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  1. Kah Hay Yuen, Kok Khiang Peh
    J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Sci. Appl., 1998 Jun 12;710(1-2):243-6.
    PMID: 9686895
    A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method using ultraviolet detection was developed for the determination of metformin in human plasma. The method entailed direct injection of the plasma sample after deproteination using perchloric acid. The mobile phase comprised 0.01 M potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (pH 3.5) and acetonitrile (60:40, v/v). Analyses were run at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min with the detector operating at a detection wavelength of 234 nm. The method is specific and sensitive, with a quantification limit of approximately 60 ng/ml and a detection limit of 15 ng/ml at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1. The mean absolute recovery value was about 97%, while the within-day and between-day coefficient of variation and percent error values of the assay method were all less than 8%. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 62.5-4000 ng/ml.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacokinetics
  2. Yuen KH, Wong JW, Billa N, Julianto T, Toh WT
    Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther, 1999 Jul;37(7):319-22.
    PMID: 10442505
    The bioavailability of a generic preparation of metformin (Diabetmin from Hovid Sdn Bhd) was evaluated in comparison with a proprietary product (Glucophage from Lipha Pharma Ltd., UK).
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacokinetics*
  3. Ruzilawati AB, Mohd Suhaimi AW, Gan SH
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2010 Feb;35(1):105-12.
    PMID: 20175819 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2009.01042.x
    To estimate population pharmacokinetic parameters of repaglinide in 121 healthy Malaysian volunteers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacokinetics*
  4. Razavi M, Karimian H, Yeong CH, Chung LY, Nyamathulla S, Noordin MI
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:4373-86.
    PMID: 26273196 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S86263
    The present research was aimed at formulating a metformin HCl sustained-release formulation from a combination of polymers, using the wet granulation technique. A total of 16 formulations (F1-F16) were produced using different combinations of the gel-forming polymers: tamarind kernel powder, salep (palmate tubers of Orchis morio), and xanthan. Post-compression studies showed that there were no interactions between the active drug and the polymers. Results of in vitro drug-release studies indicated that the F10 formulation which contained 5 mg of tamarind kernel powder, 33.33 mg of xanthan, and 61.67 mg of salep could sustain a 95% release in 12 hours. The results also showed that F2 had a 55% similarity factor with the commercial formulation (C-ER), and the release kinetics were explained with zero order and Higuchi models. The in vivo study was performed in New Zealand White rabbits by gamma scintigraphy; the F10 formulation was radiolabeled using samarium (III) oxide ((153)Sm2O3) to trace transit of the tablets in the gastrointestinal tract. The in vivo data supported the retention of F10 formulation in the gastric region for 12 hours. In conclusion, the use of a combination of polymers in this study helped to develop an optimal gastroretentive drug-delivery system with improved bioavailability, swelling, and floating characteristics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacokinetics
  5. Balakumar P, Sundram K, Dhanaraj SA
    Pharmacol. Res., 2014 Apr;82:34-9.
    PMID: 24705156 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2014.03.008
    Diabetes mellitus is a greatly challenging disease of the 21 century, and the mortality rate due to this insidious disease is increasing worldwide in spite of availability of effective oral hypoglycemic agents. Satisfactory management of glycemic control in patients afflicted with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains a major clinical challenge. Identification of potential pharmacological target sites is therefore continuing as an integral part of the diabetic research. The sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) expressed in the renal proximal tubule plays an essential role in glucose reabsorption. Pharmacological blockade of SGLT2 prevents glucose reabsorption and subsequently induces the elimination of filtered glucose via urine, the process is known as 'glucuresis'. Dapagliflozin is a selective inhibitor of SGLT2. The US FDA approved dapagliflozin in January 2014 to improve glycemic control along with diet and exercise in adult patients afflicted with T2DM. It has a potential to decrease glycated hemoglobin and to promote weight loss. Although the mechanism of action of dapagliflozin is not directly linked with insulin or insulin sensitivity, reduction of plasma glucose by dapagliflozin via induction of glucosuria could improve muscle insulin sensitivity. Moreover, dapagliflozin could cause diuresis and subsequently fall in blood pressure. In addition to general discussion on the pharmacology of dapagliflozin, we propose in this review the possibilities of dual antidiabetic effect of dapagliflozin and its possible additional beneficial actions in hypertensive-obese-T2DM patients through its indirect blood pressure-lowering action and reduction of body calories and weight. Long-term clinical studies are however needed to clarify this contention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacokinetics
  6. Wong TW
    Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul, 2009 Jan;3(1):8-25.
