Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 31 in total

  1. Cheong I
    Family Practitioner, 1987;10(2):7-11.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urinalysis*
  2. Hussain H, Khalid NM, Selamat R, Wan Nazaimoon WM
    Ann Lab Med, 2013 Sep;33(5):319-25.
    PMID: 24003421 DOI: 10.3343/alm.2013.33.5.319
    BACKGROUND: The urinary iodine micromethod (UIMM) is a modification of the conventional method and its performance needs evaluation.
    METHODS: UIMM performance was evaluated using the method validation and 2008 Iodine Deficiency Disorders survey data obtained from four urinary iodine (UI) laboratories. Method acceptability tests and Sigma quality metrics were determined using total allowable errors (TEas) set by two external quality assurance (EQA) providers.
    RESULTS: UIMM obeyed various method acceptability test criteria with some discrepancies at low concentrations. Method validation data calculated against the UI Quality Program (TUIQP) TEas showed that the Sigma metrics were at 2.75, 1.80, and 3.80 for 51±15.50 µg/L, 108±32.40 µg/L, and 149±38.60 µg/L UI, respectively. External quality control (EQC) data showed that the performance of the laboratories was within Sigma metrics of 0.85-1.12, 1.57-4.36, and 1.46-4.98 at 46.91±7.05 µg/L, 135.14±13.53 µg/L, and 238.58±17.90 µg/L, respectively. No laboratory showed a calculated total error (TEcalc)
    Matched MeSH terms: Urinalysis/standards*
  3. Singh GK, Balzer BW, Desai R, Jimenez M, Steinbeck KS, Handelsman DJ
    Ann. Clin. Biochem., 2015 Nov;52(Pt 6):665-71.
    PMID: 25780247 DOI: 10.1177/0004563215580385
    Urinary hormone concentrations are often adjusted to correct for hydration status. We aimed to determine whether first morning void urine hormones in growing adolescents require adjustments and, if so, whether urinary creatinine or specific gravity are better adjustments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urinalysis
  4. Gill, Jesjeet Singh, Ahmad Hatim Sulaiman, Mohd Hussain Habil
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2007;8(2):64-70.
    Objectives: To determine the best possible programme that suits our local setting, to determine the average dose required, and to determine possible problems that can arise from implementing such a programme locally and how best to address them. Methods: The inclusion criteria were those above 18, a positive urine test, the presence of a supportive carer and willing to engage in the programme. Methadone was initiated and observations relating to dose, adverse events, relationship with carers, work performance, crime and high risk behaviours were monitored for 18 weeks. Results: Two thirds of the 45 subjects completed the trial over the 18 week period. No significant adverse events occurred and improvement in relationship with carers and work performance were noted with reduction in crime and high risk behaviours. Conclusion: Methadone is a safe and effective drug that can be used in the local Malaysian setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urinalysis
  5. Siti Yazmin Zahari Sham, Subashini C. Thambiah, Intan Nureslyna Samsudin
    Free light chains (FLCs) are tumour markers of monoclonal gammopathies. Detection of urinary FLC or also known as Bence-Jones protein through urinary protein and its immunofixation electrophoreses (UPE and uIFE, respectively) have been considered the gold standard for its biochemical diagnosis. This is mainly due to their superior detection limits compared to their counterpart investigations in serum. However, urinalysis is limited in many ways. The emergence of serum FLC assay with markedly improved detection limit circumvents many of these problems and has gained much importance in biochemical investigations of monoclonal gammopathies. Nevertheless, they are not without limitations. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of serum and urinary FLC assays.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urinalysis
  6. Sulaiman SH, Jamaluddin R, Sabran MR
    Nutrients, 2018 Apr 07;10(4).
