Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 301 in total

  1. Khor YP, Sim BI, Abas F, Lai OM, Wang Y, Nehdi IA, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2019 Dec;99(15):6989-6997.
    PMID: 31414493 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.9989
    BACKGROUND: Recycled oil has emerged as a significant food safety issue and poses a major threat to public health. To date, very limited studies have been conducted aiming to detect the adulteration of used and recycled palm olein in refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein (RBDPO). In the present study, oil samples that underwent controlled heating and deep-frying studies were refined using the common oil refining procedure to simulate the production of recycled oil. Polymerized triacylglycerol (PTG), oxidized monomeric triacylglycerols (oxTAGs), such as epoxy, keto and hydroxy acids, and caprylic acid have been proposed as potential indicators for tracking the adulteration of recycled oil.

    RESULTS: For PTG, triacylglycerol oligomers and dimers showed a significant increase (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/chemistry*
  2. Norizzah AR, Nur Azimah K, Zaliha O
    Food Res Int, 2018 04;106:982-991.
    PMID: 29580013 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2018.02.001
    Interesterification reaction involves rearrangement of the fatty acid radicals on the glycerol backbone, either randomly (chemical interesterification) or regioselectivity (enzymatic interesterification). Refined, bleached and deodourised palm oil (RBDPO) and palm kernel oil (RBDPKO) were blended in ratios from 25:75 to 75:25 (wt/wt). All blends were subjected to enzymatic (EI) and chemical interesterification (CI) using Lipozyme TL IM (4% w/w) and sodium methoxide (0.2% m/m) as the catalysts, respectively. The effect of EI and CI on the triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour, polymorphism, crystal morphology and crystallisation kinetics were studied. The aim of this research is to characterise the nature of crystals in food product for certain desired structure. The crystallisation behaviour discussed in this study involves microstructure (PLM), polymorphism (XRD), thermal properties and crystallisation kinetics by DSC. The alteration in TAG composition was greater after CI as compared to EI with the reduction of LaLaLa (from 11.00% to 5.15%) and POO (from 14.28% to 4.87%). The DSC complete melting and crystallisation temperature of blend with 75% PO increased after CI, from 39.58 °C to 41.67 °C and from -30.84 °C to -28.33 °C, respectively. EI contributed to finer crystals than CI. However, the β' and β polymorph mixture and crystallisation kinetics (n = 2) of PO-PKO blends did not change after CI and EI. The knowledge on controlling crystallisation of RBDPO and RBDPKO blends is vital for proper processing condition like margarine production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/analysis; Triglycerides/chemistry
  3. Tan CP, Man YC
    Phytochem Anal, 2002 May-Jun;13(3):129-41.
    PMID: 12099103
    The melting curves of 11 vegetable oils have been characterised. Vegetable oil samples that were cooled at a constant rate (5 degrees C/min) from the melt showed between one and seven melting endotherms upon heating at four different heating rates (1, 5, 10 and 20 degrees C/min) in a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles and iodine value analyses were used to complement the DSC data. Generally, the melting transition temperature shifted to higher values with increased rates of heating. The breadth of the melting endotherm and the area under the melting peak also increased with increasing heating rate. Although the number of endothermic peaks was dependent on heating rate, the melting curves of the oil samples were not straightforward in that there was no correlation between the number of endothermic peaks and heating rates. Multiple melting behaviour in DSC experiments with different heating rates could be explained by: (1) the melting of TAG populations with different melting points; and (2) TAG crystal reorganisation effects. On the basis of the corollary results obtained, vegetable oils and fats may be distinguished from their offset-temperature (Toff) values in the DSC melting curves. The results showed that Toff values of all oil samples were significantly (p < 0.01) different in the melting curves scanned at four different scanning rates. These calorimetric results indicate that DSC is a valuable technique for studying vegetable oils.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/chemistry
  4. Che Man YB, Tan CP
    Phytochem Anal, 2002 May-Jun;13(3):142-51.