    PMID: 19149726
    The global burden of diabetes is estimated to escalate from about 171 million in 2000 to 366 million people in 2030. The routine of diabetes treatment by injection of insulin incurs pain and has been one major factor negating the quality of life of diabetic patients. The possibility of administering insulin via alternative routes such as oral and nasal pathways has been investigated over the years, but with insulin experiencing risks of enzymatic degradation and poor transmucosal absorption. This leads to the rising needs to develop new formulation strategies emphasizing on the assembly of insulin and excipients into a physical structure to maintain the stability and increase the bioavailability of insulin. Chitosan and its derivatives or salts have been widely investigated as functional excipients of delivering insulin via oral, nasal and transdermal routes. The overview of various recent patented strategies on non-injection insulin delivery denotes the significance of chitosan for its mucoadhesive and able to protect the insulin from enzymatic degradation, prolong the retention time of insulin, as well as, open the inter-epithelial tight junction to facilitate systemic insulin transport. The chitosan can be employed to strengthen the physicochemical stability of insulin and multi-particulate matrix. The introduction of chitosan coat or co-formulation of chitosan with cationic gelatin or electrolytes which provide solidified or partially crosslinked structures retain and/or enhance the positive charges of dosage form necessary to induce mucoadhesiveness. The chitosan is modifiable chemically to produce water-soluble low molecular weight polymer which renders insulin able to be processed under mild conditions, and sulphated chitosan which markedly opens the paracellular channels for insulin transport. Combination of chitosan and fatty acid as hydrophobic nanoparticles promotes the insulin absorption via lymphoid tissue. Attainment of optimized formulations with higher levels of pharmacological bioavailability is deemed possible in future through targeted delivery of insulin using chitosan with specific adhesiveness to the intended absorption mucosa.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacokinetics
  7. Ruzilawati AB, Wahab MS, Imran A, Ismail Z, Gan SH
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2007 Apr 11;43(5):1831-5.
    PMID: 17240100
    In this study, the development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for determination of repaglinide concentration in human plasma for pharmacokinetic studies is described. Plasma samples containing repaglinide and an internal standard, indomethacin were extracted with ethylacetate at pH 7.4. The recovery of repaglinide was 92%+/-55.31. Chromatographic separations were performed on Purospher STAR C-18 analytical column (4.8 mm x 150 mm; 5 microm particle size). The mobile phase composed of acetonitrile-ammonium formate (pH 2.7; 0.01 M) (60:40, v/v). The flow rate was 1 ml/min. The retention time for repaglinide and indomethacin were approximately 6.2 and 5.3 min, respectively. Calibration curves of repaglinide were linear in the concentration range of 20-200 ng/ml in plasma. The limits of detection and quantification were 10 ng/ml and 20 ng/ml, respectively. The inter-day precision was from 5.21 to 11.84% and the intra-day precision ranged from 3.90 to 6.67%. The inter-day accuracy ranged 89.95 to 105.75% and intra-day accuracy ranged from 92.37 to 104.66%. This method was applied to determine repaglinide concentration in human plasma samples for a pharmacokinetic study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacokinetics*
  8. Leong XY, Thanikachalam PV, Pandey M, Ramamurthy S
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2016 Dec;84:1051-1060.
    PMID: 27780133 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.10.044
    BACKGROUND: Swertiamarin, is a secoiridoid glycoside found in genera of Enicostemma Species (Enicostemma littorale and Enicostemma axillare) belonging to the family of gentianaceae, which has been reported to cure many diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, arthritis, malaria and abdominal ulcers. However, to the best of our knowledge, till date systematic studies to understand the molecular basis of cardiac and metabolic disease preventing properties of swertiamarin has not been reported.