    PMID: 29642443 DOI: 10.3390/nu10040460
    Aflatoxin is a food contaminant and its exposure through the diet is frequent and ubiquitous. A long-term dietary aflatoxin exposure has been linked to the development of liver cancer in populations with high prevalence of aflatoxin contamination in foods. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the association between urinary aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁), a biomarker of aflatoxin exposure, with the dietary intake among adults in Hulu Langat district, Selangor, Malaysia. Certain food products have higher potential for aflatoxin contamination and these were listed in a Food Frequency Questionnaire, which was given to all study participants. This allowed us to record consumption rates for each food product listed. Concomitantly, urine samples were collected, from adults in selected areas in Hulu Langat district, for the measurement of AFM₁ levels using an ELISA kit. Of the 444 urine samples collected and tested, 199 were positive for AFM₁, with 37 of them exceeding the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.64 ng/mL. Cereal products showed the highest consumption level among all food groups, with an average intake of 512.54 g per day. Chi-square analysis showed that consumption of eggs (X² = 4.77, p = 0.03) and dairy products (X² = 19.36, p < 0.01) had significant associations with urinary AFM₁ but both food groups were having a phi and Cramer's V value that less than 0.3, which indicated that the association between these food groups' consumption and AFM₁ level in urine was weak.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urinalysis/methods
  7. Othman S, Chia YC, Ng CJ
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2003;2(4):206-212.
    Aim: To determine the accuracy of urinalysis in the detection of urinary tract infection (UTI) in symptomatic patients at primary care level. Methods: A cross sectional study was undertaken on 100 patients with symptoms of UTI presenting at the Primary Care Clinic of University Malaya Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during the months of August to November 1999. Their urine samples were tested simultaneously using urine dipstick, urine microscopy and urine culture. Urine culture was used as the gold standard and UTI was diagnosed when the urine culture showed a bacteria count of >= 105 organisms per mL. The sensitivity and specificity of each test was calculated. Results: The prevalence of UTI was 25% in symptomatic patients. The urine dipstick for leukocyte esterase, nitrite and red blood cell had sensitivities of 76, 56 and 76%, respectively. Their specificities were 60, 81 and 61%, respectively. Urine microscopy for leukocytes, red blood cells and bacterial count had sensitivities of 80, 52 and 84%, while their specificities were 76, 80 and 54%, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of UTI in the present study was low despite reported symptoms of UTI. Urinalysis is needed to support the diagnosis of UTI. In the present study, while there is accuracy in the urinalysis (as the sensitivities and specificities of various tests are comparable with other studies); lack of precision in each test because of the wide range of 95% confidence interval make it less reliable. Caution should be made in interpreting each test.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urinalysis
  8. Tan, W.X., Chan, S.M., Khor, K.H.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2015;27(1):16-19.
    Old intact male dogs are often predisposed to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Both hypertrophy and hyperplasia of prostate
    gland occur due to hormonal influences. Clinical signs such as haematuria, stranguria and tenesmus are often associated with benign
    prostatic hyperplasia. A seven year-old local breed intact male dog was presented with a primary complaint of haematuria and
    stranguria. Diagnostic work-up conducted inclusive of complete blood count, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, abdominal radiograph,
    cystourethrography and abdominal ultrasonography. The dog was diagnosed with cystic benign prostatic hyperplasia. Prostatic
    omentalisation and castration were performed in this case.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urinalysis
  9. Phoon, M.H.E., Khor, K.H., Lau, S.F., Saw, M.H.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2015;27(1):20-23.
    A 6-year-old intact Persian cat was presented for the primary complaint of inappetence and weight loss. Irregular surface of
    kidneys was palpated during physical examination. Abdominal radiograph findings were indicative of renomegaly. Ultrasonography
    revealed multiple anaechoic structures within the renal parenchyma. The cortex, medulla and renal pelvis were unable to be
    differentiated. Both radiographic and ultrasonographic findings were suggestive of polycystic kidney disease. Blood test revealed
    normochromic, normocytic anaemia with azotaemia whereas urinalysis findings were hypostenuria and proteinuria, consistent of
    chronic kidney disease due to polycystic kidney. Ultrasound is a useful antemortem diagnostic tool to diagnose polycystic kidney
    disease in cats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urinalysis
  10. Chen IC, Teng G, Chen CJ, Lan TH, Liu HJ
    Front Psychiatry, 2019;10:944.