    PMID: 12099104
    The effects of scanning rates (1, 5, 10 and 20 degrees C/min) on the DSC cooling profiles of 11 vegetable oils have been determined in order to monitor peak transition temperatures, onset temperatures and crystallisation enthalpies. Triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles and iodine value analyses were used to complement the DSC data. The melted samples exhibited complicated crystallising exotherms. As the cooling rate increased, the crystallisation temperature decreased and the breadth of the crystallisation exotherm on cooling from the melt increased. In addition, the intensity of the exothermic peak increased somewhat when the cooling rate was increased. At slow cooling rates, TAG had more time to interact. It is conceivable that, at a low cooling rate (1 degree C/min), a prominent exotherm would be observed on crystallisation of vegetable oils and fats. The occurrence of one exotherm upon cooling indicated the co-crystallisation of the TAG upon slow cooling. On the basis of the corollary results obtained, vegetable oils may be differentiated by their onset temperature (Ton) values in the DSC cooling curves. Generally, there was a shift of Ton toward lower values with increasing cooling rates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/chemistry
  5. Lee YY, Tang TK, Lai OM
    J Food Sci, 2012 Aug;77(8):R137-44.
    PMID: 22748075 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02793.x
    Medium- and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT) is a modified lipid containing medium- chain (C6-C12) and long-chain fatty acids (C14-C24) in the same triacylglycerol (TAG) molecule. It can be produced either through enzymatic (with 1,3 specific or nonspecific enzyme) or chemical methods. The specialty of this structured lipid is that it is metabolized differently compared to conventional fats and oils, which can lead to a reduction of fat accumulation in the body. Therefore, it can be used for obesity management. It also contains nutritional properties that can be used to treat metabolic problems. This review will discuss on the health benefits of MLCT, its production methods especially via enzymatic processes and its applications in food industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/chemical synthesis*; Triglycerides/pharmacology*; Triglycerides/chemistry*
  6. Dollah S, Abdulkarim SM, Ahmad SH, Khoramnia A, Mohd Ghazali H
    J Sci Food Agric, 2016 Aug;96(10):3321-33.
    PMID: 26514240 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7510
    High oleic acid Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) has been rarely applied in food products due to the low melting point and lack of plasticity. Enzymatic interesterification (EIE) of MoO with palm stearin (PS) and palm kernel oil (PKO) could yield harder fat stocks that may impart desirable nutritional and physical properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides
  7. Abdulkarim, S.M., Lai, O.M., Muhammad, S.K.S., Long, K., Ghazali, H.M.
    Solvent-extracted Moringa oleifera seed oil was transesterified using immobilized lipase (Lipozyme IM 60) (Novozymes Bagsvaerd Denmark) at 1% (w/w) concentration, shaken at 60oC and 200 rpm for up to 24h. After transesterification, the oil was fractionated with acetone at -18oC and without acetone at 10oC to obtain two fractions, stearin and olein fractions. Incubation of the transesterified oil at 10oC for 24 h resulted in the formation of fat crystals, which settled at the bottom of the flask in sample transesterified for 24 h, while the control (0 h) sample became rather viscous with fat crystals in suspension. Transesterification resulted in a change in the triacylglycerol (TAG) profile of the oil, which in turn affected its solid fat content (SFC) and thermal behavior. The SFC value at 0oC after 24 h of reaction was 10.35% and significantly (P
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides
  8. Arifin, N., Cheong, L.Z., Koh, S.P., Long, K., Tan, C.P., Yusoff, M.S.A., et al.
    ASM Science Journal, 2010;4(2):113-122.
