Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 24 in total

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  1. Che Hamzah J, Daka Q, Azuara-Blanco A
    Eye (Lond), 2020 01;34(1):155-160.
    PMID: 31772381 DOI: 10.1038/s41433-019-0669-7
    Glaucoma services are overwhelmed and struggling to accommodate current demand. Reducing the need for hospital based services would improve our ability to see those most at risk of vision loss, which could both reduce demand and improve patient outcomes. Digital technologies that provide opportunities for home monitoring of glaucoma progression have potential to contribute to solve these challenges and, potentially, improve glaucoma care. This article will review the literatures of well-established technologies that support home monitoring for glaucoma, specifically home tonometry (with rebound tonometry) and perimetry with Moorfields Motion Displacement Test and Melbourne Rapid Field.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Field Tests
  2. Ahmad SS
    Saudi J Ophthalmol, 2017 Jan-Mar;31(1):38-41.
    PMID: 28337061 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjopt.2016.08.001
    Glaucoma is a multi-factorial neurodegenerative disorder. The common denominator in all types of glaucomas is retinal ganglion cell death through apoptosis. However, this cellular demise in glaucoma is detected late by structural or functional analyses. There can be a 10-year delay prior to the appearance of visual field defects and pre-perimetric glaucoma is an issue still being addressed. However, a new cutting-edge technology called detection of apoptosing retinal cells (DARC) is being developed. This technique is capable of non-invasive, real-time visualization of apoptotic changes at the cellular level. It can detect glaucomatous cell damage at a very early stage, at the moment apoptosis starts, and thus management can be initiated even prior to development of visual field changes. In future, this technique will also be able to provide conclusive evidence of the effectiveness of treatment protocol and the need for any modifications which may be required. This article aims to provide a concise review of DARC technology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Field Tests
  3. Ghanimi Zamli AK, Chew-Ean T, Wan Hitam WH
    Cureus, 2019 Apr 11;11(4):e4436.
    PMID: 31245223 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.4436
    Altitudinal visual field defect is a rare presentation of retrochiasmal lesion especially when bilateral visual fields were affected. In fact, bilateral inferior altitudinal visual field defect (BIAVFD) usually occurred in patients who survived a gunshot injury to the occipital lobe or as a direct trauma to the brain. We report a rare case of BIAVFD secondary to occipital meningioma. A high index of suspicion enables timely investigation and diagnosis when dealing with atypical presentation of intracranial meningioma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Field Tests
  4. Abrams MB, Bjaalie JG, Das S, Egan GF, Ghosh SS, Goscinski WJ, et al.
    Neuroinformatics, 2021 Jan 27.
    PMID: 33506383 DOI: 10.1007/s12021-020-09509-0
    There is great need for coordination around standards and best practices in neuroscience to support efforts to make neuroscience a data-centric discipline. Major brain initiatives launched around the world are poised to generate huge stores of neuroscience data. At the same time, neuroscience, like many domains in biomedicine, is confronting the issues of transparency, rigor, and reproducibility. Widely used, validated standards and best practices are key to addressing the challenges in both big and small data science, as they are essential for integrating diverse data and for developing a robust, effective, and sustainable infrastructure to support open and reproducible neuroscience. However, developing community standards and gaining their adoption is difficult. The current landscape is characterized both by a lack of robust, validated standards and a plethora of overlapping, underdeveloped, untested and underutilized standards and best practices. The International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF), an independent organization dedicated to promoting data sharing through the coordination of infrastructure and standards, has recently implemented a formal procedure for evaluating and endorsing community standards and best practices in support of the FAIR principles. By formally serving as a standards organization dedicated to open and FAIR neuroscience, INCF helps evaluate, promulgate, and coordinate standards and best practices across neuroscience. Here, we provide an overview of the process and discuss how neuroscience can benefit from having a dedicated standards body.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Field Tests
  5. Rosli Y, Carle CF, Ho Y, James AC, Kolic M, Rohan EMF, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2018 02 14;8(1):2991.
    PMID: 29445236 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-21196-1
    Multifocal pupillographic objective perimetry (mfPOP) has recently been shown to be able to measure cortical function. Here we assessed 44 regions of the central 60 degrees of the visual fields of each eye concurrently in 7 minutes/test. We examined how foveally- and peripherally-directed attention changed response sensitivity and delay across the 44 visual field locations/eye. Four experiments were completed comparing white, yellow and blue stimulus arrays. Experiments 1 to 4 tested 16, 23, 9 and 6 subjects, 49/54 being unique. Experiment 1, Experiments 2 and 3, and Experiment 4 used three variants of the mfPOP method that provided increasingly improved signal quality. Experiments 1 to 3 examined centrally directed attention, and Experiment 4 compared effects of attention directed to different peripheral targets. Attention reduced the sensitivity of the peripheral locations in Experiment 1, but only for the white stimuli not yellow. Experiment 2 confirmed that result. Experiment 3 showed that blue stimuli behaved like white. Peripheral attention showed increased sensitivity around the attentional targets. The results are discussed in terms of the cortical inputs to the pupillary system. The results agree with those from multifocal and other fMRI and VEP studies. mfPOP may be a useful adjunct to those methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Field Tests/methods*
  6. Haliza A, Md Muziman Syah M, Norliza M
    Malays Fam Physician, 2010;5(2):95-8.
    PMID: 25606195 MyJurnal
    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of poor visual acuity, colour blindness and visual field defect of new Malaysian drivers.

