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  1. Wong, C.C., Loke, W.P.
    Malays Orthop J, 2007;1(1):1-4.
    MyJurnal
    Percutaneous endoscopic spinal surgery performed in the awake state offers a new paradigm for treatment of symptomatic lumbar disc prolapse. We report the outcome of 23 patients who underwent this procedure. Visual analogue scale for pain improved from 7.3 to 2.1; 19 of the 23 patients achieved good to excellent results according to the MacNab criteria. Patient acceptance of the procedure was 91.3%. All but one patient were discharged from hospital within 24 hours. One patient developed foot drop post-operatively. There was no incidence of dural tear, post-operative infection or worsening of symptoms. We conclude that this is a safe, effective, and well-tolerated procedure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Analog Scale
  2. Goh, E.H., Christopher, C.K.H., Praveen, S., Zulkifli, M.Z.
    MyJurnal
    Management of pain plays an important role during prostate biopsy. Various types of management of pain plays an important role during prostate biopsy. Various types of anaesthetic methods have been used. The present study aimed to compare the efficacy and complication rate between periprostatic lidocaine infiltration and transrectal lidocaine gel in transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. All prostate biopsy patients were included except those with lidocaine, allergy, haemorrhagic diathesis, anticoagulation therapy, the inability to rate a visual analogue scale and inability to obtain consent. They were randomized into two groups. Group 1 received 20ml 2% transrectal lidocaine gel. Group 2 received 5ml 1% lidocaine infiltration for each periprostatic nerve block with 23-gauge spinal needle. After three minutes, prostate biopsy was performed with an 18 gauge 7-inch spring-loaded biopsy gun. Six biopsies were taken for each lobe. Pain during probe insertion, biopsy and immediately after the procedure was assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale. Any complication immediately after procedure, one day or after one week, was recorded. Mean pain score was lower after periprostatic lidocaine infiltration compared to transrectal lidocaine gel (3.1 + 1.9 versus 4.9 + 2.4, p = 0.027). There was no statistically significant difference in the complication rate. Transrectal ultrasound prostate biopsy using periprostatic lidocaine infiltration provides better anaesthesia as compared to the transrectal lidocaine gel application with no significant difference in complication. Thus, the use of periprostatic lidocaine infiltration in TRUS guided prostate biopsy is recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Analog Scale
  3. Koh, P.S., Cha, K.H., Lucy, C., Rampal, S., Yoong, B.K.
    JUMMEC, 2012;15(2):1-7.
    MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND:
    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, although is less invasive than open surgery, is not completely pain free. The use of local anaesthesia to relieve pain following this procedure is a common practice. However, it remains debatable whether a pre- or post-operative drug administration is more effective. Here, we investigated the role of preemptive local anaesthetic infiltration given pre- or post-incisional, in relieving the pain during laparoscopic surgery.

    METHODOLOGY:
    A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 96 patients receiving 0.5% Bupivacaine 100mg. Group A (n=48) received post-incisional skin infiltration whilst Group B (n=48) received pre-incisional infiltration. Incisional (somatic) and intra-abdominal (visceral) pain was assessed using Visual Analog Scale (VAS) at day 0, day 1 and day 7 post-operative days.

    RESULT:
    Baseline characteristics between the two groups were similar. Incisional pain was lower in Group B as compared to Group A at day 0 (P=0.03) and day 1 (P0.05).

    CONCLUSION:
    Administration of pre-incisional local anaesthesia offers better pre-emptive pain relief measure than post-incisional administration by reducing somatic and visceral pain in laparoscopic gall bladder surgery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Analog Scale
  4. Ho, S.E., Loong, S., Fatin Nur Laily R., Wan Nur Aizzati M., Muhammad Firdaus I.Z., Ho, Christopher C.K., et al.
    MyJurnal
    Neck pain presents as a symptom of dull pain or discomfort mainly along the trapezius muscle. Dry needling is an invasive procedure which uses acupuncture needle directed at myofascial trigger points. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of dry needling in managing patients with neck pain. A pre-test-post-test interventional study design was used. Patient education package was provided to 32 respondents who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A 13-item Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) questionnaire was used to assess Rumination, Magnification and Helplessness. Subjective pain intensity was measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). These questionnaires were given before and after the dry needling intervention. The findings reported that respondents scored high in pre-test total PCS score (27.41±13.652). Post-test result revealed a significant improvement in total PCS score (23.06±13.938) (p = 0.000). Post-test VAS score (4.78±1.237) was also significantly better than pre-test (6.47±1.414) (p = 0.000). There was no significant difference in pre-test PCS in terms of marital status (p > 0.05) whereas there was significant difference between marital status and rumination in post-test (Z = -2.303, p = 0.021). There was significant difference between pre-test magnification in terms of respondents’ occupation (p = 0.008) and race (p = 0.035) but no significant difference in post-test. Respondents’ age group showed no significant differences between pre-test and post-test PCS and VAS (p > 0.05). In conclusion, patients who received dry needling showed improvement in pain intensity and catastrophizing towards neck pain.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Analog Scale
  5. Azmi S, Goh A, Fong A, Anchah L
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2015 May;6:80-83.
    PMID: 29698198 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2015.03.015
    OBJECTIVES: This study's objectives were to estimate the quality of life (QOL) of Malaysian patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) during admission and at 12 months, to explore the factors associated with the QOL, and to compare utility scores derived from tariffs from local and foreign populations.