    Several binary and ternary medium- and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT)-enriched margarine formulations were examined for their solid fat content, heating profile, polymorphism and textural properties. MLCT feedstock was produced through enzymatic esterification of capric and stearic acids with glycerol. The binary formulations were produced by mixing MLCT feedstock blend (40%–90%) and palm olein (10%–60%) with 10% increments (w/w). Solid fat profiles of commercial margarines were used as a reference to determine the suitability of the formulations for margarine production. The solid fat content of the binary formulations of MO 82 and MO 91 (M, MLCT, O, palm olein) were similar to the commercial margarines at 25°C which met the basic requirement for efficient dough consistency. Ternary formulations using reduced MLCT feedstock blend proportion (from 80%–90% to 60%–70%) were also developed. The reduction of MLCT feedstock blend was
    done as it had the highest production cost (3USD/kg) in comparison to palm olein (0.77USD/kg) and palm stearin (0.7USD/kg). The proportions of 5%–15% of palm stearin were substituted with palm olein in MO 64 and MO 73 (M, MLCT; O, palm olein) formulations with 5% increment (w/w). As a result, MOS 702010 and MOS 603010 (M, MLCT; O, palm olein; S, palm stearin) margarine formulations showed similar SFC % to the commercial margarines at 25ºC. These formulations were subsequently chosen to produce margarines. The onset melting and complete melting points of MLCT-enriched margarine formulations were high (51.04ºC –57.93ºC) due to the presence of a high amount of long chain saturated fatty acids. Most of the formulations showed β΄- crystals. MOS 702010 was selected as the best formulation due to values for textural parameters comparable (P
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides
  9. Tan KT, Norhamidi Muhamad, Muchtar A, Abu Bakar Sulong, Neo MC
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:653-658.
    Metallic foams are a new class of materials that have a great potential to be used in various functional and structural applications. Due to their competitive price compared to aluminium, metallic foams are anticipated to become an alternative material for light-weight structures. In this study, stainless steel foams are fabricated using a powder space holder method. The materials used include stainless steel powder, a novel space holder glycine and binders consisting of palm stearin and of polyethylene (PE). The stainless steel foams are sintered at 1100o C, 1200o C and 1300o C with sintering times of 1, 2 and 3 h, respectively, to investigate the effects of the sintering parameters on the compressive yield strength of the stainless steel foams. The results showed that all of the stainless steel foams produced exhibit the general behaviours of metal foams. The sintering time is the most significant parameter that influences the compressive yield strength of stainless steel foams. Increasing the sintering temperature and sintering time will increase the compressive yield strength. The interaction between the sintering temperature and sintering time is found to be not statistically significant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides
  10. Minh HV, Tien HA, Sinh CT, Thang DC, Chen CH, Tay JC, et al.
    J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich), 2021 03;23(3):529-537.
    PMID: 33415834 DOI: 10.1111/jch.14155
    Insulin resistance (IR), a metabolic risk factor, is linked to the pathogenetic mechanism of primary hypertension. Detecting IR in the patients with hypertension will help to predict and stratify the added cardiovascular risk, institute appropriate IR management, and manage hypertension optimally. There are many methods for assessing IR, each with distinct advantages and disadvantages. The euglycemic insulin clamp and intravenous glucose tolerance test, gold standards for measuring IR, are used in research but not in clinical practice. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR), a method for assessing β-cell function and IR, is frequently applied presently, particularly in Asia. Besides, the triglyceride-glucose index (TyG) first published by South American authors showed a good correlation with the insulin clamp technique and HOMA-IR index. This simple, convenient, and low-cost TyG index is of research interest in many countries in Asia and can be used to screen for IR in the Asian hypertensive community.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides
  11. Anuar NFSK, Wahab RA, Huyop F, Amran SI, Hamid AAA, Halim KBA, et al.
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2021 Apr;39(6):2079-2091.
