The absence of chromophore and/or conjugated system, prerequisite for UV and florescent light detection, or absorbance at very low wavelength necessitates the development of simple and reliable methods for the determination of amikacin sulphate. Therefore, the present study describes for the first time dynamics of the drug derivatization using ninhydrin reagent and development and validation of a simple RP-HPLC method, using diode array detector (DAD). The variables such as heating time, heating type, drug-reagent ratio, reagent composition and storage temperature of the derivative were optimized. The analyte and aqueous ninhydrin solution upon heating for 2.00-5.00 min produced the colored drug-derivative which was stable for one month at refrigeration. The derivatized drug (20.00μL) was eluted through a column - Eclipse DB-C18 (5.00 µm, 4.60×150.00 mm), maintained at 25°C- using isocratic mobile phase comprising water and acetonitrile (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.00 mL/min, and detected at 400 nm. The method was found to be reliable (98.08-100.72% recovery), repeatable (98.02-100.72% intraday accuracy) and reproducible (98.47-101.27% inter day accuracy) with relative standard deviation less than 5%. The results of the present study indicate that the method is easy to perform, specific and sensitive, and suitable to be used for the determination of amikacin sulphate in bulk and pharmaceutical preparations using less expensive/laborious derivatization.
Cloud point extraction (CPE) is a separation and preconcentration of non-ionic surfactant from one liquid phase to another. In this study, Sylgard 309 and three different types of additives for CPE, namely CPE-Sylgard, CPE-Sylgard-BMIMBr and CPE-Sylgard-GLDA, are investigated to extract methylphenol from water samples. The methylphenols are well separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with isocratic elution of acetonitrile : water; 60 : 40 (v/v) and detection at 260 nm. The optimized parameters for the effect of salt, surfactant, temperature, time of extraction, pH, interference study and the performance of different additives on methylphenol extraction are investigated. CPE-Sylgard-GLDA is chosen because it gives us a high peak and good peak area compared with CPE-Sylgard and CPE-Sylgard-BMIMBr. The recovery extractions of CPE-Sylgard-GLDA are obtained in the range of 80-99% as the percentage of relative standard deviation (RSD) is less than 10. The LOD and LOQ are 0.05 ppm and 0.18 ppm, respectively. The method developed for CPE-Sylgard-GLDA coupled with HPLC is feasible for the determination of methylphenol because it is simple, effective, cheap, and produces a high percentage of recovery.
A novel, simple reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) analytical method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of asenapine from various nanoemulsion components during pre-formulation screening. The developed method was validated according to ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines. The developed and validated method was precisely and accurately quantified asenapine in various oils, surfactants and co-surfactants. The separation of asenapine was carried out on Hypersil BDS C18, 250×4.6mm, 5μm particle size column using methanol: acetonitrile (90:10) as mobile phase with a flow rate of 1mL.min-1. Measurement at 270nm for the concentration range of 5 to 50μg.mL-1 of the analyte was found to be linear with the determination coefficient (r2) of 0.999 as calculated by the least square regression method. The validated method was sensitive with LOD of 10.0ng.mL-1 and LOQ of 30.0ng.mL-1. Further, the method was precise and accurate, where the intraday and interday precision values were ranged from 0.70-0.95 and 0.36-0.95, respectively with the corresponding accuracy were ranged from 98.80-100.63 and 98.36-100.63. This developed and validated RP-HPLC method for asenapine was applied in the quantitative determination and screening of various oils, surfactants, and co-surfactants during the development of the asenapine maleate nanoemulsion.
This work describes a RP-HPLC method for the determination and interaction studies of cefpirome with ACE-inhibitors (captopril, enalapril and lisinopril) in various buffers. The separation and interaction of cefpirome with ACE-inhibitors was achieved on a Purospher Star, C18 (5 μm, 250×4.6 mm) column. Mobile phase consisted of methanol: water (80:20, v/v, pH 3.3); however, for the separation of lisinopril, it was modified to methanol-water (40:60, v/v, pH 3.3) and pumped at a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1). In all cases, UV detection was performed at 225 nm. Interactions were carried out in physiological pH i.e., pH 1 (simulated gastric juice), 4 (simulated full stomach), 7.4 (blood pH) and 9 (simulated GI), drug contents were analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Method was found linear in the concentration range of 1.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) with correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.999. Precision (RSD%) was less than 2.0%, indicating good precision of the method and accuracy was 98.0-100.0%. Furthermore, cefpirome-ACE-inhibitors' complexes were also synthesized and results were elucidated on the basis of FT-IR, and (1)H NMR. The interaction results show that these interactions are pH dependent and for the co-administration of cefpirome and ACE-inhibitors, a proper interval should be given.