    METHODS: A total of 3717 new drivers (50.2% males and 49.8% females) age 19±6 years, voluntarily participated in this study. Standard optometric apparatus such as LogMAR Charts, Ishihara plates and HandHeld Bernell Perimeter were used and standard procedures were applied.

    RESULTS: The visual examination showed 6.7% (n=250) of subjects achieved less than 0.3 LogMAR with better eye whilst 2.2% (n=83) had failed the Ishihara Test (2.1% males and 0.1% females). Most of the affected drivers were deutranopia. Only 2094 subjects had their visual field using a mobile Handheld Bernell Perimeter. 1.72% (n=36) subjects have less than 120 degrees of peripheral field of vision.

    CONCLUSIONS: The visual status among new Malaysian drivers needs to be taken seriously to ensure safe driving. Other factors such as colour vision and visual field screening have to be considered seriously when evaluating the visual performance of a driver. Good visual performance is indispensible for safe driving.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Field Tests
  7. Nurul Hanim Nasaruddin, Nurul Hanim Nasaruddin, Ahmad NazlimYusoff, Sharanjeet, Kaur
    MyJurnal
    The purpose of this study was to characterize, differentiate and correlate visual field and brain activation in visual cortex
    for normal, glaucoma suspect (GS) and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) participants using Standard Automated
    Perimetry (SAP) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) respectively. The fMRI scans and SAP test were both
    carried out in Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM). Two types of black-and-white checkerboard
    pattern were displayed to the participants during the fMRI scans. The fMRI data were analyzed using WFU pickatlas
    toolbox targeting visual cortex area. The results showed that there was no significant difference in number of activated
    voxel between the three groups in visual cortex (BA 17, 18 and 19) while viewing all the given stimuli (p > 0.05). The
    pattern standard deviation (PSD) of SAP for visual field also revealed no significant differences (p > 0.05) in all groups of
    participants. However, negative correlation between PSD and fMRI activation was observed. The PSD values increased with
    a decrease in fMRI activation. With reference to visual field analysis, the results suggest that glaucomatous neuropathy of
    POAG patients has led to a gradual decrease in visual cortex activation and a gradual increase in PSD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Field Tests
  8. Mohamad SA, Zunaina E, Wan Hitam WH
    Cureus, 2019 Nov 08;11(11):e6101.
    PMID: 31886042 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.6101
    Optic perineuritis (OPN) is a subtype of optic neuritis (ON) in which the inflammatory process involves meningeal sheath surrounding the optic nerve. Clinically, OPN simulates ON. However, in contrast to ON, patient with OPN shows sparing of central vision, improves dramatically with high-dose corticosteroid, are more likely to experience recurrence after stopping treatment. We report a rare case of caecocentral scotoma observed in a female with typical ON symptoms. Her magnetic resonance imaging showed features in line with OPN. She was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone 1 g/day for five days followed by slow tapering dose of oral prednisolone for one month. Her vision improved dramatically with a resolution of visual field defect. No relapses seen within two years of follow-up.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Field Tests
  9. Raman P, Khy Ching Y, Sivagurunathan PD, Ramli N, Mohd Khalid KH
    J. Glaucoma, 2019 08;28(8):685-690.
    PMID: 31033782 DOI: 10.1097/IJG.0000000000001269
    PRECIS: This prospective cross-sectional study found that patients with cognitive impairment (CI) are more likely to produce unreliable visual field (VF) tests, especially with higher false-negative (FN) responses and consequent overestimation of mean deviation (MD).