    PMID: 32174260 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2020.1743364
    We previously reported on a mutant lipase KV1 (Mut-LipKV1) from Acinetobacter haemolyticus which optimal pH was raised from 8.0 to 11.0 after triple substitutions of surface aspartic acid (Asp) with lysine (Lys). Herein, this study further examined the Mut-LipKV1 by molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and molecular mechanics-Poisson Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) calculations to explore the structural requirements that participated in the effective binding of tributyrin and its catalytic triad (Ser165, Asp259 and His289) and identify detailed changes that occurred post mutation. Mut-LipKV1 bound favorably with tributyrin (-4.1 kcal/mol) and formed a single hydrogen bond with His289, at pH 9.0. Despite the incongruent docking analysis data, results of MD simulations showed configurations of both the tributyrin-Mut-LipKV1 (RMSD 0.3 nm; RMSF 0.05 - 0.3 nm) and the tributyrin-wildtype lipase KV1 (tributyrin-LipKV1) complexes (RMSD 0.35 nm; RMSF 0.05 - 0.4 nm) being comparably stable at pH 8.0. MM-PBSA analysis indicated that van der Waals interactions made the most contribution during the molecular binding process, with the Mut-LipKV1-tributyrin complex (-44.04 kcal/mol) showing relatively lower binding energy than LipKV1-tributyrin (-43.83 kcal/mol), at pH 12.0. All tributyrin-Mut-LipKV1 complexes displayed improved binding free energies over a broader pH range from 8.0 - 12.0, as compared to LipKV1-tributyrin. Future empirical works are thus, important to validate the improved alkaline-stability of Mut-LipKV1. In a nutshell, our research offered a considerable insight for further improving the alkaline tolerance of lipases.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides
  12. Mohammed IA, Abd Khadir NK, Jaffar Al-Mulla EA
    J Oleo Sci, 2014;63(2):193-200.
    PMID: 24420063
    New polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites were prepared from a dispersion of 0 - 5% montmorillonite (MMT) clay with isocyanate and soya oil polyol that was synthesized via transesterification of triglycerides to reduce petroleum dependence. FT-IR spectra indicate the presence of hydrogen bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix, whereas the exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Optical microscopy, mechanical and thermal analyses were done to investigate significant improvement of the nanocomposites. The results showed PU-3% nanoclay (NC) showed optimum results in mechanical properties such as tensile and flexural strength but the lowest in impact strength.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/chemistry
  13. Marikkar JM, Ghazali HM, Long K
    J Oleo Sci, 2010;59(1):7-14.
    PMID: 20032594
    This study was to characterize the seed fat from Madhuca longifolia known as Mee fat and its solid and liquid fractions with the objective of distinguishing them. A sample of Mee fat was partitioned into solid and liquid fractions using acetone as the solvent medium. The isolated fractions were compared to the native Mee fat sample with respect to various physico-chemical parameters using standard chemical methods as well as instrumental techniques such as, gas liquid chromatography (GLC), reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Basic analyses indicated that there were wide variations between the native sample and its fractions with respect to iodine value (IV), and slip melting point (SMP). The cloud point (CP) of the liquid fraction was found to be 10.5 degrees C. Fatty acid compositional analyses showed that the proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA) such as palmitic and stearic went up in the high-melting fraction (HMF) while in low-melting fraction (LMF) the proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) such as oleic and lenoleic increased. According to the HPLC analyses, Mee fat had a tiacyl glycerol (TAG) sequence similar to that of palm oil. After fractionation, the solid and liquid fractions obtained were found to have TAG profiles very much different from the native sample. Thermal analyses by DSC showed that Mee fat had two-widely separated high and low melting thermal transitions, a feature which was beneficial for the effective separation of solid and liquid fractions. The thermal profiles displayed by the fractions were clearly distinguishable from that of the native sample.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/chemistry*
  14. Lo SK, Cheong LZ, Arifin N, Tan CP, Long K, Yusoff MS, et al.
    J Agric Food Chem, 2007 Jul 11;55(14):5595-603.
    PMID: 17571899
    Diacylglycerol (DAG) and triacylglycerol (TAG) as responses on optimization of DAG production using a dual response approach of response surface methodology were investigated. This approach takes the molecular equilibrium of DAG into account and allows for the optimization of reaction conditions to achieve maximum DAG and minimum TAG yields. The esterification reaction was optimized with four factors using a central composite rotatable design. The following optimized conditions yielded 48 wt % DAG and 14 wt % TAG: reaction temperature of 66.29 degrees C, enzyme dosage of 4 wt %, fatty acid/glycerol molar ratio of 2.14, and reaction time of 4.14 h. Similar results were achieved when the process was scaled up to a 10 kg production in a pilot packed-bed enzyme reactor. Lipozyme RM IM did not show any significant activity losses or changes in fatty acid selectivity on DAG synthesis during the 10 pilot productions. However, lipozyme RM IM displayed higher selectivity toward the production of oleic acid-enriched DAG. The purity of DAG oil after purification was 92 wt %.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/biosynthesis*
  15. Ali A, Selamat J, Man YB, Suria AM
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2001 May;52(3):251-61.