In-house method validation was conducted to determine amino acid composition in gelatin by a pre-column derivatization procedure with the 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate reagent. The analytical parameters revealed that the validated method was capable of selectively performing a good chromatographic separation for 18 amino acids in less than 40 min; the overall detection and quantitation limit for amino acids fell into ranges of 5.68-12.48 and 36.0-39.0 pmol/μl, respectively; the matrix effect was not observed, and the linearity range was 37.5-1000 pmol/μl. The accuracy (precision and recovery) analyses of the method were conducted under repeatable conditions on different days in random order. Method precision revealed by HorRat values was significantly less than 2, except for histidine with a precision of 2.19, and the method recoveries had a range of 80-115% except for alanine which was recovered at 79.4%. The findings were reproducible and accurately defined, and the method was found to be suited to routine analysis of amino acid composition in gelatin-based ingredients.
A rapid reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method using a monolithic column for the determination of eight catechin monomers and caffeine was developed. Using a mobile phase of water:acetonitrile:methanol (83:6:11) at a flow rate of 1.4 mL min(-1), the catechins and caffeine were isocratically separated in about 7 min. The limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 0.11-0.29 and 0.33-0.87 mg L(-1), respectively. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained (94.2-105.2 ± 1.8%) for all samples when spiked at three concentrations (5, 40 and 70 mg L(-1)). In combination with microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), the method was applied to the determination of the catechins and caffeine in eleven tea samples (6 green, 3 black and 2 oolong teas). Relatively high levels of caffeine were found in black tea, but higher levels of the catechins, especially epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) were found in green teas.
The palm oil industry generates several byproducts, and more than half of the dry weight of the waste is of oil palm leaf whereby the tissue is underutilized. Recently, several research studies found promising potential of oil palm fronds as a source of nutraceutical due to its bioactive properties. However, the chemical composition of the tissue is still not deciphered. Using reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), glycosylated apigenin and luteolin were separated and identified from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) leaf and structures of the constituents were elucidated by collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem MS. From 28 derivatives of the flavones, 9 compounds were conjugated with hydroxymethylglutaric (HMG) acid. Improved knowledge on oil palm especially on bioactive component of the leaf tissue will allow correlation of its beneficial effects and further promotes efficient utilization of this agriculture byproduct.
A detailed procedure for estimating uncertainty according to the Laboratory of Government Chemists/Valid Analytical Measurement (LGC/VAM) protocol for determination of 18 amino acids in gelatin is proposed. The expanded uncertainty was estimated using mainly the method validation data (precision and trueness). Other sources of uncertainties were contributed by components in standard preparation measurements. The method scope covered a single matrix (gelatin) under a wide range of analyte concentrations. The uncertainty of method precision, μ(P) was 0.0237-0.1128pmolμl(-1) in which hydroxyproline and histidine represented the lowest and highest values of uncertainties, respectively. Proline and phenylalanine represented the lowest and highest uncertainties value for method recovery, μ(R) that was estimated within 0.0064-0.0995pmolμl(-1). The uncertainties from other sources, μ(Std) were 0.0325, 0.0428 and 0.0413pmolμl(-1) that were contributed by hydroxyproline, other amino acids and cystine, respectively. Hydroxyproline and phenylalanine represented the lowest and highest values of expanded uncertainty, U(y) that were determined at 0.0949 and 0.2473pmolμl(-1), respectively. The data were accurately defined and fulfill the technical requirements of ISO 17025:2005.
This study was conducted to determine radical scavenging activity and vitamin antioxidant composition in red pitaya from organic plantation. For antioxidant vitamins analysis, a reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography was used and radical scavenging activity of methanolic and water extract were determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-pircrylhydrazyl assay. Results for radical scavenging activity, red pitaya methanolic extract achieved the highest percentage 70.13% compared with water extract (47.13%). Antioxidant vitamins composition in red pitaya showed that the concentration of vitamin A is 120.13 ± 0.69 μg/100 g freeze-dried sample, vitamin C is 540.27 ± 0.59 μg/100 g fresh samples and vitamin E is 105.67 ± 0.56 μg/100 g freeze-dried samples. This shows that red pitaya may become an alternative and potential source of natural antioxidant.
