 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-017-4212-6
    BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever is an acute systemic infection of humans caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). In chronic carriers, the bacteria survive the harsh environment of the gallbladder by producing biofilm. The phenotype of S. Typhi biofilm cells is significantly different from the free-swimming planktonic cells, and studies have shown that they are associated with antibiotic resistance, immune system evasion, and bacterial persistence. However, the mechanism of this transition and the events leading to biofilm formation are unknown. High throughput sequencing was performed to identify the genes involved in biofilm formation and to postulate the mechanism of action.

    RESULTS: Planktonic S. Typhi cells were cultured using standard nutrient broth whereas biofilm cells were cultured in a stressful environment using high shearing-force and bile to mimic the gallbladder. Sequencing libraries were prepared from S. Typhi planktonic cells and mature biofilm cells using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform, and the transcriptome data obtained were processed using Cufflinks bioinformatics suite of programs to investigate differential gene expression between the two phenotypes. A total of 35 up-regulated and 29 down-regulated genes were identified. The identities of the differentially expressed genes were confirmed using NCBI BLAST and their functions were analyzed. The results showed that the genes associated with metabolic processes and biofilm regulations were down-regulated while those associated with the membrane matrix and antibiotic resistance were highly up-regulated.

    CONCLUSIONS: It is proposed that the biofilm phenotype of S. Typhi allows the bacteria to increase production of the membrane matrix in order to serve as a physical shield and to adhere to surfaces, and enter an energy conservation state in response to the stressful environment. Conversely, the planktonic phenotype allows the bacteria to produce flagella and increase metabolic activity to enable the bacteria to migrate and form new colonies of infection. This data provide a basis for further studies to uncover the mechanism of biofilm formation in S. Typhi and to discover novel genes or pathways associated with the development of the typhoid carrier state.

    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome*
  19. Mazumdar P, Binti Othman R, Mebus K, Ramakrishnan N, Ann Harikrishna J
    Ann Bot, 2017 Nov 28;120(6):893-909.
    PMID: 29155926 DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcx112
    Background and Aims: Studies on codon usage in monocots have focused on grasses, and observed patterns of this taxon were generalized to all monocot species. Here, non-grass monocot species were analysed to investigate the differences between grass and non-grass monocots.

    Methods: First, studies of codon usage in monocots were reviewed. The current information was then extended regarding codon usage, as well as codon-pair context bias, using four completely sequenced non-grass monocot genomes (Musa acuminata, Musa balbisiana, Phoenix dactylifera and Spirodela polyrhiza) for which comparable transcriptome datasets are available. Measurements were taken regarding relative synonymous codon usage, effective number of codons, derived optimal codon and GC content and then the relationships investigated to infer the underlying evolutionary forces.

    Key Results: The research identified optimal codons, rare codons and preferred codon-pair context in the non-grass monocot species studied. In contrast to the bimodal distribution of GC3 (GC content in third codon position) in grasses, non-grass monocots showed a unimodal distribution. Disproportionate use of G and C (and of A and T) in two- and four-codon amino acids detected in the analysis rules out the mutational bias hypothesis as an explanation of genomic variation in GC content. There was found to be a positive relationship between CAI (codon adaptation index; predicts the level of expression of a gene) and GC3. In addition, a strong correlation was observed between coding and genomic GC content and negative correlation of GC3 with gene length, indicating a strong impact of GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) in shaping codon usage and nucleotide composition in non-grass monocots.

    Conclusion: Optimal codons in these non-grass monocots show a preference for G/C in the third codon position. These results support the concept that codon usage and nucleotide composition in non-grass monocots are mainly driven by gBGC.

    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome*
  20. Ilias IA, Negishi K, Yasue K, Jomura N, Morohashi K, Baharum SN, et al.
    J Plant Res, 2019 Mar;132(2):159-172.
    PMID: 30341720 DOI: 10.1007/s10265-018-1067-0
    Expansin is a non-enzymatic protein which plays a pivotal role in cell wall loosening by inducing stress relaxation and extension in the plant cell wall. Previous studies on Arabidopsis, Petunia × hybrida, and tomato demonstrated that the suppression of expansin gene expression reduced plant growth but expansin overexpression does not necessarily promotes growth. In this study, both expansin gene suppression and overexpression in dark-grown transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings resulted in reduced hypocotyl length at late growth stages with a more pronounced effect for the overexpression. This defect in hypocotyl elongation raises questions about the molecular effect of expansin gene manipulation. RNA-seq analysis of the transcriptomic changes between day 3 and day 5 seedlings for both transgenic lines found numerous differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including transcription factors and hormone-related genes involved in different aspects of cell wall development. These DEGs imply that the observed hypocotyl growth retardation is a consequence of the concerted effect of regulatory factors and multiple cell-wall related genes, which are important for cell wall remodelling during rapid hypocotyl elongation. This is further supported by co-expression analysis through network-centric approach of differential network cluster analysis. This first transcriptome-wide study of expansin manipulation explains why the effect of expansin overexpression is greater than suppression and provides insights into the dynamic nature of molecular regulation during etiolation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcriptome*
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