    PMID: 11400474
    The characterization and fat migration of palm kernel stearin (PKS) and desiccated coconut, used as base filling centre in dark chocolate were studied. C36 and C38 triglycerides of PKS decreased by 11% and 9.6% respectively, whereas C32 and C34 increased by 97% and 48% respectively. The change in the triglycerides composition of PKS shift the melting point of PKS from 33.2 to 31.4 degrees C. Solid fat content (SFC) of PK reduced by 40% at 30 degrees C. The rate of fat migration was very slow at 18 degrees C storage compared to 30 degrees C. The rate of change of C36 in the chocolate layer was 0.1% week-1 and 1.2% week-1 at 18 and 30 degrees C respectively. Chocolate stored at 18 degrees C showed post hardening during storage period and withstood bloom during the storage period, whereas that stored at 30 degrees C became soft and bloomed faster after 3 weeks of storage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/chemistry
  16. Ng TK
    Med J Malaysia, 1993 Mar;48(1):12-6.
    PMID: 8341167
    Postprandial changes in plasma total cholesterol (TC) are minimal and there is essentially no difference between fasting vs random TC concentrations, as reflected in the small diurnal coefficient of variation (CV) for TC of 2.5%. Similarly, a cholesterol-rich meal within the last 24 hours lacked an impact on plasma TC. Thus, random specimens are acceptable in blood cholesterol screening. The intraindividual biological CV (CVb) for plasma TC as measured over a long period was estimated from the data of several published studies to be 6.0%, which, when combined with a probable analytical CV (CVa) of 5% during screening, gave a total intraindividual CV (CVt) of about 8% for the single cholesterol assay. There is consensus that 'high TC values' acquired during screening should be confirmed under the conventional laboratory setting capable of CVa of 3% or less.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/blood
  17. Ping BTY, Aziz HA, Idris Z
    J Oleo Sci, 2018;67(3):265-272.
    PMID: 29491321 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess17164
    High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) methods via evaporative light scattering (ELS) and refractive index (RI) detectors are used by the local palm oil industry to monitor the TAG profiles of palm oil and its fractions. The quantitation method used is based on area normalization of the TAG components and expressed as percentage area. Although not frequently used, peak-area ratios based on TAG profiles are a possible qualitative method for characterizing the TAG of palm oil and its fractions. This paper aims to compare these two detectors in terms of peak-area ratio, percentage peak area composition, and TAG elution profiles. The triacylglycerol (TAG) composition for palm oil and its fractions were analysed under similar HPLC conditions i.e. mobile phase and column. However, different sample concentrations were used for the detectors while remaining within the linearity limits of the detectors. These concentrations also gave a good baseline resolved separation for all the TAGs components. The results of the ELSD method's percentage area composition for the TAGs of palm oil and its fractions differed from those of RID. This indicates an unequal response of TAGs for palm oil and its fractions using the ELSD, also affecting the peak area ratios. They were found not to be equivalent to those obtained using the HPLC-RID. The ELSD method showed a better baseline separation for the TAGs components, with a more stable baseline as compared with the corresponding HPLC-RID. In conclusion, the percentage area compositions and peak-area ratios for palm oil and its fractions as derived from HPLC-ELSD and RID were not equivalent due to different responses of TAG components to the ELSD detector. The HPLC-RID has a better accuracy for percentage area composition and peak-area ratio because the TAG components response equally to the detector.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/analysis*
  18. Zaliha O, Elina H, Sivaruby K, Norizzah AR, Marangoni AG
    J Oleo Sci, 2018 Jun 01;67(6):737-744.
