Cancer classification and gene selection in high-dimensional data have been popular research topics in genetics and molecular biology. Recently, adaptive regularized logistic regression using the elastic net regularization, which is called the adaptive elastic net, has been successfully applied in high-dimensional cancer classification to tackle both estimating the gene coefficients and performing gene selection simultaneously. The adaptive elastic net originally used elastic net estimates as the initial weight, however, using this weight may not be preferable for certain reasons: First, the elastic net estimator is biased in selecting genes. Second, it does not perform well when the pairwise correlations between variables are not high. Adjusted adaptive regularized logistic regression (AAElastic) is proposed to address these issues and encourage grouping effects simultaneously. The real data results indicate that AAElastic is significantly consistent in selecting genes compared to the other three competitor regularization methods. Additionally, the classification performance of AAElastic is comparable to the adaptive elastic net and better than other regularization methods. Thus, we can conclude that AAElastic is a reliable adaptive regularized logistic regression method in the field of high-dimensional cancer classification.
This paper presents the outcome of a laboratory investigation on mix design, resilient modulus, moisture susceptibility and rutting resistance of Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) and Dense Graded Asphalt (AC) that is incorporated with Nanosilica (NS) modified binder. Penetration Grade 60-70 (PEN60-70) types of binder were mixed with nanoparticles (NS) using concentration of 0wt%, 2wt%, 4wt% and 6wt% by weight of asphalt binder. The mixtures were tested for resilient modulus, indirect tensile strength and rutting, in order to evaluate the performance of NS-SMA and NS-AC. The results show that the existence of NS is capable of enhancing the performance of both asphalt mixtures, and the addition of NS decreases the susceptibility of moisture damage and provides better resistance against permanent deformation. Furthermore, the addition of 4wt% NS appears to be the most effective amount for the performance enhancement in AC and SMA mixtures.
In this data article, we provide energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) spectra of the electrospun composite (SnO2-TiO2) nanowires with the elemental values measured in atomic and weight%. The linear sweep voltammetry data of composite and its component nanofibers are provided. The data collected in this article is directly related to our research article "Synergistic combination of electronic and electrical properties of SnO2 and TiO2 in a single SnO2-TiO2 composite nanowire for dye-sensitized solar cells" .
This paper is about the reduction of the overall size of metal blanking sheet that is being used to form a stamping product or car body panel of a car manufacturer in Malaysia. The current blanking sheet produces extra waste which will be recycled and does not contribute to increase productivity but increases inventory cost. The reduction in the blanking sheet size will lead to the reduction of raw material hence reduced the production cost. However, the reduced size of blanking sheet could affect the yield strength of the product. The study of the yield strength and yield improvement of the product are done by simulating stress analysis by using CATIA software. The results show that the new proposed size of the metal blanking sheet provides accuracy of the product dimension as well as maintaining the yield strength of the product and it reduced a significant amount of metal scrap which is nearly 4% of material weight and save around 10% of inventory cost.
Body measurement is the first process that must be encountered before any
custom-made compression garment can be designed. The current practice of
obtaining the measurement is by traditional methods using tools like
measuring tape. However, this method is considered to be time-consuming
and usually not accurate. The most popular solution to the problem is by using
non-contact measurement. The development of the 3D whole body scanner
has made non-contact body measurement become a reality due to its capacity
to capture a vast amount of information. However, the cost to buy the whole
body scanner is quite expensive. Moreover, their sizes are also bulky which
make them less portable. Thus, a handheld body scanner provides a solution
to the problem. Despite that, current handheld scanner only provide image
and visualization aspect, but not the measurement aspect. This paper reports
the development of a method to acquire body data from a 3D handheld
scanner. In this new method, the point cloud of a body part was collected
using the handheld scanner. Then, the data was transformed into point
coordinates. Several processes were developed to filter the number of points
to allow for faster processing time and increasing the measurement accuracy.
In the first process, only points at specific height/layers are selected. In the
second process, the remaining points are rearranged according to their height
and angle. In the last process, the number of points is further reduced. In this
process, the number of points per layer is limited to 72 points. Results show
that the method can be used to determine body measurement.
Soft biometrics can be used as a prescreening filter, either by using single trait or by combining several traits to aid the performance of recognition systems in an unobtrusive way. In many practical visual surveillance scenarios, facial information becomes difficult to be effectively constructed due to several varying challenges. However, from distance the visual appearance of an object can be efficiently inferred, thereby providing the possibility of estimating body related information. This paper presents an approach for estimating body related soft biometrics; specifically we propose a new approach based on body measurement and artificial neural network for predicting body weight of subjects and incorporate the existing technique on single view metrology for height estimation in videos with low frame rate. Our evaluation on 1120 frame sets of 80 subjects from a newly compiled dataset shows that the mentioned soft biometric information of human subjects can be adequately predicted from set of frames.
