AIM: Aging-associated CI can impair the ability of individuals to perform a VF test and compromise the reliability of the results. We evaluated the association between neurocognitive impairment and VF reliability indices in glaucoma patients.
METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in the Ophthalmology Department, Hospital Kuala Pilah, Malaysia, and included 113 eyes of 60 glaucoma patients with no prior diagnosis of dementia. Patients were monitored with the Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer using a 30-2 SITA, standard protocol, and CI was assessed using the clock drawing test (CDT). The relationships between the CDT score, MD, pattern standard deviation, Visual Field Index (VFI), fixation loss (FL), false-positive values, and FN values were analyzed using the ordinal regression model.
RESULTS: Glaucoma patients older than 65 years had a higher prevalence of CI. There was a statistically significant correlation between CDT scores and glaucoma severity, FL, FN, and VFI values (rs=-0.20, P=0.03; rs=-0.20, P=0.04; rs=-0.28, P=0.003; rs=0.21, P=0.03, respectively). In a multivariate model adjusted for age and glaucoma severity, patients with lower FN were significantly less likely to have CI (odds ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.93) and patients with higher MD were more likely to have CI (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.16); false positive, FL, pattern standard deviation, and VFI showed no significant correlation.
CONCLUSION: Cognitive decline is associated with reduced VF reliability, especially with higher FN rate and overestimated MD. Screening and monitoring of CI may be important in the assessment of VF progression in glaucoma patients.
Methods: All patients with sellar region tumor who has underwent surgery in Queen Elizabeth Hospital from July 2010 to July 2016 were retrospectively analysed through hospital notes. VF assessment via Humphrey visual assessment for these patient pre and post-surgery were reviewed for MD value.
Results: Eighty four patients were recruited and out of them, 151 eyes were taken into analysis after excluding eyes with missing data. Mean age of patients were 45.4 years with 70.2% of them were male. Visual disturbance is the commonest presenting symptom with mean duration of symptom prior to surgery is 9.7 months. Majority of them were pituitary adenomas (75%) followed by sellar meningioma (19%), craniopharyngioma (4.8%), and rathke cleft cyst (1.2%). 70.9% of patients showed improvement in VF based on MD outcome. Mean MD for pre surgery and post-surgery were -14.0 dB and -12.4 dB, respectively. Univariate analysis reveals younger age, female sex, shorter duration of symptom, pituitary adenoma, transsphenoidal approach, and transcranial approach favours improvement in VF. Multivariate analysis shows only shorter symptom duration, transphenoidal approach, and transcranial approach are significant for favourable VF outcome when other factors adjusted.
Conclusion: Symptom duration and surgical approach were independent factors that affects the visual field after surgery in patients with sellar region tumors.
Objective: To evaluate the peripapillary RNFL thickness and optic nerve functions in fellow eye of NMO with unilateral optic neuritis.
Materials and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 tertiary hospitals from August 2017 to May 2019. RNFL thickness and optic nerve functions were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Science version 24.
Results: A total of 26 NMO patients and 26 controls were involved in this study. The median age (IQR) of NMO patients was 32.5 (12) years old. The RNFL thickness was significantly reduced in NMO patients with non-ON eyes as compared to control group. Best corrected visual acuity between the 2 groups were comparable (0.20 vs 0.00, p=0.071). Contrast sensitivity was also reduced in NMO patients (non-ON eyes) at all 5 spatial frequencies. In NMO group, 34.6% have normal colour vision. The mean deviation (MD) of Humphrey visual field (HVF) was higher in NMO group (p<0.001). There was a moderate correlation between RNFL thickness and contrast sensitivity. Weak correlation was found between the RNFL thickness with visual acuity and mean deviation of visual field test.
Conclusion: Our study showed that the fellow eye of NMO patients with unilateral ON revealed a significant reduction in RNFL thickness and all the optic nerve functions have subtle early changes that signify a subclinical retinal damage.
METHODS: A prospective study was carried out on 32 healthy subjects (control group) and 60 diabetic patients. The diabetic patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 comprised of 30 patients without diabetic retinopathy (DR) and group 2 had 30 patients with mild non-proliferative DR. A full-threshold microperimetry of the central 10° of retina (the macula) was performed on all subjects, utilizing 32 points with the MP-1. The relationship between light sensitivity and HbA1c value was calculated using linear regression analysis.
RESULTS: Total mean sensitivity at 10° for group 1 without DR, group 2 with mild NPDR and control group were 18.67±0.83, 17.98±1.42 and 19.45±0.34 (dB), respectively. There was a significant difference in total mean retinal sensitivity at 10° between the 3 groups (F(2,89)=18.14, p=0.001). A simple linear regression was calculated to predict HbA1c based on retinal sensitivity. A significant regression equation was found (F(1,90)=107.61, p=0.0001, with an R2 of 0.545). The linear regression analysis revealed that there was a 0.64dB decline in mean retinal sensitivity within the central 10° diameter with an increase of 1mmHg of HbA1c.
CONCLUSION: Retinal sensitivity at the central 10° of the macula is affected by changes in HbA1c values.