    AIM: Aging-associated CI can impair the ability of individuals to perform a VF test and compromise the reliability of the results. We evaluated the association between neurocognitive impairment and VF reliability indices in glaucoma patients.

    METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in the Ophthalmology Department, Hospital Kuala Pilah, Malaysia, and included 113 eyes of 60 glaucoma patients with no prior diagnosis of dementia. Patients were monitored with the Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer using a 30-2 SITA, standard protocol, and CI was assessed using the clock drawing test (CDT). The relationships between the CDT score, MD, pattern standard deviation, Visual Field Index (VFI), fixation loss (FL), false-positive values, and FN values were analyzed using the ordinal regression model.

    RESULTS: Glaucoma patients older than 65 years had a higher prevalence of CI. There was a statistically significant correlation between CDT scores and glaucoma severity, FL, FN, and VFI values (rs=-0.20, P=0.03; rs=-0.20, P=0.04; rs=-0.28, P=0.003; rs=0.21, P=0.03, respectively). In a multivariate model adjusted for age and glaucoma severity, patients with lower FN were significantly less likely to have CI (odds ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.93) and patients with higher MD were more likely to have CI (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.16); false positive, FL, pattern standard deviation, and VFI showed no significant correlation.

    CONCLUSION: Cognitive decline is associated with reduced VF reliability, especially with higher FN rate and overestimated MD. Screening and monitoring of CI may be important in the assessment of VF progression in glaucoma patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Field Tests/methods; Visual Field Tests/standards
  10. Ismail SA, Sharanjeet-Kaur, Mutalib HA, Ngah NF
    J Optom, 2015 Oct-Dec;8(4):266-72.
    PMID: 26025808 DOI: 10.1016/j.optom.2015.04.001
    PURPOSE: To determine the influence of age and gender on macular sensitivity to light in healthy subjects of 4 age groups using the MP-1 microperimeter.
    METHODS: A prospective study was carried out on 50 healthy subjects (age range: 18-60 years) divided into 4 age groups; 18-30 years, 31-40 years, 41-50 years and 51-60 years. Full-threshold microperimetry of the central 10° of retina was performed utilizing 32 points with the MP-1. Macula area was divided into four quadrants, which were superior nasal (SN), inferior nasal (IN), inferior temporal (IT) and superior temporal (ST).
    RESULTS: Total mean sensitivity at 10° for age groups 18-30 years, 31-40 years, 41-50 years and 51-60 years were 19.46 ± 0.30, 19.40 ± 0.39, 19.47 ± 0.35 and 18.73 ± 0.75 (dB), respectively. There was a significant difference in total mean retinal sensitivity at 10° and at the four quadrants with age but not for gender. The retinal sensitivity was highest in the IT quadrant and lowest in the SN quadrant for all age groups. The linear regression analysis revealed that there was a 0.019 dB, 0.016 dB, 0.022 dB, 0.029 dB and 0.029 dB per year age-related decline in mean macular sensitivity within the central 10° diameter in the SN, IN, IT and ST quadrants respectively.
    CONCLUSION: Among normal healthy subjects, there was a linear decline in retinal light sensitivity with increasing age with the highest reduction in the superior nasal quadrant and lowest in the inferior temporal quadrant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Field Tests/methods*
  11. Ameilia A, Shatriah I, Wan-Hitam WH, Yunus R
    Brain Dev, 2015 Jun;37(6):635-7.
    PMID: 25457086 DOI: 10.1016/j.braindev.2014.09.011
    Optic perineuritis is an uncommon inflammatory disorder that involves optic nerve sheath. Numerous case reports have been published on optic perineuritis in adults, the majority of whom had bilateral presentation. There are limited data on optic perineuritis occurring in pediatric patients. We report a teenager who presented with a unilateral sign that mimicked the presentation of optic neuritis. The orbit and brain magnetic resonance imaging confirmed features of unilateral optic perineuritis. She was treated with a high dose of corticosteroids for 2weeks, and her final visual outcome was satisfactory. No signs of relapse were noted during follow-up visits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Field Tests
  12. Alshaarawi S, Shatriah I, Zunaina E, Wan Hitam WH
    PLoS One, 2014;9(2):e88056.
    PMID: 24551076 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088056
    Variations in optic nerve head morphology and abnormal retinal vascular pattern have been described in preterm children using digital image analysis of fundus photograph, optical coherence tomograph and serial funduscopy. We aimed to compare the optic nerve head parameters in preterm and term Malay children using Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph III.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Field Tests
  13. Norhayaty S., Nurul Dalila M.S., Tai, Evelyn L.M., Liza Sharmini A.T., Zunaina E., Azhany Y.
    MyJurnal
    Tunnel vision is a classic sign among patients with advanced glaucoma. However, other conditions such as retinitis pigmentosa, optic neuritis and rod-cone dystrophy may be characterized by similar visual field defects. A 52-year-old lady with a family history of glaucoma presented with bilateral gradual loss of peripheral vision for two years. She claimed to have poor night vision about 20 years prior to this presentation. Her visual acuity was 6/7.5 in both eyes. The anterior chamber depth was moderate bilaterally, with Schaffer grading on gonioscopy of grade I to II. The intraocular pressure was 14 mmHg in both eyes. The optic discs appeared normal. Fundus examination showed scattered hypopigmented changes sparing the fovea. Humphrey visual field test revealed bilateral constricted visual fields. She was diagnosed with retinitis punctata albescens (RPA) based on her symptom of poor night vision, supported by the diffuse hypopigmented changes in her fundi. The management of this condition involves careful counselling regarding the genetic nature of the disease and its progressive course. We discuss this case to illustrate the importance of a thorough history taking and careful fundus examination in the workup of patients presenting with tunnel vision.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Field Tests
