OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic characteristics of inferior turbinate tissue biopsy sIgE in asymptomatic and rhinitic patients.
METHODS: A diagnostic cross-sectional study was undertaken, involving patients who underwent inferior turbinate surgery with or without other surgical interventions. Inferior turbinate tissue biopsy was performed during surgery and was assessed for allergen sIgE (dust mite, grass [temperate or subtropical], and animal epithelium) using an automated immunoassay. Tissue sIgE was assessed among asymptomatic patients and those with nasal symptoms. Data were presented as median (interquartile range). A receiver operating curve was used to predict the diagnostic utility of turbinate tissue sIgE in determining allergic rhinitis.
RESULTS: A total of 160 patients (41.89 ± 14.65 years, 36.9% females) were included. The median tissue sIgE concentration among the asymptomatic nonatopic group of patients was 0.09 (0.08-0.10) kUA/L and tissue sIgE > 0.10 kUA/L was determined as a positive threshold. Inferior turbinate tissue sIgE was shown to be a predictive test for allergic rhinitis (area under curve: 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.84-0.90) with 90% sensitivity and 89% negative predictive value.
CONCLUSION: Inferior turbinate tissue biopsy sIgE is a sensitive tool to predict allergic rhinitis. The threshold value of 0.1 kUA/L corresponded well with the asymptomatic nonatopic group of patients. This method detects sIgE in the nasal mucosa and may be a useful test for allergic rhinitis in future research.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at describing the immunochemical properties of the BN allergens. Comparative studies between 3 commercially available sources (according to the country of origin) of BN were also made.
METHODS: Crude extracts of commercially available processed BN from Sarawak (Malaysia), Thailand, and Indonesia and fresh unprocessed BN from the caves of Sarawak were obtained by means of aqueous extraction. Specific IgE toward these sources were determined by using fluorescence allergosorbent tests (FASTs). Cross-reactivity studies between the 3 sources of commercially available processed BN were carried out by means of FAST inhibition. Immunochemical characterization by means of IgE immunoblot, periodate treatment, and heat stability studies were carried out on fresh unprocessed BN from Sarawak.
RESULTS: Serum from allergic patients showed differences in IgE binding to the 3 sources of commercially available BN, with the highest levels of specific IgE recorded with the Sarawak source (P
METHODS: Sera from 27 patients from Finland and 18 from the United States with latex allergy and control sera from nonsensitive individuals were studied for latex-specific IgE antibodies. Four antigen preparations were used: two extracted from gloves and one each extracted from rubber tree sap from Malaysia and India. All 45 patients had skin prick test results that were positive to latex antigens, and all sera were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the various antigens.
RESULTS: There were considerable differences in the reactivity of patient sera with the different antigens. Only 50% of the sera from patients with latex allergy from Finland demonstrated significant levels of IgE to latex as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These patients showed more reactivity with rubber tree sap antigens than with glove antigens. However, 72% of the patients from the United States demonstrated antibodies to latex, and no marked differences were noted between the antigen extracts.
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that reagents such as rubber tree sap, which contain multiple clinically significant antigenic components, should be included in evaluation of latex allergy and that differences in patient populations may result in serologic variances.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether genetic variants in and around SPINK5 are associated with IgE-mediated food allergy.
METHOD: We genotyped 71 "tag" single nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs) within a region spanning ~263 kb including SPINK5 (~61 kb) in n=722 (n=367 food-allergic, n=199 food-sensitized-tolerant and n=156 non-food-allergic controls) 12-month-old infants (discovery sample) phenotyped for food allergy with the gold standard oral food challenge. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measures were collected at 12 months from a subset (n=150) of these individuals. SNPs were tested for association with food allergy using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test adjusting for ancestry strata. Association analyses were replicated in an independent sample group derived from four paediatric cohorts, total n=533 (n=203 food-allergic, n=330 non-food-allergic), mean age 2.5 years, with food allergy defined by either clinical history of reactivity, 95% positive predictive value (PPV) or challenge, corrected for ancestry by principal components.
RESULTS: SPINK5 variant rs9325071 (A⟶G) was associated with challenge-proven food allergy in the discovery sample (P=.001, OR=2.95, CI=1.49-5.83). This association was further supported by replication (P=.007, OR=1.58, CI=1.13-2.20) and by meta-analysis (P=.0004, OR=1.65). Variant rs9325071 is associated with decreased SPINK5 gene expression in the skin in publicly available genotype-tissue expression data, and we generated preliminary evidence for association of this SNP with elevated TEWL also.
CONCLUSIONS: We report, for the first time, association between SPINK5 variant rs9325071 and challenge-proven IgE-mediated food allergy.