A study was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of health services at two maternal and child health (MCH) clinics in Kuala Lumpur. The time spent for individual patient care by the clinic staff was used as an indicator for the evaluation. The main objective was to derive a model of ideal operation time for specific patient care activities at a MCH clinic. Primary data was collected through systematic random sampling of patients between 25/7/1985 and 31/7/1985. Secondary data was obtained from available clinic records for July, 1985. The time a patient spent at the clinic and the time she spent at each examination station and waiting between stations was recorded with digital watches. Results show tha patients spent 80% of their time at the clinics waiting. The actual time spent on each patient was found to be considerably less than the ideal time measured under ideal conditions. Various recommendation are presented in the paper to reduce waiting time and extend examination time. The ideal patient capacity for the two clinics was also calculated.
The traditional birth attendant (bidan kampong) or the TBA is still responsible for a substantial number of deliveries in Peninsular Malaysia. In the study area, the TBA s were responsible for about 47.2% of the deliveries in 1976. They were also responsible tor a substantial number of maternal deaths in the district. Therefore it was decided to identity and train the TBAs to identity ‘at risk’ cases at mothers and children and refer them to the nearest health facility. The TBA s were trained to use simple hygenic and aseptic procedures. At the end oi their training all at them were presented with a UNICEF midwifery kit. The short training proved useful because they now deliver fewer ‘at risk' cases and there is an in- creasing trend among them to refer the ‘at risk’ cases to the hospitals. The utilizations of TBA s in the maternal and child health program is a useful tool for the attainment at primary health care objective for developing countries by the year 2000.
Postpartum depression is one of the major depressions experienced by women during three months after giving birth to their babies. The symptoms of this type of depression cannot be taken lightly as it affects not only the women but also the development of the babies, family harmony and functioning and can in fact harm themselves and other individuals in their surrounding. Thus, this research was conducted to identify the influence of parental stress towards postpartum depression. A total of 181 women participated in this study and they were from two groups namely married and unmarried women who just gave birth. Two instruments were used and they were the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale and the Parental Stress Index Short Form. Results obtained showed that parental stress and its dimensions were significantly correlated with postpartum depression. In addition, maternal stress and difficult child characteristics were significant predictors of postpartum depression. Findings also showed that there were significant differences of parental stress and its dimensions between married and unmarried women who just gave birth. These findings imply the importance of coping with parental stress to prevent women from experiencing postpartum depression.
Keywords Postpartum Depression · Parental Stress · Child Characteristics · Regression
Results are presented of research undertaken in the Republic of Korea and Malaysia to determine how far integration affects the performance of family planning and allied programs and to identify organizational determinants of clinic level interactive linkages. The report discusses the background of the research, provides overviews of the country programs, outlines research methodologies and procedures, and presents findings. 41 clinics with high, medium, and low performance ratings in Korea and 17 main health centers, 31 sub-health centers, and 49 midwife stations in Malaysia, (some of them intensive input demonstration areas) were assessed on performance, interaction measures, and organizational determinants. The overall finding was that integration affects program performance, but the direction of the impact depends on how the integrated programs are organized. In Malaysia, where the program is specifically organized to integrate family planning with maternal and child health, the integration appears to have increased service delivery and resulted in larger numbers of family planning acceptors. No spill-over was found from the inputs of the 2 components to each other. The overall positive impact and lack of service reduction due to integration appears to result from specific planning for a limited degree of integration. In Korea, a mild negative relationship was found between clinic level performance in the family planning and community development, or Saemaul Undong (SU) components. In the field SU was observed to be more favored and powerful, and was not fully integrated with family planning. The major conclusion of the study was that integration works best when family planning is linked to similar services, and does not work as well with services that are different in character or in degree of government support.
Matched MeSH terms: Maternal-Child Health Centers*
A retrospective study of anaemia in pregnancy in rural Kelantan was conducted. The study sample consist of 9,860 mothers who had antenatal care at one of the 102 rural health clinics selected and had delivered a live baby. Anaemia in pregnancy was determined by reviewing the antenatal records for the haemoglobin level recorded at the first and last antenatal visit. Estimation of haemoglobin was done either by photocalorimetric methods or the Sahli's method in these rural clinics. At the time of booking, 47.5% of the mothers were anaemic by WHO criteria (Hb < 11.0 g/dl), with 1.9% having less than 9.0 g/dl. Age of mother, parity and late gestational age at the first antenatal visit were associated with anaemia during pregnancy at the time of booking. However, practise of contraception by the mother did not show any association with anaemia in pregnancy. There were 594 mothers (6.0%) who delivered a baby weighing less than 2.5 kg. There was no association between the low birth weight of the child and the status of anaemia in the mother at the last antenatal visit.