    AIM OF THE REVIEW: The present review aims to compile an up-to-date information on the progress made in the protective role of swertiamarin in cardiac and metabolic diseases with the objective of providing a guide for future research on this bioactive molecule.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information on the swertiamarin was collected from major scientific databases (Pubmed, Springer, google scholar, and Web of Science) for publication between1974-2016. In this review, the protective role of swertiamarin on cardiac and metabolic diseases was discussed.

    RESULTS: Swertiamarin reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities such as anti-atherosclerotic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. These activities were mainly due to its effect on various signaling pathways associated with cardiac remodeling events such as inhibition of NF-kB expression, LDL oxidation, apoptosis, inflammatory and lipid peroxidation markers and stimulation of antioxidant enzymes.

    CONCLUSION: Sweriamarin exhibit a wide range of biological activities. This review presents evidence supporting the point of view that swertiamarin should be considered a potential therapeutic agent against cardiac and metabolic diseases, giving rise to novel applications in their prevention and treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacokinetics
  9. Das S, Roy P, Pal R, Auddy RG, Chakraborti AS, Mukherjee A
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(7):e101818.
    PMID: 24991800 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101818
    Silybin, is one imminent therapeutic for drug induced hepatotoxicity, human prostate adenocarcinoma and other degenerative organ diseases. Recent evidences suggest that silybin influences gluconeogenesis pathways favorably and is beneficial in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The compound however is constrained due to solubility (0.4 mg/mL) and bioavailabilty limitations. Appropriate nanoparticle design for silybin in biocompatible polymers was thus proposed as a probable solution for therapeutic inadequacy. New surface engineered biopolymeric nanoparticles with high silybin encapsulation efficiency of 92.11% and zeta potential of +21 mV were designed. Both the pure compound and the nanoparticles were evaluated in vivo for the first time in experimental diabetic conditions. Animal health recovered substantially and the blood glucose levels came down to near normal values after 28 days treatment schedule with the engineered nanoparticles. Restoration from hyperglycemic damage condition was traced to serum insulin regeneration. Serum insulin recovered from the streptozotocin induced pancreatic damage levels of 0.17 ± 0.01 µg/lit to 0.57 ± 0.11 µg/lit after nanoparticle treatment. Significant reduction in glycated hemoglobin level, and restoration of liver glycogen content were some of the other interesting observations. Engineered silybin nanoparticle assisted recovery in diabetic conditions was reasoned due to improved silybin dissolution, passive transport in nanoscale, and restoration of antioxidant status.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacokinetics
  10. Duong JK, Kumar SS, Kirkpatrick CM, Greenup LC, Arora M, Lee TC, et al.
    Clin Pharmacokinet, 2013 May;52(5):373-84.
    PMID: 23475568 DOI: 10.1007/s40262-013-0046-9
    Metformin is contraindicated in patients with renal impairment; however, there is poor adherence to current dosing guidelines. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of metformin in patients with significant renal impairment are not well described. The aims of this study were to investigate factors influencing the pharmacokinetic variability, including variant transporters, between healthy subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to simulate doses of metformin at varying stages of renal function.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacokinetics
  11. Razavi M, Karimian H, Yeong CH, Sarji SA, Chung LY, Nyamathulla S, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:3125-39.