    PMID: 31998160 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00944
    Background: The intrinsic motivation behind the "need to complete" is more influential than external incentives. We introduced a novel progress-bar tool to motivate the completion of programs designed to treat stimulant and cannabis use disorders. We further examined the effectiveness of the progress bar's scoring approach in forecasting consistently negative urine tests. Methods: This study's participants included 568 patients with stimulant, amphetamine-type, and cannabis use disorders who were undergoing 12-month mandatory treatment programs at Taichung Veterans General Hospital in Taiwan. Patients were given scores of 1, -1, or 0 depending on whether they received negative, positive, or missing urinalysis reports, respectively. The autonomic progress bar generated weekly score totals. At the group level, scorei donated scores from all patients for a given week (i denoted the week). Scorei was standardized to adjusted scorei. We then conducted Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) Model of time-series analyses for the adjusted scorei. Results: A total of 312 patients maintained treatment progress over the 12-month program. The autonomic score calculator totaled the shared achievements of these patients. The coefficients of the lag variables for mean (p), lag variables for residual error term (q), and number of orders for ensuring stationary (d) were estimated at p = 3, d = 4, and q = 7 for the first half of the treatment program, and were estimated at p = 2, d = 2, and q = 3 for the second half. Both models were stationary and tested as fit for prediction (p < 0.05). Sharply raised adjusted scores were predicted during the high-demand treatment phase. Discussion: This study's novel progress-bar tool effectively motivated treatment completion. It was also effective in forecasting continually negative urine tests. The tool's free open-source code makes it easy to implement among many substance-treatment services.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urinalysis
  11. Khor KH, Chin MX
    PMID: 33005676 DOI: 10.5455/javar.2020.g446
    Objective: Annual health screening inclusive of heart workup is recommended for the detection of heart diseases, especially in asymptomatic patients (no clinical signs). This study determined the occurrences of the common heart disease and the risk factors in apparently healthy cats.

    Materials and methods: This prospective study that screened 59 healthy cats and the status of the heart were evaluated based on a combination of findings from physical examination, electrocardiography, blood pressure measurement, routine blood test, urinalysis, and total thyroid level.

    Results: Approximately 40.7% (n = 24/59) of the apparently healthy cats were diagnosed with heart disease hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (62.5%) remains to be the most commonly diagnosed. The mean age was 4.9-year old (age range, 7-month-old to 19-year-old). The prevalence was higher in males (45.0%; n = 17/38) cats, especially the domestic shorthairs (46.0%; n = 11/24). Among the healthy cats with vertebral heart scale (VHS) > 8.0, only 52% (n = 12/23) of them were diagnosed with cardiomyopathy. However, 33% (n = 12/36) of the cats with normal VHS ≤ 7.9 were diagnosed with heart disease. Consistently, all healthy cats with abnormal heart sounds were diagnosed with heart disease. About 31.4% (n = 16/51) of these cats with typical heart sound had cardiomyopathy too.

    Conclusion: The occurrence of cardiomyopathy in apparently healthy cats has no association with the patient's age, sex, and VHS, except for the heart sound. Echocardiography remains the best diagnostic tool, as normal heart size and normal heart sound do not exclude cardiomyopathy in this group of apparently healthy cats.

    Matched MeSH terms: Urinalysis
  12. Makahleh A, Ben-Hander GM, Saad B
    Bioanalysis, 2015;7(6):713-23.
    PMID: 25871588 DOI: 10.4155/bio.14.307
    BACKGROUND: A simple and sensitive hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction with in situ derivatization method was developed for the determination of α-ketoglutaric (α-KG) and pyruvic acids (PA) in small-volume urine samples. 2,4,6-trichloro phenyl hydrazine was used as derivatization agent.
    RESULTS: Under the optimum extraction conditions, enrichment factors of 742 and 400 for α-KG and PA, respectively, were achieved. Calibration curves were linear over the range 1 to 1000 ng/ml (r(2) ≥ 0.998). Detection and quantitation limits were 0.03 and 0.02, and 0.10 and 0.05 ng/ml for α-KG and PA, respectively.
    CONCLUSION: The concentrations in diabetic II and liver cancer samples were significantly lower than those from healthy people, showing their potential as biomarkers for these diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urinalysis/methods*
  13. Hong YH, Dublin N, Razack AH, Mohd MA, Husain R
    Urology, 2010 Jun;75(6):1294-8.
    PMID: 19914693 DOI: 10.1016/j.urology.2009.08.061
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the correlations and agreements between the solute/creatinine ratios from the 24-hour and early morning spot urine samples for metabolic evaluation in stone-formers given the various pitfalls with the 24-hour urinary metabolic evaluation in stone-formers.
    METHODS: 30 urinary stone-formers out of an initial 62 recruited provided a complete 24-hour urine and early morning spot urine samples for metabolic evaluation. Pearson correlation and Bland and Altman Test were used to assess the correlations and agreements.