Underlying causes of most nutrition related problems are diverse, including biological, social, cultural, and economic factors. Qualitative approaches complement quantitative methods in identifying the underlying meanings and patterns of relationships involved in managing malnutrition. This study examined perceptions regarding malnutrition among health workers from 7 clinics (community and health clinics) in Tumpat, Kelantan. A total of 18 nurses and 2 doctors, who were involved in monitoring child health and nutrition, were included in the study. These health workers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire adapted from Sastry's framework on malnutrition (Sastry, 1996). The questionnaire included biological, behavioral and environmental factors that influence child health and nutrition. All the health workers perceived that mothers/caregivers play the main role in improving the health of malnourished children. The quality of childcare was rated as moderately satisfactory by the health workers. Most of the affected families who were given the Food Baskets did not fully use all the items for the malnourished child. Child feeding practice was based on the needs of the whole family rather than according to the target child's needs. Most of the mothers preferred processed cereals than rice porridge because the former is easier to prepare for the child. Although they were from a low socioeconomic background, most of the mothers were not earning additional income for the family. The qualitative methodology provided information that can be used as a basis for the designing of quantitative questionnaires to assess malnutrition among children. The induction characteristic of qualitative methods was used to gain an understanding of the underlying reasons or phenomena such as behaviours that are directly observable.
Study site: Klinik kesihatan, Tumpat, Kelantan, Malaysia
Health impact related to smoking is a critical public health predicament especially in pregnancy. However there is not much data available to describe the magnitude of the problem. Hence this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking and its socioeconomic factors among antenatal mother and their opinion related to tobacco control measures. A cross sectional study was carried out involving newly registered antenatal mothers attending all government health clinics in Penang. Prevalence of ever smoking among antenatal mother is 1.4%, of which 42.4% is still smoking at first antenatal visit. It was found that single mothers are more likely to smoke (OR, 14.23: C12.52-53.27). It was also noted that spouse smoking (OR, 5,14: CI 1.95-17.09), primigravida (OR, 2.7: C1 1.3-5.62), age group less than 30 years old (OR, 2.41; CI 1.03-6.09) and living in urban area (OR, 2.33; CI 1.01 — 6.47) have a higher risk to indulge in smoking behaviour. Muslim OR 0.29; C1 0.14 - 0.60) and Malay (OR 0.22; CI 0.10 - 0.47) pregnant mothers are noted to be less likely to smoke as compared to non Muslim and non Malay. More than 85% of them agreed with the tobacco control measures regardless of their smoking status. Most of respondents agreed the influential people in community L;11T · such as medical personnel, teachers and parents should not smoke.
The advantages of breastfeeding have been well established. The objective of this study was to determine the practice and knowledge of breastfeeding in an urban com-munity and identify the influencing factors. This is a cross-sectional study. All mothers attending the Maternal and Child Health Clinic during the study period, who fulfilled the selection criteria, were included in the study. The mothers were interviewed using a self administered questionnaire. A total of 162 mothers participated in the study. The prevalence of initiating breastfeeding during the first week after childbirth was 93.8%. Breastfeeding was found to be higher among Malay mothers (p value
Study site: a Child Health Clinic in Cheras Baru, Kuala Lumpur
In Malaysia, breastfeeding was dominantly practiced among Malay whose deeply believe in Islam and any decision should abide by Islamic teachings. Existing literature appear to have limited evidence on Malay mothers’ interpretation and construction of this practice. The decision to breastfeed was believed to be influenced by social and cultural context. Therefore, in order to explore life experience of breastfeeding mothers on their beliefs related to religious and sociocultural, qualitative study design was used. A minimal guidance of phenomenological approach adopted as the methodological framework. Semi structured interviews were carried out among 15 mothers whose were recruited from four Maternal and Child Health Clinic in Kuantan using purposive sampling. The experience of researchers thorough out their journey will be shared in terms of challenges; barriers and solution to overcome the concerned that exist while conducting in-depth interview session.