    METHODS: Data collected from patients with ACS between 2008 and 2009 for a study on cardiac rehabilitation at the Sarawak General Hospital were used for this study. QOL data were obtained using a validated version of the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire at baseline and at 12 months. Health utility scores were calculated using visual analogue scale scores and utility tariffs from Malaysia and the United Kingdom.

    RESULTS: Data from 104 subjects from the earlier study was used. The mean age was 56.1 years, with 88.5% being men. The mean hospitalization duration was 6.3 days. The mean utility score was 0.75 at baseline and 0.82 at 12 months. There was a statistically significant improvement in utility from baseline to 12 months based on the Malaysian tariff (P = 0.014) but not with the UK tariff (P = 0.086). The QOL of patients was associated with sex and diagnosis of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that there was a significant improvement in the QOL from baseline to 12 months. Only sex and diagnosis affected the QOL score at baseline because of limited variables available for testing. It also reconfirms the importance of applying the appropriate, country-specific utility tariffs in QOL studies. Despite limitations, the study is useful toward describing QOL among a group of Malaysian patients with ACS.

    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Analog Scale
  6. Lim E, Lim R, Suhaimi A, Chan BT, Wahab AKA
    PMID: 30149436 DOI: 10.3233/BMR-171042
    BACKGROUND: Low frequency sound wave stimulation therapy has become increasingly popular in the rehabilitation fields, due to its ease, less fatiguing and time efficient application.

    OBJECTIVE: This 12-week pilot study examines the efficacy of applying low frequency sound wave stimulation (between 16-160 Hz) through both hands and feet on relieving pain and improving functional ability in patients with chronic back pain.

    METHODS: Twenty-three participants with chronic shoulder (eleven participants) or low back pain (twelve participants) underwent a 12-week vibration therapy program of three sessions per week. A low frequency sound wave device comprising four piezoelectric vibration-type tactile tranducers enclosed in separate 5-cm diameter circular plates, which generate sinusoidal vibratory stimuli at a frequency of 16-160 Hz, was used in this study. Primary outcome measure was pain sensation measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (P-VAS). The secondary outcome measures were pain-related disability measured using the pain disability index (PDI) and quality of life measured using the SF-12.

    RESULTS: At week 12, significant reductions in pain sensation and pain-related disability were observed, with mean reductions of 3.5 points in P-VAS and 13.5 points in the PDI scores. Sixty-five percent of the participants had a reduction of at least 3 points on the P-VAS score, while 52% participants showed a decrease of at least 10 points in the PDI score. Significant improvement was observed in the SF-12 physical composite score but not the mental composite score.

    CONCLUSIONS: The preliminary findings showed that passive application of low frequency sound wave stimulation therapy through both hands and feet was effective in alleviating pain and improving functional ability in patients with chronic back pain.

    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Analog Scale
  7. Paka C, Atan IK, Dietz HP
    Tech Coloproctol, 2016 Feb;20(2):123-8.
    PMID: 26573810 DOI: 10.1007/s10151-015-1397-z
    Patient self-report is important in the assessment of the impact of anal incontinence (AI) on quality of life. This study aimed to (1) determine the correlation between total St. Mark's Incontinence Score (SMIS) and a single-item visual analogue scale (VAS) for bother from AI, and (2) determine the correlation between individual components of SMIS and VAS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Analog Scale*
  8. Yong YV, Shafie AA
    J Asthma, 2016 10;53(8):835-42.
    PMID: 27049693 DOI: 10.3109/02770903.2016.1156694
    OBJECTIVES: To develop and test the feasibility and validity of a computer-based utility assessment tool that used standard gamble (SG) method for measuring asthma-specific health utilities.

