The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and rheological properties of butter produced by Lactobacillus helveticus fermented cream. The incorporation of putative probiotic - the L. helveticus, to ferment cream prior to butter production was anticipated to alter the nutritional composition of butter. Changes in crude macronutrients and the resultant modification relating to textural properties of butter induced upon metabolic activities of L. helveticus in cream were focused in this research. Fermented butter (LH-butter) was produced by churning the cream that was fermented by lactobacilli at 37 °C for 24 h. Physicochemical analysis, proximate analysis and rheology properties of LH-butter were compared with butter produced using unfermented cream (control). LH-butter showed a significantly (P<0.05) higher fat content and acid value; lower moisture and ash; and was softer than the control. Cream fermentation modified nutritional and textural properties of butter in which LH-butter contained higher health beneficial unsaturated fatty acids than the control and thus rendered the product softer. Its enrichment with probiotics could thus further enhance its functional property.
The effect of addition of avocado (Persea americana) puree on the physical and microstructure of butter cake was studied.
Butter cakes were made by replacing butter with 10, 30 and 50% of avocado puree. Physical properties including batter
specific gravity, volume, colour and image analysis of cellular structure of the crumb were analyzed. Texture profile
analysis was determined using texture analyzer. The results showed that with the increased amount of avocado puree,
the batter specific gravity increased while volume of the cakes reduced. The texture profile analysis showed that the cakes
became harder as the amount of avocado puree increased, while cohesiveness was not affected. The cellular structure of
the crumb exhibited a decrease in the number of air cells while the average cell size increased with addition of avocado
puree. The colour analysis showed that the cake crumb became darker as the aavocado puree was increased.
The use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometric techniques to differentiate butter from beef fat (BF) was investigated. The spectral bands associated with butter, BF, and their mixtures were scanned, interpreted, and identified by relating them to those spectroscopically representative to pure butter and BF. For quantitative analysis, partial least square (PLS) regression was used to develop a calibration model at the selected fingerprint regions of 1500-1000 cm-1, with the values of coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) are 0.999 and 0.89% (v/v), respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples containing butter in the binary mixtures with BF. Using 6 principal components, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 2.42% (v/v). These results proved that FTIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate calibration can be used for the detection and quantification of BF in butter formulation for authentication use.
Cocoa beans are rich in numbers of beneficial bioactive compounds such as phenolics and
phytosterols, which benefits to human being. The suitable extraction method is needed to
produce high quality and quantity of cocoa butter and other bioactive compounds. There are
many extraction method to extract these compounds such as Soxhlet extraction, supercritical
fluid extraction, ultrasound extraction method and others. The objective of this study is to
determine the effectiveness of the different extraction methods producing high yields of cocoa
butter, lower oxidative value, stable phytosterols and antioxidant content. The cocoa beans were
subjected to different extraction methods such as Soxhlet extraction (SE), Ultrasonic extraction
method (USE), Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2
) and Supercritical carbon dioxide with cosolvent
-Ethanol). Cocoa butter extracted using SCO2
-Ethanol has significantly (p
In dairy product sector, butter is one of the potential sources of fat soluble vitamins, namely vitamin A, D, E, K; consequently, butter is taken into account as high valuable price from other dairy products. This fact has attracted unscrupulous market players to blind butter with other animal fats to gain economic profit. Animal fats like mutton fat (MF) are potential to be mixed with butter due to the similarity in terms of fatty acid composition. This study focused on the application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics for classification and quantification of MF as adulterant in butter. The FTIR spectral region of 3910-710 cm⁻¹ was used for classification between butter and butter blended with MF at various concentrations with the aid of discriminant analysis (DA). DA is able to classify butter and adulterated butter without any mistakenly grouped. For quantitative analysis, partial least square (PLS) regression was used to develop a calibration model at the frequency regions of 3910-710 cm⁻¹. The equation obtained for the relationship between actual value of MF and FTIR predicted values of MF in PLS calibration model was y = 0.998x + 1.033, with the values of coefficient of determination (R²) and root mean square error of calibration are 0.998 and 0.046% (v/v), respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples containing butter in the binary mixtures with MF. Using 9 principal components, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 1.68% (v/v). The results showed that FTIR spectroscopy can be used for the classification and quantification of MF in butter formulation for verification purposes.
The authentication of food products from the presence of non-allowed components for certain religion like lard is very important. In this study, we used proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy for the analysis of butter adulterated with lard by simultaneously quantification of all proton bearing compounds, and consequently all relevant sample classes. Since the spectra obtained were too complex to be analyzed visually by the naked eyes, the classification of spectra was carried out.The multivariate calibration of partial least square (PLS) regression was used for modelling the relationship between actual value of lard and predicted value. The model yielded a highest regression coefficient (R(2)) of 0.998 and the lowest root mean square error calibration (RMSEC) of 0.0091% and root mean square error prediction (RMSEP) of 0.0090, respectively. Cross validation testing evaluates the predictive power of the model. PLS model was shown as good models as the intercept of R(2)Y and Q(2)Y were 0.0853 and -0.309, respectively.