Introduction: During pregnancy, increased acidity in the mouth increases the risk of antenatal mother to get dental caries. It is worsen if antenatal mother has morning sickness like vomiting during pregnancy. It can aggravate the problem by exposing the teeth to more gastric acid. In addition, antenatal mothers have hormonal changes that they are more susceptible to periodontal problems. Therefore, it is important for antenatal mother to get dental treatment and use oral health service. This study aim is to describe barriers to utilisation of oral health care services among antenatal mothers attending the Klinik Kesihatan Ibu dan Anak around Kuantan. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study which was conducted among purposely selected 296 antenatal mothers aged 18-45 years from Kuantan, Pahang in 18 months duration. Study used validated self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on the variables of interest. Results: Common barriers to utilization of services among antenatal mothers are fear to dental pain (45.6%), time constraints- busy at workplace (36.5%) and feeling of not having any dental problems (36.1%). Meanwhile the least barrier to oral health care services among antenatal mothers is attitude of the dentist (0.7%), followed by attitude of the staff (1.4%) and condition of treatment room (1.7%) Conclusion(s): Fear of dental pain is the main barrier to utilization of service among antenatal mothers and dissatisfaction of the service provided is the least barrier among other factors.
KEYWORDS: barriers, antenatal, pregnant mothers, dental caries, periodontal
Introduction Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) during pregnancy may impair the neurological development of the fetus. The aim of this study is to determine the iodine status among pregnant women (PW) in Sarawak after introduction of mandatory universal salt iodisation (USI) for seven years.
Methods A total of 508 first trimester PW attending government Maternal and Child Health Care clinics in all 11 divisions in Sarawak between 1st April and 15th June 2015 were recruited. Urine samples were obtained and analysed for urinary iodine concentration (UIC) using the modified Sandell-Kolthoff reaction method. For pregnant women, an adequate iodine intake was defined as a median UIC between 150-249 µg/L according to the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD’s criterion. For further analyses, the 11 divisions were then combined into 3 regions, namely Northern (Miri, Bintulu, Limbang), Central (Kapit, Mukah, Sibu, Sarikei, Betong) and Southern (Kota Samarahan, Kuching, Sri Aman).
Results TThe median UIC of the PW in Sarawak was 105.6 µg/L, indicating iodine deficiency. A total of 330 (65.0%) PW had UIC<150 µg/L. In terms of urinary iodine levels by region, the median UIC in Northern, Central and Southern regions were 136.3 µg/L, 85.5 µg/L and 97.4 µg/L respectively. The differences in median UIC between regions were significant. In addition, the Northern region (p = 0.001), Malay/Melanau ethnicity (p = 0.015) and parous parity (p = 0.014) were significantly associated with higher median UIC. No significant association was found for locality, age nor gravida.
Conclusions This study indicates inadequate iodine status among PW in Sarawak despite seven years of mandatory USI. In fact, the majority of PW appear not to be protected against IDD and its consequences. In future, a comprehensive study should be carried out to determine the levels of iodine in salt at the retail outlets, villages and households in Sarawak.
Keywords Iodine deficiency disorders - Pregnant women - Mandatory USI - Sarawak
A prospective case controlled study was conducted to determine the incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy (ASB), causative organisms and fetal outcome. Out of 510 antenatal mothers screened, 46 (9%) had ASB. The main organisms isolated were E. coli (16%), Staphylococcus aureus (15%) and Beta-Haemolytic Streptococcus (11%). Oral Nitrofurantoin and Cefuroxime axetil achieved sensitivity levels of 96%. There was no significant difference in period of gestation at birth and birthweight between the control and study groups. The reasons for routine antimicrobial therapy for ASB are discussed.
Experiencing remarkable decreases in mortality rates over the past 3 decades, Malaysia currently has one of the lowest mortality rates among developing countries, a rate that compares favorably with those of developed countries. Between 1957 and 1989, the crude death rate dropped from 12.4/1000 population to 4.6. Over the same period, Malaysia recorded even greater decreases in the infant mortality rate, from 75.5/1000 births to 15.2. The Maternal mortality rate also declined from 1.48 in 1970 to 0.24 in 1988. The data indicates that mortality rates vary from state to state, and that rural areas have a higher mortality than urban areas. According to a study by the National Population and Family Development Board, the use of maternal and child health services has played an important role in reducing neonatal, perinatal, infant, child, and maternal mortality rates. Nearly all women in Malaysia receive antenatal services. While the country has achieved great gains on mortality rates, programs focusing on specific age and socioeconomic groups could lead to even greater reductions. The Minister for National Unity and Social Development, Dato Napsiah Omar, has called for the development of programs designed to improve the population's quality of life.
