DATA DESCRIPTION: The transcriptome of trunk tissues from healthy A. malaccensis, and naturally and artificially induced trees were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 4000 platform which resulted in a total of 38.4 Gb clean reads with Q30 rate of at least 91%. The transcriptome consists of 85,986 unigenes containing 1305 bases on average which were annotated against several databases. From this, 44,654 unigenes were mapped to 290 metabolic pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. These transcriptome data represent considerable contribution towards Aquilaria transcriptome data and enhance current knowledge in comprehending the molecular mechanisms underlying agarwood formation in Aquilaria spp.
RESULTS: The gene expression profile of SUB in the adult sheep was not affected by the pre- or early postnatal nutrition history. In PER, 993 and 186 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in LOW versus HIGH and NORM, respectively, but no DEG was found between HIGH and NORM. DEGs identified in the mismatched pre- and postnatal nutrition groups LOW-HCHF (101) and HIGH-HCHF (192) were largely downregulated compared to NORM-CONV. Out of 831 DEGs, 595 and 236 were up- and downregulated in HCHF versus CONV, respectively. The functional enrichment analyses revealed that transmembrane (ion) transport activities, motor activities related to cytoskeletal and spermatozoa function (microtubules and the cytoskeletal motor protein, dynein), and responsiveness to the (micro) environmental extracellular conditions, including endocrine and nervous stimuli were enriched in the DEGs of LOW versus HIGH and NORM. We confirmed that mismatched pre- and postnatal feeding was associated with long-term programming of adipose tissue remodeling and immunity-related pathways. In agreement with phenotypic measurements, early postnatal HCHF feeding targeted pathways involved in kidney cell differentiation, and mismatched LOW-HCHF sheep had specific impairments in cholesterol metabolism pathways.
CONCLUSIONS: Both pre- and postnatal malnutrition differentially programmed (patho-) physiological pathways with implications for adipose functional development associated with metabolic dysfunctions, and PER was a major target.
METHODS: This review was performed following the PRISMA guidelines. A systematic search of the study was conducted by retrieving articles from the electronic databases PubMed and Web of Science to identify articles focussed on gene expression and approaches for osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation.
RESULTS: Six articles were included in this review; there were original articles of in vitro human stem cell differentiation into osteoblasts and osteoclasts that involved gene expression profiling. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was the most used technique for gene expression to detect differentiated human osteoblasts and osteoclasts. A total of 16 genes were found to be related to differentiating osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation.
CONCLUSION: Qualitative information of gene expression provided by qPCR could become a standard technique to analyse the differentiation of human stem cells into osteoblasts and osteoclasts rather than evaluating relative gene expression. RUNX2 and CTSK could be applied to detect osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively, while RANKL could be applied to detect both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. This review provides future researchers with a central source of relevant information on the vast variety of gene expression approaches in analysing the differentiation of human osteoblast and osteoclast cells. In addition, these findings should enable researchers to conduct accurately and efficiently studies involving isolated human stem cell differentiation into osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
RESULTS: A set of sequences retrieved from IBD virus-infected chickens that did not map to the chicken reference genome were de novo assembled, clustered and analysed. From six inbred chicken lines, we managed to assemble 10,828 uni-transcripts and screened 618 uni-transcripts which were the most significant sequences to known genes, as determined by BLASTX searches. Based on the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis, 12 commonly upregulated and 18 downregulated uni-genes present in all six inbred lines were identified with false discovery rate of q-value
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