    PMID: 26124637 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S82935
    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo performance of gastro-retentive matrix tablets having Metformin HCl as model drug and combination of natural polymers. A total of 16 formulations were prepared by a wet granulation method using xanthan, tamarind seed powder, tamarind kernel powder and salep as the gel-forming agents and sodium bicarbonate as a gas-forming agent. All the formulations were evaluated for compendial and non-compendial tests and in vitro study was carried out on a USP-II dissolution apparatus at a paddle speed of 50 rpm. MOX2 formulation, composed of salep and xanthan in the ratio of 4:1 with 96.9% release, was considered as the optimum formulation with more than 90% release in 12 hours and short floating lag time. In vivo study was carried out using gamma scintigraphy in New Zealand White rabbits, optimized formulation was incorporated with 10 mg of (153)Sm for labeling MOX2 formulation. The radioactive samarium oxide was used as the marker to trace transit of the tablets in the gastrointestinal tract. The in vivo data also supported retention of MOX2 formulation in the gastric region for 12 hours and were different from the control formulation without a gas and gel forming agent. It was concluded that the prepared floating gastro-retentive matrix tablets had a sustained-release effect in vitro and in vivo, gamma scintigraphy played an important role in locating the oral transit and the drug-release pattern.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacokinetics*
  12. Wong TW, Sumiran N, Mokhtar MT, Kadir A
    Pharm Biol, 2012 Nov;50(11):1463-6.
    PMID: 22889006 DOI: 10.3109/13880209.2012.679985
    In oral insulin delivery, blood glucose profiles of a subject can be a function of complicated transfer of water and insulin between gastrointestinal and blood compartments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacokinetics
  13. Ruzilawati AB, Gan SH
    Pharmacology, 2010;85(6):357-64.
    PMID: 20523106 DOI: 10.1159/000302731
    AIM: To investigate the effects of CYP3A4 and CYP2C8 enzymes on repaglinide's pharmacokinetics in healthy Malaysian subjects.

    METHODS: Subjects (n = 121) received oral repaglinide (4 mg). Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min and serum concentrations of repaglinide were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Subjects were also genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for CYP3A4*4, *5 and*18 and by an allele-specific multiplex PCR for CYP2C8*2, *3, *4 and *5 alleles.

    RESULTS: The allele frequencies of CYP2C8*1, *2, *3, *4 and *5 were 95.04, 0.40, 0.40, 0 and 4.13%, respectively. The frequencies of the CYP3A4*1, *4, *5 and *18 alleles were 97.93, 0, 0 and 2.07%, respectively. CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 genotypes were not significantly associated with repaglinide's blood glucose-lowering effect. However, the CYP3A4 genotype significantly influenced some of repaglinide's pharmacokinetics, where the mean elimination rate constant was 44.0% lower (p = 0.04) and the mean half-life was 33.8% higher (p = 0.04) in subjects with the CYP3A4*1/*18 genotype as compared to those with the normal CYP3A4*1/*1 genotype. This result confirms that CYP3A4 plays a large role in metabolizing repaglinide.

    CONCLUSION: Genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A4, specifically CYP3A4*18, play a major role in contributing to the interindividual variability in repaglinide's pharmacokinetics.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacokinetics
  14. Bera H, Mothe S, Maiti S, Vanga S
    Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 2018 Feb;107(Pt A):604-614.
    PMID: 28916379 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.09.027
    Novel carboxymethyl fenugreek galactomannan (CFG)-gellan gum (GG)-calcium silicate (CS) composite beads were developed for controlled glimepiride (GLI) delivery. CFG having degree of carboxymethylation of 0.71 was synthesized and characterized by FTIR, DSC and XRD analyses. Subsequently, GLI-loaded hybrids were accomplished by ionotropic gelation technique employing Ca+2/Zn+2/Al+3 ions as cross-linkers. All the formulations demonstrated excellent drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, 48-97%) and sustained drug release behaviour (Q8h, 62-94%). These quality attributes were remarkably influenced by polymer-blend (GG:CFG) ratios, cross-linker types and CS inclusion. The drug release profile of the optimized formulation (F-6) was best fitted in zero-order model with anomalous diffusion driven mechanism. It also conferred excellent ex vivo mucoadhesive property and considerable hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, the beads were characterized for drug-excipients compatibility, drug crystallinity, thermal behaviour and surface morphology. Thus, the developed hybrid matrices are appropriate for controlled delivery of GLI for Type 2 diabetes management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacokinetics*
  15. Sharma AK, Thanikachalam PV, Rajput SK
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2016 Feb;77:120-8.