Matched MeSH terms: Maternal-Child Health Centers*
PIP: At the Population and Natural Resources Workshop of the World Conservation Union (IUCN) General Assembly in Perth, Australia, December 1990, population and quality of life issues were stressed as one of the central items to be placed on the 1992 Agenda of the UN Conference on Environment. The pace of environmental degradation is quickening, the causes are becoming more entrenched, and indecision will narrow our options. Poverty and population growth are making development unsustainable. Technological miracles will not appear to restore balance. Deforestation, soil erosion, decertification and loss of water resources are fueling urbanization. Therefore the World Commission on Environment and Development, known as the Brundtland Commission, ranks human resources development as a top priority in sustainable development and quality of life. Human resources can be improved by providing maternal and child care, family planning and improving the status of women. Successful family planning programs as seen in Thailand and Malaysia can show results very quickly once national population policies, institutions and capacity are in place.
Matched MeSH terms: Maternal-Child Health Centers*
With 25% of its population living in over 148 squatter settlements, with a high incidence of communicable diseases, teenage pregnancies, and psychological and familial stress, the city of Kuala Lumpur has sought ways to improve conditions. This article describes one particularly promising approach: community-based centers integrating three socioeconomic components--preschool education, maternal and child health clinics, and income-generating activities.
PIP: The accomplishments of the Sang Kancil Intervention program, a project designed to improve the living conditions of squatter communities in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia are described. 25% of Kuala Lumpur's population lives in 148 squatter settlements, where life is especially difficult for women and children. Hoping to improve the living conditions of the urban poor, Kuala Lumpur's City hall initiated the Sang Kancil Intervention program. This program contains 3 components: preschool education, maternal and child health, and income generation. The preschool component provides education, food supplements, and medical checkups and treatment to children in the squatter settlements. In order to foster community participation, the teachers of the preschool program are chosen from among the squatter community, and mothers are encouraged to become involved. Evaluations of the preschools reveal positive attitudes from mothers and teachers, high attendance rates, and higher IQ test scores among children attending the preschool than among children not in the program. Sang Kancil has also provided maternal and health services to the squatter communities. Once a week, nurse practitioners set up a clinic providing the following services: immunization, prenatal and postnatal care, health education, nutrition, family planning, and treatment of minor illnesses. Sang Kancil's income-generation program seeks to raise the living standards of poor families by creating employment opportunities for women. Sang Kancil has established companies staffed, owned, and managed entirely by women. Among other things, these companies manufacture toys, batik items, and ceramics. The success of the companies has pushed shareholders above the poverty line.
Matched MeSH terms: Maternal-Child Health Centers; Maternal-Child Health Centers/legislation & jurisprudence*
In 1991, the Family Planning Association (FPA) of the Malaysian state of Perak initiated a community-based development project in the remote Aborigine village of Kampung Tisong. The community consists of approximately 34 households who survive on an average income of about US $37. Malnutrition is pervasive, even minor ailments cause death, more serious afflictions are prevalent, and the closest government clinic is 20 kilometers away and seldom used by the Aborigines. 70% of the children have access to education, but parental illiteracy is a serious educational obstacle. The goals of the FPA program are to 1) promote maternal and child health and responsible parenthood, 2) provide health education, 3) encourage women to seek self-determination, and 4) encourage the development of self-reliance in the community as a whole. The first step was to survey the community's culture, beliefs, and health status with the help of the Aborigines Department and the village headman. After a series of preliminary meetings with other agencies, the FPA began to provide activities including health talks, health courses and demonstrations, medical examinations and check-ups, and first aid training. Environmental protection and sanitation measures were included in the educational activities, and following the traditional "mutual aid system," a small plot of land was cleared for vegetable production. Vegetable gardens and needlecraft will become income-producing activities for the women. Attempts to motivate the women to use family planning have been hindered by the fact that the health of 2 women deteriorated after they began using oral contraceptives. Positive changes are occurring slowly and steadily, however, and the FPA has been instrumental in having the settlement included in a program for the hardcore poor which will provide new housing and farming projects.
Matched MeSH terms: Maternal-Child Health Centers*
BACKGROUND: Cultural practice have often overlooked when providing maternal and child health care services. Low birth weight is the second cause of neonatal mortality in the world but it is a major factor in a developing country such as Indonesia. The purpose of this study is to predict the neonatal mortality among low birth weight babies in Aceh Province Indonesia.