Matched MeSH terms: Body Weights and Measures/methods*
This paper presents an anthropometric database of high school and university students from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Forty-one high school participants (21 males and 20 females), 13-17 years old, and 143 university students (74 males and 69 females) took part in the study. Twenty-one static body dimensions were measured. The greatest mean differences in the anthropometric data between male and female high school students were found in the sitting elbow height. In addition, a comparison of anthropometric data of male and female university students showed that data for males and females were significantly different, except for buttock-popliteal length, sitting elbow height and thigh clearance. The primary aim of this study was to develop an anthropometric database that could be used as a primary reference in designing products, devices and equipment for ergonomic learning environments.
In a meristic, morphometric and distributional study of Neolissochilus from Peninsular Malaysia, Khaironizam et al. (2015) subsumed Lissochilus tweediei Herre in Herre & Myers 1937 and a taxon they called "Tor soro Bishop 1973" into the synonymy of N. soroides (Duncker 1904) based on data collected from museum specimens. However, "Bishop 1973" is not the correct author citation for Tor soro. Instead, Tor (now placed in Neolissochilus) soro was originally described as Barbus soro by Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes (1842:191). Since "Tor soro Bishop 1973" is not a valid name/author combination, Neolissochilus soro, as treated by Khaironizam et al. (2015), cannot be considered a junior synonym of N. soroides.
Paper recycling plants usually buy their raw material from suppliers. More than often, bulk used paper supplied to the plant contains some significant quantity of water in its internal voids. It may be included intentionally or unintentionally. The price of used paper depends on its weight, thus adding water will help to increase weight and consequently increase the price. In this way, plant owner who purchase the used paper suffers a significant of financial lost. The objectives of our experiment are to establish a calibration curve that correlate between the amount of neutron backscattered and water content, and finally to develop a correction factor that need to be introduced to the measured values of water content. A fast neutron source (Am-Be 241) and a portable backscattering neutron detector were used for water measurement. The experiments were carried out by measuring neutron backscattering from used paper that has been added with different amount of water. As a result, a neutron calibration curve that provides a correlation between neutron backscattering and water content was established.
The physico-mechanical properties data of fruits are important in the design of various handling, packing, and storage and transportation system. The physical-mechanical properties of pineapple fruit from the Josapine variety, namely the weight of the fruit (with and without peel), pulp to peel ratio, diameter of the whole fruit (with and without peel), at three different positions along the longitudinal axis of the fruit, length of the fruit (with and without peel) and the length of crown were studied using the standard method at seven stages of maturity during storage at 25°C and 52% (RH). The effect of fruit maturity on the firmness of each fruit at three different locations was measured using a cylindrical die of 6 mm in diameter with the Instron Universal Testing Machine. The results indicated that the average total weight of a single fruit is 886.86 ± 49.67 g. The average pulp to peel ratio is 1.91. The average diameter (with and without peel) was 86.83 ± 5.24 mm and 80.95 ± 4.15 mm (top section), 100.77 ± 3.84 mm and 90.19 ± 3.73 mm (middle section) and 97.17 ± 3.49 mm and 73.30 ± 5.11 mm (bottom section), respectively. The average length of the fruit (with and without peel) was 126.65 mm and 113.64 mm, respectively. The average length of crown was 89.13 mm. The firmness of the fruits was found to decrease with the stage of maturity. These data are important in determining the optimum stage of maturity for fruit processing.
A bulk of used paper supplied to recycling industry may contain water in their internal voids. This is because the price of the used paper is currently based on their weight and it has a huge potential of suppliers to add with water in order to increase the price. Currently used methods for detecting moisture content in a paper are restricted to a sheet of paper only. This paper presents a non-intrusive method for quick and in-situ measurement of water content in a bulk of used paper. The proposed method extends the capability of common paper moisture gauge, by using a neutron device. A fast neutron source (Am-Be 241) and a portable backscattering neutron detector are used for water measurement. It theoretically indicates that the slow neutron counts can be correlated to the hydrogen or water level in a paper. The method has the potential of being used by the paper-recycling industry for rapid and non-destructive measurement of water in a bulk of used paper.