    PMID: 29760328 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess17168
    The in situ polymorphic forms and thermal transitions of refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO), palm stearin (RBDPS) and palm kernel oil (RBDPKO) were investigated using coupled X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results indicated that the DSC onset crystallisation temperature of RBDPO was at 22.6°C, with a single reflection at 4.2Å started to appear from 23.4 to 17.1°C, and were followed by two prominent exothermic peaks at 20.1°C and 8.5°C respectively. Further cooling to -40°C leads to the further formation of a β'polymorph. Upon heating, a of β'→βtransformation was observed between 32.1 to 40.8°C, before the sample was completely melted at 43.0°C. The crystallization onset temperature of RBDPS was 44.1°C, with the appearance of the α polymorph at the same temperature as the appearance of the first sharp DSC exothermic peak. This quickly changed from α→β´ in the range 25 to 21.7°C, along with the formation of a small β peak at -40°C. Upon heating, a small XRD peak for the β polymorph was observed between 32.2 to 36.0°C, becoming a mixture of (β´+ β) between 44.0 to 52.5°C. Only the β polymorph survived further heating to 59.8°C. For RBDPKO, the crystallization onset temperature was 11.6°C, with the formation of a single sharp exothermic peak at 6.5°C corresponding to the β' polymorphic form until the temperature reached -40°C. No transformation of the polymorphic form was observed during the melting process of RBDPKO, before being completely melted at 33.2°C. This work has demonstrated the detailed dynamics of polymorphic transformations of PKO and PS, two commercially important hardstocks used widely by industry and will contribute to a greater understanding of their crystallization and melting dynamics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/chemistry*
  19. Lian W, Wang W, Tan CP, Wang J, Wang Y
    Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 2019 Feb;42(2):321-329.
    PMID: 30421172 DOI: 10.1007/s00449-018-2036-7
    LML-type structured lipids are one type of medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols. LML was synthesized using immobilized Talaromyces thermophilus lipase (TTL)-catalyzed interesterification of tricaprylin and ethyl linoleate. The resin AB-8 was chosen, and the lipase/support ratio was determined to be 60 mg/g. Subsequently, the immobilized TTL with strict sn-1,3 regiospecificity was applied to synthesize LML. Under the optimized conditions (60 °C, reaction time 6 h, enzyme loading of 6% of the total weight of substrates, substrate of molar ratio of ethyl linoleate to tricaprylin of 6:1), Triacylglycerols with two long- and one medium-chain FAs (DL-TAG) content as high as 52.86 mol% was obtained. Scale-up reaction further verified the industrial potential of the established process. The final product contained 85.24 mol% DL-TAG of which 97 mol% was LML after purification. The final product obtained with the high LML content would have substantial potential to be used as functional oils.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/chemistry
  20. Naharudin MNB, Yusof A
    Eur J Sport Sci, 2018 Jun;18(5):667-676.
    PMID: 29485326 DOI: 10.1080/17461391.2018.1438520
    Many physically active individuals have undertaken intermittent fasting to reduce their daily caloric intake. However, abstaining from meals for a specific length of time may lead to the acute disturbance of highly carbohydrate-dependent exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of 10 days of intermittent fasting on high-intensity type exercises, Wingate anaerobic (WT) and prolonged high-intensity time-to-exhaustion (HIT) cycling test. Twenty participants were randomised into an intermittent fasting (FAS) and a control group (CON). One day after baseline data collection on Day-0 where participants consumed their recommended daily caloric intake (FAS = 2500 ± 143 kcal day-1; CON = 2492 ± 20 kcal day-1) served over a course of five meals, the FAS group consumed only four meals where 40% was restricted by the omission of lunch (FAS = 1500 ± 55 kcal day-1). This diet was then continued for 10 days. Data on exercise performance and other dependent variables were collected on Day-2, -4, -6, -8 and -10. A reduction in WT power in the FAS group was observed on Day-2 (821.74 ± 66.07 W) compared to Day-0 (847.63 ± 95.94 W) with a moderate effect size (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/blood
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