    METHODS: A computer-based SG (CBSG) tool was developed using Microsoft® PowerPoint 2007 to value asthma-specific health states in Malaysia. Eight hypothetical health states were considered, including two anchor states (healthy and dead), three chronic (C) states and three temporary (T) states (each numbered 1 through 3, with increasing severity) in addition to the subject's current health state. Twenty adult asthma patients completed the CBSG tool in addition to paper-based Asthma Control Test, three health status measures (EQ-5D, EQ-VAS, and Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (MiniAQLQ)), and VAS utility assessment tool. Patients and interviewers rated the difficulty of the VAS and CBSG tools. Correlations between current health state values derived from the various measures were determined.

    RESULTS: The SG and the VAS received similar difficulty ratings. 17 patients completed the CBSG tool within 30 minutes. The mean utilities determined by the CBSG tool for the T1-T3 asthma health states met the expected logical order of 1>2>3, but those for the C1-C3 states did not. Correlation between current health state values derived from the CBSG tool and other measurement tools was poor.

    CONCLUSION: The CBSG tool developed for measuring utilities of asthma health states showed acceptable feasibility and overall validity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Analog Scale
  9. Al Aqqad SM, Chen LL, Shafie AA, Hassali MA, Tangiisuran B
    Clin Interv Aging, 2014;9:201-7.
    PMID: 24489461 DOI: 10.2147/CIA.S52356
    Nursing home residents are mainly older people with multiple diseases and taking multiple medications. The quality use of medication and its association with health related quality of life (HRQoL) have not been reported in Malaysia. This study aims to investigate the association between the use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and the changes observed in the HRQoL among older nursing home residents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Analog Scale
  10. Ismail AK, Abdul Ghafar MA, Shamsuddin NS, Roslan NA, Kaharuddin H, Nik Muhamad NA
    J Emerg Med, 2015 Sep;49(3):287-93.
    PMID: 26022936 DOI: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2015.02.043
    Prehospital care (PHC) pain evaluation is an essential patient assessment to be performed by paramedics. Pain intensity is frequently assessed using Verbal Numerical Rating Scale (VNRS) or Visual Analog Scale (VAS).
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Analog Scale
  11. Mohamed NG, Abidin NZ, Law KS, Abe M, Suzuki M, Muhamed AM, et al.
    J Physiol Anthropol, 2014;33:28.
    PMID: 25189184 DOI: 10.1186/1880-6805-33-28
    Menstruation is associated with significant unpleasantness, and wearing a sanitary napkin (SN) during menses causes discomfort. In addition, many Muslim women use a thick type of SN during menses due to the religious requirement that even disposable SNs be washed before disposal. Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure the physiological and psychological responses to wearing SNs of different thicknesses during menstruation and non-menstruation phases at rest and during physical activity/exercise among Muslim women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Analog Scale
  12. Nor Dalila Marican, Rozita Hod, Nadiah Wan-Arfah, Azmi Hassan
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(1):933-938.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Non-specific low back pain is one of the most common physical ailments
    affecting millions of people worldwide. This condition constitutes a
    significant public health problem and was listed as a prevalent health
    complaint in most societies. Even though there are many anecdotal claims
    for reflexology in the treatment of various conditions such as a migraine,
    arthritis and multiple sclerosis, but very little clinical evidence exists for
    reflexology on the management of low back pain per se. This study aims to
    evaluate the effects of foot reflexology therapy as an adjunctive treatment to
    the Malaysian low back pain standard care in relieving pain and promoting
    health-related quality of life among people with non-specific low back pain.
    Methods This is a parallel randomized controlled trial with pre and post-treatment
    study design. The study setting for the intervention located at Penawar
    Reflexology Center, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. A total of 100
    participants with non-specific low back pain will be allocated to one of two
    groups, using a randomization computer program of Research Randomizer.
    The control group will receive low back pain standard care, while the
    intervention group will receive standard care plus eight sessions of foot
    reflexology therapy. The pain intensity and health-related quality of life
    scores will be measured using Visual Analogue Scale and Euro-quality of
    life scale respectively in both groups. The study was approved by the
    Human Research Ethics Committee of University Sultan Zainal Abidin
    (UHREC/2016/2/011). The study protocol was registered at
    ClinicalTrials.gov, with the ID number of NCT02887430.
    Measurements Outcome measures will be undertaken at pre-intervention (week 1), postintervention
    (week 6) and follow-up (week 10).
    Conclusions This will be the first trial to compare the foot reflexology therapy with
    control group among people who medically diagnosed with non-specific low
    back pain in Malaysia. The result of this study will contribute to better
    management of this population, especially for Malaysia healthcare setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Analog Scale
  13. Hai-Ying C, Guzmán Rojas R, Hall JC, Atan IK, Dietz HP
    Int Urogynecol J, 2016 Feb;27(2):229-32.
    PMID: 26264476 DOI: 10.1007/s00192-015-2813-7
    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Obstructed defecation is a common symptom complex in urogynaecological patients, and perineal, vaginal and/or anal digitation may required for defecation. Translabial ultrasound can be used to assess anorectal anatomy, similar to defecation proctography. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between different forms of digitation (vaginal, perineal and anal) and abnormal posterior compartment anatomy.