A study was carried out to compare the composition and thermal profiles of the fat component of six brands of commercial biscuits (BA, BB, BC, BD, BE & BF) with those of lard and palm oil. Extraction of fat from biscuit samples was done using petroleum ether according to the soxhlet extraction procedure. The isolated fat samples along with lard and palm oil were analyzed using gas liquid chromatography (GLC), reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). According to GLC analysis, palm oil, lard and all six biscuit brands had either palmitic or oleic acid as major fatty acids. Sn-2 positional analysis of fatty acids showed that oleic (> 60%) as the most dominant fatty acid of palm oil and biscuit brands BA, BB, BC, and BD while palmitic (> 60%) as the most dominant fatty acid of lard and biscuit brands BE and BF. RP-HPLC analysis showed that the triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles of lard and biscuit brands BE and BF were closely similar while those of brands BA, BB, BC, and BD and palm oil were similar. DSC analysis showed that the cooling and heating profiles of lard and brands BE and BF were similar, while those of palm oil and brands BA, BB, BC, and BD were similar. Hence, this study concluded that biscuit brands BE and BF are not suitable for consumers whose religious restriction prohibit the use of lard as food ingredient.
The effect of different drying methods on the degradation of flavonoids in Centella asiatica was evaluated. C. asiatica leaf, root and petiole were dried using air-oven, vacuum oven and freeze drier. Flavonoid was determined utilizing reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Results of the study revealed the presence of high concentration of flavonoids in C. asiatica leaf, root and petiole, which include, naringin (4688.8 ± 69 μg/100 g, 3561.3 ± 205 μg/ 100 g, and 978.3 ± 96 μg/ 100 g), rutin (905.6 ± 123 μg/ 100 g, 756.07 ± 95 μg/ 100 g, and 557.25 ± 58 μg/ 100 g), quercetin (3501.1 ± 107 μg/ 100 g, 1086.31 ± 90 μg/ 100 g, and 947.63 ± 83 μg/ 100 g) and catechin (915.87 ± 6.01 μg/ 100 g, 400.6 ± 67 μg/ 100 g, and 250.56 ± 18 μg/ 100g). Luteolin, kaempferol and apigenin on the other hand, were inconsistently present in some parts of C. asiatica. Air-oven treatment resulted in the highest total flavonoids degradation followed by vacuum oven and freeze dried with percent degradation of 97%, 87.6% and 73%, respectively. Catechin and rutin were found to be the most stable flavonoids with percent degradation up to 35%, 66% and 76% for freeze dried, vacuum oven and air oven, respectively.
Snake venoms are complex mixtures of proteins and peptides that play vital roles in the survival of venomous snakes. As with their diverse pharmacological activities, snake venoms can be highly variable, hence the importance of understanding the compositional details of different snake venoms. However, profiling venom protein mixtures is challenging, in particular when dealing with the diversity of protein subtypes and their abundances. Here we described an optimized strategy combining a protein decomplexation method with in-solution trypsin digestion and mass spectrometry of snake venom proteins. The approach involves the integrated use of C18 reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nano-ESI-LC-MS/MS).