  14. Tan, Kok-Leong, Fhun, Lai-Chan, Ahmad Tajudin Liza Sharmini, Maizan Yaakub, Chong, Mei-Fong
    MyJurnal
    Glaucoma is a chronic disease that could affect the quality of life and is a potential stressor for patients. Visual field assessment is important in monitoring disease progression among glaucoma patients. Stress could influence the performance of patients in visual field test that may affect the reliability of the test. Our objective in this study was to determine the association between stress score using Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) questionnaire and reliability indices of Humphrey visual field analysis (HFA). A total of 155 primary and secondary glaucoma patients were recruited in the study. Face to face interview using stress component of DASS questionnaire was conducted after automated HFA test. Reliability indices; i.e. fixation loss, false positive, and false negative error, were used to determine the accuracy of HFA result. Only 12 patients (7.7%) were found to have elevated stress score. No significant correlation was found between DASS stress score and the reliability indices of HFA. There was 0.2 folds (95% confidence interval (CI) [-2.35, -0.06], p = 0.039) reduction of fixation loss for every number of HFA done. For every one year increase in age, there was 0.2 folds (95% CI [-0.38, -0.07], p = 0.006) reduction in false positive error in HFA.
    Minimal stress may not affect the reliability of HFA assessment. Minimising stress among glaucoma patients is important not only for assessment of visual field but also for improvement of quality of life.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Field Tests
  15. Koh KL, Sonny Teo KS, Chong MF, Wan Hitam WH
    BMJ Case Rep, 2018 Jun 27;2018.
    PMID: 29950366 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2018-225113
    Non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) may develop due to severe anaemia and hypotension which is seen in acute blood loss. The devastating visual loss is often irreversible. We report a case of NAION in a 20-year-old healthy woman, who presented on the third day of a heavy menstrual cycle with hypovolaemic shock. On day 2 of admission, she had sudden right eye blurring of vision at the superior field on awakening from sleep. Funduscopy revealed a pale and swollen right optic disc. There was a dense right superior altitudinal visual field defect. Her haemoglobin level was low (3.6 g/dL), but she refused blood transfusion due to her religious belief (Jehovah's Witness) and opted for conservative management. She later developed right optic atrophy with persistent visual field defect despite an improved haemoglobin level of 10.5 g/dL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Field Tests
  16. Mohd-Ilham IM, Ahmad-Kamal GR, Wan Hitam WH, Shatriah I
    Cureus, 2019 Apr 08;11(4):e4407.
    PMID: 31205829 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.4407
    Purpose To describe the visual presentation and factors affecting visual outcome in pediatric patients treated for craniopharyngioma at a referral center in the East Coast states of Peninsular Malaysia. Methodology A retrospective review of medical records of children aged 17 years and below who had been treated for craniopharyngioma in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from January 2014 to December 2018. The data collected included age, gender, presenting symptoms and duration, visual acuity, visual fields, color vision, light brightness, relative afferent pupillary defects, fundus examination and cranial nerves examination. The best corrected visual acuity during presentation, and after a one-year post-operative period, was documented. Records on investigations, surgical procedures, therapeutic modalities and recurrences were also reviewed. Results A total of 11 pediatric patients (22 eyes) were recruited. Fifty percent presented with optic atrophy. The mean duration of the onset of symptoms before consultation was 22.3 (24.5) months. A final best corrected visual acuity of 6/12 (20/40) or better was observed in 50% of the patients. There was a statistically significant association between presenting visual acuity, optic nerve function and visual field defects, and the final visual outcome. Conclusions Visual presentations in our study were fairly similar to previous reported studies. One-third presented late with permanent visual loss. Almost half had significant visual impairment after one-year post-operative period. Significant associations were observed between presenting visual acuity, duration of symptoms, impairment of optic nerve function tests, and visual field defects during presentation, and final visual acuity at one year after treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Field Tests
  17. Sriram PR, Sellamuthu P, Ghani ARI
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Dec;24(6):58-67.
    PMID: 29379387 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.6.7
    Background: Despite the broad category of differentials for sellar region, most of them present with similar clinical signs and symptoms. Headache and visual disturbance are among the frequently seen as presenting symptom. Visual field (VF) assessment is one of the crucial component of neuroophtalmologic assessment and mean deviation (MD) value from automated perimetry allows quantification of the visual field defect. We formulated a study to look into the factors that affect the visual field outcome after surgery.