METHODS: Unmatched case control study was conducted using data from year 2010 to 2012 in 8 selected districts of Aceh Province Indonesia. A total of 500 samples were obtained. There were 250 of the samples died in neonatal period (case group) and 250 who were alive (control group). There were 26 variables studied and were grouped into 4 factors: neonatal factor, maternal factor, maternal and child health services and neonatal care practices. The data was analysed using bivariate logistic regression and multivariate logistic regression.
RESULTS: There were 13 out of 26 variables found as determinant factors of neonatal mortality among low birth weight babies in Aceh Province. The predictors found in this study were: boy (aOR1.80, 95% CI: 1.09-2.96), moderate low birth weight (aOR17.84, 95% CI: 6.20-51.35), preterm (aOR1.84, 95% CI: 1.07- 3.17), presence of maternal illnesses (aOR1.87, 95% CI: 1.06-3.30), too short or too long birth interval (aOR1.80, 95% CI: 1.20-2.91), inappropriate antenatal care (aOR2.29, 95% CI: 1.34-3.91), inappropriate neonatal visit (aOR7.04, 95% CI: 3.67-13.49), not practicing kangaroo mother care (aOR15.32, 95% CI: 2.85-82.56), not using warm bottle padding (aOR20.70, 95% CI: 6.32-67.80), not practicing 'didaring' (aOR4.33, 95% CI: 1.83-10.19), late initiation of breastfeeding (aOR2.03, 95% CI: 1.09-3.80), discard colostrums (aOR3.53, 95% CI: 1.93-6.43) and not practicing exclusive breastfeeding (aOR5.58, 95% CI: 2.89-10.77).
CONCLUSIONS: Cultural practices are strongly seen among Acehnese. Inappropriate antenatal care and neonatal care, late initiation of breastfeeding, discarding colostrums and not practicing exclusive breastfeeding were related to cultural practices. Improving knowledge heat preservation to prevent hypothermia using Kangaroo mother care, warm bottle padding and 'didaring' were proven methods to reduce neonatal mortality. Strengthening of health services in screening for high risk cases and anticipate intervention tailored to cultural practices are important to decrease neonatal mortality among low birth weight.
Matched MeSH terms: Maternal-Child Health Centers/organization & administration
AIM: Both inadequate and excessive weight gain during pregnancy can have immediate and long-term health risks for women and infants. This study investigated rate of gestational weight gain (GWG) and its associated factors in Malaysian pregnant women.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at maternal and child health clinics in Selangor and Negeri Sembilan between November 2010 and April 2012. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic, obstetric, dietary intake and physical activity information. Current weight and height were measured using standard procedures. GWG rate was calculated as the average weekly weight gain in that particular trimester of pregnancy and further categorized according to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations.
RESULTS: Mean GWG rate for all pre-pregnancy BMI categories in the second and third trimesters was higher than the IOM recommendations. Overweight women (adjusted OR, 4.26; 95%CI: 1.92-9.44) and women <153 cm tall (adjusted OR, 1.96; 95%CI: 1.21-3.18) tend to have inadequate GWG rate. Women with high pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI; ≥25.0 kg/m(2) ; overweight: adjusted OR, 3.88; 95%CI: 2.12-7.09; obese: adjusted OR, 2.34; 95%CI: 1.28-4.29) and low physical activity (adjusted OR, 1.74; 95%CI: 0.77-3.97) were two-threefold more likely to have excessive GWG.
CONCLUSION: Both inadequate and excessive GWG can have detrimental effects on the health of mothers and infants. Pre-pregnancy BMI, height and physical activity should be emphasized in prenatal care to ensure that women have adequate GWG rate.
Study site: maternal and child health clinics (Klinik Kesihatan), Selangor and Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
This study compares the knowledge, attitudes and practice of mothers in two ethnic groups with regard to acute respiratory infections (ARI) in their child. Most had traditional beliefs as to the cause of ARI with only a minority knowing the causes. Most mothers were aware of the effect of frequent attacks of ARI on the health status of their child and of the importance of early treatment. Reasons for their becoming worried during an episode of ARI in their child indicated that problems of distance, transportation and arrangements for care of their other children predominate. A large proportion of the respondents felt that their present knowledge of ARI was inadequate and were thus interested in obtaining more information.