The seeds of C. cleomifolia (locally known as kacang hantu) collected along Simpang Pulai - Berinchang Road, Cameron Highlands, was defatted with hexane and the resulting oil was analysed for their physico-chemical properties. The percentage yield of the oil was calculated as 5.3%. The acid value (1.2%), iodine value (85), peroxide value (0.6), saponification value (192.0) and unsaponifiable matter (2.3%) were determined to assess the quality of the oil. The physico-chemical characterisation showed that C. cleomifolia seeds oil is unsaturated semi-drying oil, with high saponifi cation and acidic values. The fatty acid composition of C. cleomifolia seed oil was determined by Gas Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (ToF). The seed oil of C. cleomifolia contained linoleic acid (57.59%) and palmitic acid (5.07%), the most abundant unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, respectively. The polyunsaturated triacylglycerol (TAG) in C. cleomifolia seed oil determined by reverse phase High performance Liquid Chromatography; contained as PLL (18.04%) followed by POL + SLL (11.92%), OOL (7.04%) and PLLn (6.31%). The melting and cooling point of the oil were 16.22°C and -33.54°C, respectively
The main goal of the present research was to explore the seasonal variation of deoxynivalenol (DON) in wheat, corn, and their products, collected during 2018-2019. Samples of 449 of wheat and products and 270 samples of corn and their products were examined using reverse-phase liquid chromatography with a UV detector. The findings of the present work showed that 104 (44.8%) samples of wheat and products from the summer season, and 91 (41.9%) samples from winter season were contaminated with DON (concentration limit of detections (LOD) to 2145 µg/kg and LOD to 2050 µg/kg), from summer and winter seasons, respectively. In corn and products, 87 (61.2%) samples from summer and 57 (44.5%) samples from winter season were polluted with DON with levels ranging from LOD to 2967 µg/kg and LOD to 2490 µg/kg, from the summer and winter season, respectively. The highest dietary intake of DON was determined in wheat flour 8.84 µg/kg body weight/day from the summer season, and 7.21 µg/kg body weight/day from the winter season. The findings of the work argued the need to implement stringent guidelines and create awareness among farmers, stakeholders, and traders of the harmful effect of DON. It is mostly observed that cereal crops are transported and stockpiled in jute bags, which may absorb moisture from the environment and produce favorable conditions for fungal growth. Therefore, these crops must store in polyethylene bags during transportation and storage, and moisture should be controlled. It is highly desirable to use those varieties that are more resistant to fungi attack. Humidity and moisture levels need to be controlled during storage and transportation.
ABSTRACT: A total of 133 samples of whole wheat and barley grains and wheat and barley flour collected from retail markets in the main cities of Punjab, Pakistan, were analyzed for the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Of these samples, 120 (90%) were positive for FB1, and 75 (63%) of the 120 positive samples had FB1 concentrations higher than the European Union maximum (200 μg/kg). The limit of detection was 4 μg/kg. The highest mean (±SD) concentration of FB1 was found in whole wheat samples, 980.5 ± 211.4 μg/kg. The calculated dietary intakes of FB1 from wheat and barley flours were 4,456 and 503.7 ng/g of body weight per day, respectively.
The development of a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography fluorescence method for the determination of the mycotoxins fumonisin B(1) and fumonisin B(2) by using silica-based monolithic column is described. The samples were first extracted using acetonitrile:water (50:50, v/v) and purified by using a C(18) solid phase extraction-based clean-up column. Then, pre-column derivatization for the analyte using ortho-phthaldialdehyde in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol was carried out. The developed method involved optimization of mobile phase composition using methanol and phosphate buffer, injection volume, temperature and flow rate. The liquid chromatographic separation was performed using a reversed phase Chromolith(®) RP-18e column (100 mm × 4.6 mm) at 30 °C and eluted with a mobile phase of a mixture of methanol and phosphate buffer pH 3.35 (78:22, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). The fumonisins separation was achieved in about 4 min, compared to approximately 20 min by using a C(18) particle-packed column. The fluorescence excitation and emission were at 335 nm and 440 nm, respectively. The limits of detections were 0.01-0.04 μg g(-1) fumonisin B(1) and fumonisin B(2), respectively. Good recoveries were found for spiked samples (0.1, 0.5, 1.5 μg g(-1) fumonisins B(1) and B(2)), ranging from 84.0 to 106.0% for fumonisin B(1) and from 81.0 to 103.0% for fumonisin B(2). Fifty-three samples were analyzed including 39 food and feeds and 14 inoculated corn and rice. Results show that 12.8% of the food and feed samples were contaminated with fumonisin B(1) (range, 0.01-0.51 μg g(-1)) and fumonisin B(2) (0.05 μg g(-1)). The total fumonisins in these samples however, do not exceed the legal limits established by the European Union of 0.8 μg g(-1). Of the 14 inoculated samples, 57.1% contained fumonisin B(1) (0.16-41.0 μg g(-1)) and fumonisin B(2) (range, 0.22-50.0 μg g(-1)). Positive confirmation of selected samples was carried out using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, using triple quadrupole analyzer and operated in the multiple reaction monitoring mode.