    Methods: All patients with sellar region tumor who has underwent surgery in Queen Elizabeth Hospital from July 2010 to July 2016 were retrospectively analysed through hospital notes. VF assessment via Humphrey visual assessment for these patient pre and post-surgery were reviewed for MD value.

    Results: Eighty four patients were recruited and out of them, 151 eyes were taken into analysis after excluding eyes with missing data. Mean age of patients were 45.4 years with 70.2% of them were male. Visual disturbance is the commonest presenting symptom with mean duration of symptom prior to surgery is 9.7 months. Majority of them were pituitary adenomas (75%) followed by sellar meningioma (19%), craniopharyngioma (4.8%), and rathke cleft cyst (1.2%). 70.9% of patients showed improvement in VF based on MD outcome. Mean MD for pre surgery and post-surgery were -14.0 dB and -12.4 dB, respectively. Univariate analysis reveals younger age, female sex, shorter duration of symptom, pituitary adenoma, transsphenoidal approach, and transcranial approach favours improvement in VF. Multivariate analysis shows only shorter symptom duration, transphenoidal approach, and transcranial approach are significant for favourable VF outcome when other factors adjusted.

    Conclusion: Symptom duration and surgical approach were independent factors that affects the visual field after surgery in patients with sellar region tumors.

    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Field Tests
  18. Ong Chin Feng W, Wan Hitam WH
    Taiwan J Ophthalmol, 2020 06 20;10(3):189-196.
    PMID: 33110750 DOI: 10.4103/tjo.tjo_22_20
    Purpose: Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness might be useful in monitoring ongoing subclinical structural damage especially in eyes with no history of optic neuritis (ON) in neuromyelitis optica (NMO).

    Objective: To evaluate the peripapillary RNFL thickness and optic nerve functions in fellow eye of NMO with unilateral optic neuritis.

    Materials and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 tertiary hospitals from August 2017 to May 2019. RNFL thickness and optic nerve functions were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Science version 24.

