Methodology: A total of 123 patients were recruited into this study, comprising 82 patients who underwent a pterional approach and 41 patients who underwent a supraorbital approach. Computed tomography angiograms, the modified Rankin Scale, and the visual analogue scale were administered at 6 months to look for residual aneurysm, functional outcomes, scar tenderness, and cosmetic satisfaction. Complication data were collected from patients' case notes.
Results: The mean operating time for the pterional group was 226 min, compared to supraorbital group, which was 192 min (P = 0.07). Cosmetic satisfaction was significantly higher (P = 0.001) in the supraorbital group. There was no significant difference between the supraorbital and pterional groups' scar tenderness (P = 0.719), residual aneurysm (P = 0.719), or functional outcomes (P = 0.137), and there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of intra-operative and post-operative complications.
Conclusions: The supraorbital group had better cosmetic outcomes and shorter operating times compared to the pterional group.
METHODS: Data collected from patients with ACS between 2008 and 2009 for a study on cardiac rehabilitation at the Sarawak General Hospital were used for this study. QOL data were obtained using a validated version of the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire at baseline and at 12 months. Health utility scores were calculated using visual analogue scale scores and utility tariffs from Malaysia and the United Kingdom.
RESULTS: Data from 104 subjects from the earlier study was used. The mean age was 56.1 years, with 88.5% being men. The mean hospitalization duration was 6.3 days. The mean utility score was 0.75 at baseline and 0.82 at 12 months. There was a statistically significant improvement in utility from baseline to 12 months based on the Malaysian tariff (P = 0.014) but not with the UK tariff (P = 0.086). The QOL of patients was associated with sex and diagnosis of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that there was a significant improvement in the QOL from baseline to 12 months. Only sex and diagnosis affected the QOL score at baseline because of limited variables available for testing. It also reconfirms the importance of applying the appropriate, country-specific utility tariffs in QOL studies. Despite limitations, the study is useful toward describing QOL among a group of Malaysian patients with ACS.
OBJECTIVE: This 12-week pilot study examines the efficacy of applying low frequency sound wave stimulation (between 16-160 Hz) through both hands and feet on relieving pain and improving functional ability in patients with chronic back pain.
METHODS: Twenty-three participants with chronic shoulder (eleven participants) or low back pain (twelve participants) underwent a 12-week vibration therapy program of three sessions per week. A low frequency sound wave device comprising four piezoelectric vibration-type tactile tranducers enclosed in separate 5-cm diameter circular plates, which generate sinusoidal vibratory stimuli at a frequency of 16-160 Hz, was used in this study. Primary outcome measure was pain sensation measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (P-VAS). The secondary outcome measures were pain-related disability measured using the pain disability index (PDI) and quality of life measured using the SF-12.
RESULTS: At week 12, significant reductions in pain sensation and pain-related disability were observed, with mean reductions of 3.5 points in P-VAS and 13.5 points in the PDI scores. Sixty-five percent of the participants had a reduction of at least 3 points on the P-VAS score, while 52% participants showed a decrease of at least 10 points in the PDI score. Significant improvement was observed in the SF-12 physical composite score but not the mental composite score.
CONCLUSIONS: The preliminary findings showed that passive application of low frequency sound wave stimulation therapy through both hands and feet was effective in alleviating pain and improving functional ability in patients with chronic back pain.
METHODS: A computer-based SG (CBSG) tool was developed using Microsoft® PowerPoint 2007 to value asthma-specific health states in Malaysia. Eight hypothetical health states were considered, including two anchor states (healthy and dead), three chronic (C) states and three temporary (T) states (each numbered 1 through 3, with increasing severity) in addition to the subject's current health state. Twenty adult asthma patients completed the CBSG tool in addition to paper-based Asthma Control Test, three health status measures (EQ-5D, EQ-VAS, and Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (MiniAQLQ)), and VAS utility assessment tool. Patients and interviewers rated the difficulty of the VAS and CBSG tools. Correlations between current health state values derived from the various measures were determined.
RESULTS: The SG and the VAS received similar difficulty ratings. 17 patients completed the CBSG tool within 30 minutes. The mean utilities determined by the CBSG tool for the T1-T3 asthma health states met the expected logical order of 1>2>3, but those for the C1-C3 states did not. Correlation between current health state values derived from the CBSG tool and other measurement tools was poor.
CONCLUSION: The CBSG tool developed for measuring utilities of asthma health states showed acceptable feasibility and overall validity.
METHODS: A total of 271 patients were analysed in a retrospective study utilising archived ultrasound volume datasets. Symptoms of obstructed defecation (straining at stool, incomplete bowel emptying, perineal, vaginal and anal digitation) were ascertained on interview. Postprocessing of stored 3D/4D translabial ultrasound datasets obtained on maximal Valsalva was used to diagnose descent of the rectal ampulla, rectocoele, enterocoele and rectal intussusception at a later date, blinded to all clinical data.
RESULTS: Digitation was reported by 39 % of our population. The position of the rectal ampulla on Valsalva was associated with perineal (p = 0.02) and vaginal (p = 0.02) digitation. The presence of a true rectocoele was significantly associated with perineal (p = 0.04) and anal (p = 0.03) digitation. Rectocoele depth was associated with all three forms of digitation (P = 0.005-0.02). The bother of symptoms of obstructed defecation was strongly associated with digitation (all P
METHODS: The Brunei Malay EQ-5D-5L was developed by culturally adapting two existing Malay versions. A total of 154 Bruneians with T2DM completed the questionnaire in two different points of time with one week apart. Known-groups validity of the utility-based EQ-5D-5L index and visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) was evaluated by comparing subgroups of patients known to differ in health status. Test-retest reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) or Cohen's kappa.
RESULTS: As hypothesized, patients known to have 'better' health had higher EQ-5D-5L index scores than those having 'worse' health in all 7 known-groups comparisons. The hypothesized difference in the EQ-VAS scores was observed in only 4 of the 7 known-groups comparisons. Kappa values ranged from 0.206 to 0.446 for the EQ-5D-5L items; the ICC value for the EQ-5D-5L index and EQ-VAS was 0.626 and 0.521, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The utility-based EQ-5D-5L index appears to be valid and reliable for measuring the health of Brunei patients with T2DM. The validity of the EQ-VAS in Brunei requires further investigation.
METHODS: Data from 87 patients with cervical cancer recruited from a referral hospital in Yogyakarta province, Indonesia, from an earlier study of health-related quality of life were used in this study. The differences among the utility scores derived from the four value sets were determined using the Friedman test. Performance of the psychometric properties of the four value sets versus visual analogue scale (VAS) was assessed. Intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots were used to test the agreement among the utility scores. Spearman ρ correlation coefficients were used to assess convergent validity between utility scores and patients' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. With respect to known-group validity, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to examine the differences in utility according to the stages of cancer.
RESULTS: There was significant difference among utility scores derived from the four value sets, among which the Malaysian value set yielded higher utility than the other three value sets. Utility obtained from the Malaysian value set had more agreements with VAS than the other value sets versus VAS (intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plot tests results). As for the validity, the four value sets showed equivalent psychometric properties as those that resulted from convergent and known-group validity tests.
CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of an Indonesian value set, the Malaysian value set was more preferable to be used compared with the other value sets. Further studies on the development of an Indonesian value set need to be conducted.