A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D) has been developed for the separation and the simultaneous determination of five underivatized long chain fatty acids (FAs), namely myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. An isocratic elution mode using methanol/1mM sodium acetate (78:22, v/v) as mobile phase with a flow rate of 0.6 mL min(-1) was used. The separation was effected by using a Hypersil ODS C(18) analytical column (250 mm x 4.6 mm x 5 microm) and was operated at 45 degrees C. Calibration curves of the five FAs were well correlated (r(2)>0.999) within the range of 5- 200 microg mL(-1) for stearic acid, and 2-200 microg mL(-1) for the other FAs. The proposed method was tested on four vegetable oils, i.e., pumpkin, soybean, rice bran and palm olein oils; good agreement was found with the standard gas chromatographic (GC) method. The proposed method offers distinct advantages over the official GC method, especially in terms of simplicity, faster separation times and sensitivity.
Heliotropium is one of the most important plant genera to have conventional folklore importance, and hence is a potential source of bioactive compounds. Thus, the present study was designed to explore the therapeutic potential of Heliotropium crispum Desf., a relatively under-explored medicinal plant species. Methanolic extracts prepared from a whole plant of H. crispum were studied for phytochemical composition and possible in vitro and in silico biological properties. Antioxidant potential was assessed via six different assays, and enzyme inhibition potential against key clinical enzymes involved in neurodegenerative diseases (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)), diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase), and skin problems (tyrosinase) was assayed. Phytochemical composition was established via determination of the total bioactive contents and reverse phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (RP-UHPLC-MS) analysis. Chemical profiling revealed the tentative presence of 50 secondary metabolites. The plant extract exhibited significant inhibition against AChE and BChE enzymes, with values of 3.80 and 3.44 mg GALAE/g extract, respectively. Further, the extract displayed considerable free radical scavenging activity against DPPH and ABTS radicals, with potential values of 43.19 and 41.80 mg TE/g extract, respectively. In addition, the selected compounds were then docked against the tested enzymes, which have shown high inhibition affinity. To conclude, H. crispum was found to harbor bioactive compounds and showed potent biological activities which could be further explored for potential uses in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries, particularly as a neuroprotective agent.
A simple sample preparation technique coupled with reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was developed for the determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in cereals. The sample preparation procedure involved a small-scale hydrolysis of 0.5g cereal sample by saponification, followed by the extraction and concentration of tocopherols and tocotrienols from saponified extract using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). Parameters affecting the DLLME performance were optimized to achieve the highest extraction efficiency and the performance of the developed DLLME method was evaluated. Good linearity was observed over the range assayed (0.031-4.0μg/mL) with regression coefficients greater than 0.9989 for all tocopherols and tocotrienols. Limits of detection and enrichment factors ranged from 0.01 to 0.11μg/mL and 50 to 73, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precision were lower than 8.9% and the recoveries were around 85.5-116.6% for all tocopherols and tocotrienols. The developed DLLME method was successfully applied to cereals: rice, barley, oat, wheat, corn and millet. This new sample preparation approach represents an inexpensive, rapid, simple and precise sample cleanup and concentration method for the determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in cereals.
In this study, a simple and reliable reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was established and validated to analyze S-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylase activity of a recombinant CYP2C19 system. This system was obtained by co-expressing CYP2C19 and NADPH-CYP oxidoreductase (OxR) proteins in Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells. In addition to RP-HPLC, the expressed proteins were evaluated by immunoblotting and reduced CO difference spectral scanning. The RP-HPLC assay showed good linearity (r(2) = 1.00) with 4-hydroxymephenytoin concentration from 0.100 to 50.0 μm and the limit of detection was 5.00 × 10(-2) μm. Intraday and interday precisions determined were from 1.90 to 8.19% and from 2.20 to 14.9%, respectively. Recovery and accuracy of the assay were from 83.5 to 85.8% and from 95.0 to 105%. Enzyme kinetic parameters (Km , Vmax and Ki ) were comparable to reported values. The presence of CYP2C19 in bacterial membranes was confirmed by immunoblotting and the characteristic absorbance peak at 450 nm was determined in the reduced CO difference spectral assay. Moreover, the activity level of co-expressed OxR was found to be comparable to that of the literature. As a conclusion, the procedures described here have generated catalytically active CYP2C19 and the RP-HPLC assay developed is able to serve as CYP2C19 activity marker for pharmacokinetic drug interaction study in vitro.