It has been observed previously that the physical behaviors of Schmidt number (Sc) and Prandtl number (Pr) of an energy-conserving dissipative particle dynamics (eDPD) fluid can be reproduced by the temperature-dependent weight function appearing in the dissipative force term. In this paper, we proposed a simple and systematic method to develop the temperature-dependent weight function in order to better reproduce the physical fluid properties. The method was then used to study a variety of phase-change problems involving solidification. The concept of the "mushy" eDPD particle was introduced in order to better capture the temperature profile in the vicinity of the solid-liquid interface, particularly for the case involving high thermal conductivity ratio. Meanwhile, a way to implement the constant temperature boundary condition at the wall was presented. The numerical solutions of one- and two-dimensional solidification problems were then compared with the analytical solutions and/or experimental results and the agreements were promising.
In hilly forest area, aligning forest roads is the key towards an effective and sustainable forest management. Constraints in forest road planning are mainly due to environmental factors and topographical conditions. Selecting the criteria for planning forest road and setting the priorities, ranking them for environmental sustainability and reduce cost in road construction is important. Different criteria are required at different forest area since the quantifiable relationship between cause and effect to meet the goal are not comprehensively prioritized. In order to solve the problem, the relative importance factor from multi criteria basis, namely Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was applied. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop priorities and rank a selected criterion for planning forest road in hilly area using AHP approach. Four criteria had been identified to meet the goal of suitable forest road allocation namely slope, river crossing, elevation and existing forest road. The suitable criteria selected were sorted with weight in ranking order to minimize the impact of timber harvesting. Our results showed that the priorities and ranking were as follows; slope (w = 0.558), followed by river crossing (w = 0.303), elevation (w = 0.095) and lastly existing forest road (w = 0.044), respectively. Therefore, the relative preference factor developed in this study can be used by the Forestry Department for formulating suitable forest road allocation in hilly area simultaneously to be integrated with geographic information system technology.
The combustion characteristics of refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a fluidized bed have been studied. The gross heating value (GHv) of the RDF was 14.43 MJIkg with moisture content of 25% by weight. Parameters of interest for sustainable bed combustion were the fluidization number and primary air factor. The study was performed in a rectangular fluidized bed combustor with dimensions of 0.3 m in width, 0.7 m in length and 2 m in height. Sand with mean particle size of 0.34 mm was used as a fluidization medium. The sand bed height was at 0.3 m above the standpipes air distributor. The range of fluidization number under investigation was 5-7 II fin which 5 II newas found to be the optimum. The study was continued for the determination of the optimum primary air factor with the selected range of primary air factors being 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 12 in experiments conducted at 5 Unit The final results showed that the optimum primary air factor was at 0.8. An energy balance was also performed to determine the thermal efficiency of the combustion. It was concluded that the thermal efficiency depended on the bed temperature and the primary air factor being used.
Monitoring clinical activity at the bedside in the intensive care unit (ICU) can provide useful information to evaluate nursing care and patient recovery. However, it is labour intensive to quantify these activities and there is a need for an automated method to record and quantify these activities. This paper presents an automated system, Clinical Activity Tracking System (CATS), to monitor and evaluate clinical activity at the patient's bedside. The CATS uses four Microsoft Kinect infrared sensors to track bedside nursing interventions. The system was tested in a simulated environment where test candidates performed different motion paths in the detection area. Two metrics, 'Distance' and 'Dwell time', were developed to evaluate interventions or workload in the detection area. Results showed that the system can accurately track the intervention performed by individual or multiple subjects. The results of a 30-day, 24-hour preliminary study in an ICU bed space matched clinical expectations. It was found that the average 24-hour intervention is 22.0minutes/hour. The average intervention during the day time (7am-11pm) is 23.6minutes/hour, 1.4 times higher than 11pm-7am, 16.8minutes/hour. This system provides a unique approach to automatically collect and evaluate nursing interventions that can be used to evaluate patient acuity and workload demand.
Matched MeSH terms: Weights and Measures/instrumentation*; Weights and Measures/standards
Accurate values are a must in medicine. An important parameter in determining the quality of a medical instrument is agreement with a gold standard. Various statistical methods have been used to test for agreement. Some of these methods have been shown to be inappropriate. This can result in misleading conclusions about the validity of an instrument. The Bland-Altman method is the most popular method judging by the many citations of the article proposing this method. However, the number of citations does not necessarily mean that this method has been applied in agreement research. No previous study has been conducted to look into this. This is the first systematic review to identify statistical methods used to test for agreement of medical instruments. The proportion of various statistical methods found in this review will also reflect the proportion of medical instruments that have been validated using those particular methods in current clinical practice.
Matched MeSH terms: Weights and Measures/instrumentation; Weights and Measures/standards