    RESULTS: Significant correlations were established between the 24-hour urinary solute excretions and the corresponding early morning spot urine solute/creatinine ratios for calcium, magnesium, urate, potassium, oxalate, citrate, and the Differential Gibb's free energy value of calcium oxalate DG(CaOx) values. However, all these solute/creatinine measurements between the 24-hour and early morning spot urine samples were judged to be not within the acceptable limits based on the estimated "limit of agreement" by the Bland and Altman Test of Agreement. Diurnal circadian rhythm and postprandial excretion surge are thought to be responsible for the disagreements.
    CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the early morning spot urine is not suitable to be used interchangeably to replace the 24-hour urine collection in the evaluation of urinary metabolic abnormalities in stone-formers. A good correlation does not translate to an agreement between the 2 measurements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urinalysis/methods
  14. Mohammad M, Mahdy ZA, Omar J, Maan N, Jamil MA
    PMID: 12693594
    A total of 1,661 pregnant women aged between 13 and 45 years were screened for bacteriuria by urine culture. Of the 1,661 culture results, 615 (37%) yielded no growth; 728 (43.8%) yielded no significant growth (presence of <10(5) organisms/ml urine of one or more types of bacteria); 286 (17.2%) yielded mixed growth (presence of >10(5) organisms/ml urine of more than one type of bacteria) and only 32 (1.9%) showed significant growth (presence of >10(5) organisms/ml urine of a single bacterium). Urine microscopy was also conducted. Two hundred and twenty-four (13.5%) specimens had >10 white blood cells/ml urine, of which 66 had >100 white blood cells; 13 were from the significant growth group. Three hundred and seventy-four (22.5%) specimens showed the presence of bacteria, 42 (2.5%) had red blood cells, 370 (22.3%) had epithelial cells, 58 (3.5%) had crystals, and 14 (0.8%) had yeasts. The most common bacterium isolated was Escherichia coli (12; 40%); the others included group B Streptococcus (5; 15%), Klebsiella spp (5; 15%), Diphtheroids (2), and Candida albicans (2). Fifty-two percent of tested strains were sensitive to ampicillin; 24 of 28 strains (85.7%) were sensitive to ciprofloxacin; all 7 strains tested were sensitive to nitrofurantoin and all 20 strains tested were sensitive to cotrimoxazole; 14/20 (70%) and 16/17 (94.1%) were sensitive to cephalexin and cefuroxime respectively. This study shows that asymptomatic bacteriuria does occur in pregnant women, albeit at a very low rate in an urban setting like Cheras. Urine microscopy is not specific and only serves as a guide to bacteriuria. The commonest causative organisms are those from the gastrointestinal tract and vagina. The antibiogram showed that cefuroxime and cephalexin are likely to be effective in treating bacteriuria: ampicillin must be reserved for Gram-negative organisms. For Gram-positive organisms, of which Group B Streptococcus is important, ampicillin is still effective in vitro. Nitrofurantion and cotrimoxazole have excellent activity in vitro and should be considered for therapy. 17.2% of the urine culture yielded mixed growth: likely to indicate that contamination of urine specimens still happens despite the strict instructions given to patients about the collection of a midstream urine specimen. Proper collection, appropriate transport, and the early processing of urine specimens remain essential.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urinalysis/methods
  15. Lee SW, Liong ML, Yuen KH, Leong WS, Khan N, Cheah PY, et al.
    Urol. Int., 2009;82(1):32-7.
    PMID: 19172094 DOI: 10.1159/000176022
    BACKGROUND: Little is known about how primary care physicians (PCPs) in Asia diagnose and manage prostatitis-like symptoms. This study investigated the clinical diagnosis of and care provided for prostatitis-like symptoms by PCPs in a Malaysian population, and compared these findings to reports from other areas.
    METHODS: All members of the Penang Private Medical Practitioners' Society were asked to complete a self-administered survey. Nonresponders were contacted after 3 weeks and received a telephone request after 6 weeks.
    RESULTS: Of the 786 practitioners contacted, 669 considered themselves to be PCPs, including 279 (42%) who responded to the survey. Adult males with prostatitis-like symptoms typically constitute <1% of the patients seen by PCPs. Most PCPs (72%) believe that prostatitis-like symptoms are caused by bacterial infection. 61% of PCPs base their diagnosis of prostatitis-like symptoms on clinical history, a physical examination and dipstick urinalysis. Standard management was to prescribe 1 or 2 courses of antimicrobials.