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is developed and used for detection of butter adulteration with lard. Butter has the similar characteristics to lard makes lard a desirable adulterant in butter. DSC provides unique thermal profiling for lard and butter. In the heating thermogram of the mixture, there was one major endothermic peak (peak A) with a smaller shoulder peak embedded in the major peak that gradually smoothed out to the major peak as the lard percent increased. In the cooling thermogram, there were one minor peak (peak B) and two major exothermic peaks, peak C which increased as lard percent increased and peak D which decreased in size as the lard percent increased. From Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (SMLR) analysis, two independent variables were found to be able to predict lard percent adulteration in butter with R2 (adjusted) of 95.82. The SMLR equation of lard percent adulteration in butter is 293.1 - 11.36 (Te A) - 2.17 (Tr D); where Te A is the endset of peak A and Tr D is the range of thermal transition for peak D. These parameters can serve as a good measurement parameter in detecting lard adulteration in butter. DSC is a very useful means for halal screening technique to enhance the authenticity of Halal process.
Introduction: Demand for dietary fibre-enriched and low sugar bakery products is rapidly increasing due to the current high incidence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cinnamon, a spice which acts as a natural sweetener and insulin mimetic is believed to have health benefits. The objective of this study was to determine the properties of butter biscuits containing cinnamon powder (CP) that partially replaced sucrose at levels of 0 (control), 2, 4 or 6%. Methods: Nutritional composition, physical properties and sensory acceptability of the biscuits were analysed using AOAC methods, texture profile analyser and 7-point hedonic scaling method, respectively. Results: Protein, ash and dietary fibre contents of the biscuits increased significantly (P < 0.05) whereas the moisture and sucrose contents were reduced significantly, proportionately to the increasing levels of CP. In texture profile analyses, increment of firmness and reduction of crispiness of the biscuits were detected with increasing levels of CP, but not significantly. The sensory scores for control and 2% CP biscuits were not significantly different for all the sensory attributes. Biscuits with 4% CP received lower scores only for aroma and appearance whereas the scores for colour, crispiness and flavour showed no significant differences compared to the control and 2% CP biscuit. Conclusion: The addition of 4% CP in biscuit could be an effective way to produce nutritious butter biscuits without any apparent change to its desirable physical properties and sensory acceptability.
Banana is a type of fruit that grows in tropical and sub-tropical areas such as Indonesia,
Malaysia, Africa (Madagascar), South America and also central America. Indonesia
itself is the largest banana producing country in Asia because 50% of the production of
banana Asia is produced by Indonesia. This fruit is consumed in the form of fresh (fresh
fruit) because it tastes good. In addition, bananas can be processed into banana chips and
banana butter, but still, a few who processed it into another durable product. Banana
flour has been processed into various types of food, including made into bread, baby
food, pancakes, pastries, dry noodles, and pasta. This study aimed to utilize unripe
bananas into dried noodle food products and evaluate their chemical, physical and
sensory contents. This research was divided into 4 stages, namely the production of
banana flour, the characterization of banana flour, the manufacture of dry noodle
substitution of banana flour and the characterization and sensory analysis of banana flour
substitution noodles. The results showed that unripe banana flour contains 12.91%
moisture content, 0.46% fat content, 1.02% ash content, 4.45% protein content 4.45%,
81.15% carbohydrate content and 2.75% food fiber (dry basis). The resulting unripe
banana flour was then applied as a substance of flour substitution in the manufacture of
noodles. The results showed that noodles that had the same acceptance as control were
noodles containing 10% and 30% unripe banana flour.
This study was aimed to investigate the effects of dietary fatty acids on the accretion pattern of major fat pads, inguinal fat cellularity, and their relation with plasma leptin concentration. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups and received the following diets for 22 weeks: (1) standard rat chow diet (CTRL), (2) CTRL + 10% (w/w) butter (HFAR), (3) CTRL + 3.33% (w/w) menhaden fish oil + 6.67% (w/w) soybean oil (MFAR), and (4) CTRL + 6.67% (w/w) menhaden fish oil + 3.33% (w/w) soybean oil (LFAR). Inguinal fat cellularity and plasma leptin concentration were measured in this study. Results for inguinal fat cellularity showed that the mean adipocyte number for the MFAR (9.2 ∗ 10⁵ ± 3.6) and LFAR (8.5 ∗ 10⁵ ± 5.1) groups was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the rest, while the mean adipocyte diameter of HFAR group was larger (P < 0.05) (46.2 ± 2.8) than the rest. The plasma leptin concentration in the HFAR group was higher (P < 0.05) (3.22 ± 0.32 ng/mL), than the other groups. The higher inguinal fat cellularity clearly indicated the ability of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and butter supplemented diets to induce hyperplasia and hypertrophy of fat cells, respectively, which caused adipocyte remodeling due to hyperleptinemia.