    METHODS: A total of 271 patients were analysed in a retrospective study utilising archived ultrasound volume datasets. Symptoms of obstructed defecation (straining at stool, incomplete bowel emptying, perineal, vaginal and anal digitation) were ascertained on interview. Postprocessing of stored 3D/4D translabial ultrasound datasets obtained on maximal Valsalva was used to diagnose descent of the rectal ampulla, rectocoele, enterocoele and rectal intussusception at a later date, blinded to all clinical data.

    RESULTS: Digitation was reported by 39 % of our population. The position of the rectal ampulla on Valsalva was associated with perineal (p = 0.02) and vaginal (p = 0.02) digitation. The presence of a true rectocoele was significantly associated with perineal (p = 0.04) and anal (p = 0.03) digitation. Rectocoele depth was associated with all three forms of digitation (P = 0.005-0.02). The bother of symptoms of obstructed defecation was strongly associated with digitation (all P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Analog Scale
  14. Jiamsakul A, Kumarasamy N, Ditangco R, Li PC, Phanuphak P, Sirisanthana T, et al.
    J Int AIDS Soc, 2014;17:18911.
    PMID: 24836775 DOI: 10.7448/IAS.17.1.18911
    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) plays an important role in treatment outcomes. It is crucial to identify factors influencing adherence in order to optimize treatment responses. The aim of this study was to assess the rates of, and factors associated with, suboptimal adherence (SubAdh) in the first 24 months of ART in an Asian HIV cohort.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Analog Scale
  15. Koh D, Abdullah AM, Wang P, Lin N, Luo N
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(11):e0165555.
    PMID: 27835652 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0165555
    BACKGROUND: The Malay spoken in Brunei a South East Asian country where Malay is the national language is distinctive and different from Malay spoken in Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. This study aimed to develop a Brunei Malay version of the 5-level EQ-5D questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) and to assess its psychometric properties among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

    METHODS: The Brunei Malay EQ-5D-5L was developed by culturally adapting two existing Malay versions. A total of 154 Bruneians with T2DM completed the questionnaire in two different points of time with one week apart. Known-groups validity of the utility-based EQ-5D-5L index and visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) was evaluated by comparing subgroups of patients known to differ in health status. Test-retest reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) or Cohen's kappa.

    RESULTS: As hypothesized, patients known to have 'better' health had higher EQ-5D-5L index scores than those having 'worse' health in all 7 known-groups comparisons. The hypothesized difference in the EQ-VAS scores was observed in only 4 of the 7 known-groups comparisons. Kappa values ranged from 0.206 to 0.446 for the EQ-5D-5L items; the ICC value for the EQ-5D-5L index and EQ-VAS was 0.626 and 0.521, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The utility-based EQ-5D-5L index appears to be valid and reliable for measuring the health of Brunei patients with T2DM. The validity of the EQ-VAS in Brunei requires further investigation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Analog Scale
  16. Endarti D, Riewpaiboon A, Thavorncharoensap M, Praditsitthikorn N, Hutubessy R, Kristina SA
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2018 May;15:50-55.
    PMID: 29474178 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2017.07.008
    OBJECTIVES: To gain insight into the most suitable foreign value set among Malaysian, Singaporean, Thai, and UK value sets for calculating the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire index score (utility) among patients with cervical cancer in Indonesia.

    METHODS: Data from 87 patients with cervical cancer recruited from a referral hospital in Yogyakarta province, Indonesia, from an earlier study of health-related quality of life were used in this study. The differences among the utility scores derived from the four value sets were determined using the Friedman test. Performance of the psychometric properties of the four value sets versus visual analogue scale (VAS) was assessed. Intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots were used to test the agreement among the utility scores. Spearman ρ correlation coefficients were used to assess convergent validity between utility scores and patients' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. With respect to known-group validity, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to examine the differences in utility according to the stages of cancer.

    RESULTS: There was significant difference among utility scores derived from the four value sets, among which the Malaysian value set yielded higher utility than the other three value sets. Utility obtained from the Malaysian value set had more agreements with VAS than the other value sets versus VAS (intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plot tests results). As for the validity, the four value sets showed equivalent psychometric properties as those that resulted from convergent and known-group validity tests.

    CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of an Indonesian value set, the Malaysian value set was more preferable to be used compared with the other value sets. Further studies on the development of an Indonesian value set need to be conducted.

    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Analog Scale
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