    Results: A total of 26 NMO patients and 26 controls were involved in this study. The median age (IQR) of NMO patients was 32.5 (12) years old. The RNFL thickness was significantly reduced in NMO patients with non-ON eyes as compared to control group. Best corrected visual acuity between the 2 groups were comparable (0.20 vs 0.00, p=0.071). Contrast sensitivity was also reduced in NMO patients (non-ON eyes) at all 5 spatial frequencies. In NMO group, 34.6% have normal colour vision. The mean deviation (MD) of Humphrey visual field (HVF) was higher in NMO group (p<0.001). There was a moderate correlation between RNFL thickness and contrast sensitivity. Weak correlation was found between the RNFL thickness with visual acuity and mean deviation of visual field test.

    Conclusion: Our study showed that the fellow eye of NMO patients with unilateral ON revealed a significant reduction in RNFL thickness and all the optic nerve functions have subtle early changes that signify a subclinical retinal damage.

    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Field Tests
  19. Sharanjeet-Kaur, Ismail SA, Mutalib HA, Ngah NF
    J Optom, 2018 05 26;12(3):174-179.
    PMID: 29843983 DOI: 10.1016/j.optom.2018.03.007
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between HbA1c values and retinal sensitivity at central 10° using the MP-1 microperimeter.

    METHODS: A prospective study was carried out on 32 healthy subjects (control group) and 60 diabetic patients. The diabetic patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 comprised of 30 patients without diabetic retinopathy (DR) and group 2 had 30 patients with mild non-proliferative DR. A full-threshold microperimetry of the central 10° of retina (the macula) was performed on all subjects, utilizing 32 points with the MP-1. The relationship between light sensitivity and HbA1c value was calculated using linear regression analysis.

    RESULTS: Total mean sensitivity at 10° for group 1 without DR, group 2 with mild NPDR and control group were 18.67±0.83, 17.98±1.42 and 19.45±0.34 (dB), respectively. There was a significant difference in total mean retinal sensitivity at 10° between the 3 groups (F(2,89)=18.14, p=0.001). A simple linear regression was calculated to predict HbA1c based on retinal sensitivity. A significant regression equation was found (F(1,90)=107.61, p=0.0001, with an R2 of 0.545). The linear regression analysis revealed that there was a 0.64dB decline in mean retinal sensitivity within the central 10° diameter with an increase of 1mmHg of HbA1c.

    CONCLUSION: Retinal sensitivity at the central 10° of the macula is affected by changes in HbA1c values.

    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Field Tests
  20. Bukhari SM, Kiu KY, Thambiraja R, Sulong S, Rasool AH, Liza-Sharmini AT
    Eye (Lond), 2016 Dec;30(12):1579-1587.
    PMID: 27540832 DOI: 10.1038/eye.2016.185
    PurposeThe role of microvascular endothelial dysfunction on severity of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) was investigated in this study.Patients and methodsA prospective cohort study was conducted. One hundred and fourteen ethnically Malay patients (114 eyes) with POAG treated at the eye clinic of Hospital University Sains Malaysia between April 2012 and December 2014 were recruited. Patients aged between 40 and 80 years with two consecutive reliable and reproducible Humphrey visual field 24-2 analyses were selected. Patients who were diagnosed with any other type of glaucoma, previous glaucoma-filtering surgery, or other surgeries except uncomplicated cataract and pterygium surgery were excluded. Humphrey visual field analysis 24-2 was used to stratify the severity of glaucoma using Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) score at the time of recruitment. Microvascular endothelial function was assessed using Laser Doppler fluximetry and iontophoresis. Iontophoresis process with acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was used to measure microvascular endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilatation, respectively.ResultsBased on the AGIS score, 55 patients showed mild glaucoma, with 29 moderate and 30 severe. There was statistically significant difference in microvascular endothelial function (ACh% and AChmax) between mild and moderate POAG cases (P=0.023) and between mild and severe POAG cases (P<0.001). There was negative correlation between microvascular endothelial function and severity of POAG (r=-0.457, P<0.001).ConclusionMicrovascular endothelial dysfunction may have a role in influencing the severity of POAG in Malay patients.

    Study site: Eye clinic Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM)
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Field Tests
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