    CONCLUSIONS: Despite the 8.7% prevalence found in a previous survey in this population, prostatitis remains underdiagnosed in Malaysia. In contrast to many other clinical settings, urologists in Malaysia see a large proportion of newly diagnosed and treatment-naive prostatitis patients, providing an opportunity for clinical diagnostic and treatment studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urinalysis/instrumentation
  16. Amir A, Lee YL
    PMID: 25893056 MyJurnal
    Acute kidney injury following immersion or near-drowning is rarely described and no data from Malaysia have been found. We report a case of acute kidney injury following a near-drowning event. A 20-year-old man who recovered from near-drowning in a swimming pool 5 days earlier presented to our clinic with abdominal pain, anorexia, nausea and polyuria. Dipstick urinalysis showed a trace of blood. The serum creatinine level was 10-fold higher than the normal range. A bedside ultrasound showed features suggestive of acute tubular necrosis. He is then referred to the hospital with the diagnosis of acute kidney injury with the possibility of acute tubular necrosis secondary to near-drowning. We suggest that any patient presenting after immersion or near-drowning to be should assessed for potential acute kidney injury.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urinalysis
  17. Abba Y, Abdullah FF, Daud NH, Shaari RB, Tijjani A, Sadiq MA, et al.
    Open Vet J, 2015;5(1):30-3.
    PMID: 26623360
    A Boer-Kajang cross male goat was presented to the Veterinary Hospital, University Malaysia Kelantan with a history of dysuria, hematuria and restlessness. The goat was intensively managed (confined to the pen) and fed with only palm kernel cake for the last three months. Physical examination revealed that the goat was dull, depressed, having an inflamed penis and prepuce with blood stained urine dripping from the penis. The differential diagnoses were obstructive urolithiasis, urinary tract infection and balanoposthitis. Based on the history, clinical signs, physical examination, urinalysis, ultrasonagraphy and feed analysis, the goat was diagnosed with obstructive urolithiasis and balanoposthitis. Treatment was instituted by amputation of the urethral process and retrograde urohydropulsion to relieve the blockade. Sulfadiazine-trimethoprim (Norodine(®)24) 15mg/kg, I.M; flunixin meglumine 2.2mg/kg, I.M; vitamin B complex 1ml/10kg, I.M and ammonium chloride 300mg/kg orally were administered. The goat responded well to treatment and was recovering well during a follow up visit.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urinalysis
  18. Hamzaini AH, Helmee MN, Masoud S, Suraya A, Nazri MS, Das S
    Clin Ter, 2009;160(6):473-5.
    PMID: 20198290
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Many patients who presented to Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) with signs and symptoms of urolithiasis had mild hydronephrosis with non visualization of calculus on ultrasound examination. These patients underwent an intravenous urogram (IVU) in order to determine the presence of urolithiasis and most of them had normal IVU. The main aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of urinalysis in this group of patients in determining the need for IVU examinations.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospectively the ultrasound, urinalysis and intravenous urography reports of 53 patients were reviewed and evaluated.
    RESULTS: The positive predictive and negative predictive value of urinalysis was found to be 68% and 96.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS; The results indicate that the urinalysis was an excellent negative predictor for IVU. In view of high radiation dose, risk of contrast reaction and contrast induced nephropathy of IVU, we suggest that it should not be performed in patient with non visualization of calculus mild hydronephrosis when the urinalysis is negative for blood.

    Study site: Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM)
    Matched MeSH terms: Urinalysis
  19. Wan Mohamad WM, Mohd Ashari NS, Wan AbHamid WZ
    Objective: We presented a case report, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a Malay boy. Interestingly, this case occurs in a boy, which is not so common because autoimmune disease usually occurs in female. Design: Case report. Methods: We highlighted a case of a boy with SLE who presented with clinical symptoms suggestive of SLE and fulfilled the criteria for SLE diagnosis. Results: The patient was successfully managed with antihypertensive, intravenous cyclophosphamide and oral prednisolone and respond well to the therapy. Conclusion: Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic autoimmune disease which rarely occurs in male. However we reported one such case which fulfilled the criteria for SLE. © 2017 Japan Health Sciences University & Japan International Cultural Exchange Foundation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urinalysis
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