    PMID: 26796275 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2015.12.015
    Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the chronic metabolic disorder which provokes several pitfall signalling. Though, a series of anti-diabetic drugs are available in the market but T2DM is still a huge burden on the developed and developing countries. Numerous studies and survey predict the associated baleful circumstances in near future due to incessant increase in this insidious disorder. The novelty of recent explored anti-diabetic drugs including glitazone, glitazaar and gliflozines seems to be vanished due to their associated toxic side effects. Brown and Dryburgh (1970) isolated an intestinal amino acid known as gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) which had insulinotropic activity. Subsequently in 1985, another incretin glucagon likes peptide 1 (GLP-1) having potent insulinotropic properties was discovered by Schmidt and his co-workers. On the basis of results' obtained by Phase III Harmony program FDA approved (14 April, 2014) new GLP-1 agonist 'Albiglutide (ALB)', in addition to exiting components Exenatide (Eli Lilly, 2005) and Liraglutide (Novo Nordisk, 2010). ALB stimulates the release of protein kinase A (PKA) via different mechanisms which ultimately leads to increase in intracellular Ca(2+) levels. This increased intracellular Ca(2+) releases insulin vesicle from β-cells. In-addition, ALB being resistant to degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) and has longer half life. DPP-4 can significantly degrade the level of GLP-1 agonist by hydrolysis. In spite of potent anti-hypergycemic activity, ALB has pleiotropic action of improving cardiovascular physiology. In light of these viewpoints we reveal the individual pharmacological profile of ALB and the critical analyse about its future perspective in present review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacokinetics
  16. Loganadan NK, Huri HZ, Vethakkan SR, Hussein Z
    Pharmacogenomics J., 2016 06;16(3):209-19.
    PMID: 26810132 DOI: 10.1038/tpj.2015.95
    The clinical response to sulphonylurea, an oral antidiabetic agent often used in combination with metformin to control blood glucose in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients, has been widely associated with a number of gene polymorphisms, particularly those involved in insulin release. We have reviewed the genetic markers of CYP2C9, ABCC8, KCNJ11, TCF7L2 (transcription factor 7-like 2), IRS-1 (insulin receptor substrate-1), CDKAL1, CDKN2A/2B, KCNQ1 and NOS1AP (nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein) genes that predict treatment outcomes of sulphonylurea therapy. A convincing pattern for poor sulphonylurea response was observed in Caucasian T2DM patients with rs7903146 and rs1801278 polymorphisms of the TCF7L2 and IRS-1 genes, respectively. However, limitations in evaluating the available studies including dissimilarities in study design, definitions of clinical end points, sample sizes and types and doses of sulphonylureas used as well as ethnic variability make the clinical applications challenging. Future studies need to address these limitations to develop personalized sulphonylurea medicine for T2DM management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacokinetics
  17. Sheshala R, Peh KK, Darwis Y
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 2009 Nov;35(11):1364-74.
    PMID: 19832637 DOI: 10.3109/03639040902939213
    AIM: The aim of this study was to prepare insulin-loaded poly(lactic acid)-polyethylene glycol microspheres that could control insulin release at least for 1 week and evaluate their in vivo performance in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model.
    METHODS: The microspheres were prepared using a water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Different formulation variables influencing the yield, particle size, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro release profiles were investigated. The pharmacokinetic study of optimized formulation was performed with single dose in comparison with multiple dose of Humulin 30/70 as a reference product in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
    RESULTS: The optimized formulation of insulin microspheres was nonporous, smooth-surfaced, and spherical in structure under scanning electron microscope with a mean particle size of 3.07 microm and entrapment efficiency of 42.74% of the theoretical amount incorporated. The in vitro insulin release profiles was characterized by a bimodal behavior with an initial burst release because of the insulin adsorbed on the microsphere surface, followed by slower and continuous release corresponding to the insulin entrapped in polymer matrix.
    CONCLUSIONS: The optimized formulation and reference were comparable in the extent of absorption. Consequently, these microspheres can be proposed as new controlled parenteral delivery system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacokinetics
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