Xylitol production by bioconversion of xylose can be economically interesting if the raw material can be recovered from a cheap lignocellulosic biomass (LCB). Meranti wood sawdust (MWS) is a renewable and low-cost LCB that can be used as a promising and economic source of xylose, a starting raw material for the manufacture of several specialty chemicals, especially xylitol. This study aimed to optimize the hydrolysis process of MWS and to determine the influence of temperature, H2SO4 concentration, and residence time on xylose release and on by-product formation (glucose, arabinose, acetic acid, furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and lignin degradation products (LDPs)). Batch hydrolysis was conducted under various operating conditions, and response surface methodology was adopted to achieve the highest xylose yield. Xylose production was highly affected by temperature, acid concentration, and residence time. The optimum temperature, acid concentration, and time were determined to be 124 °C, 3.26 %, and 80 min, respectively. Under these optimum conditions, xylose yield and selectivity were attained at 90.6 % and 4.05 g/g, respectively.
Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were subjected to microbial pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass bioconversion to fermentable sugar. Microbial pre-treatment was carried out by inoculating Ganoderma boninense spores through solid state fermentation. The samples were initially treated with Sulphuric acid method prior to reading with UV-Visible Spectrometer. The readings were taken before and after inoculation of EFB with G. boninense. Bioconversion of 20 g EFB via solid state fermentation was done in five different amounts of G. boninense spore namely 0.0 g (control), 0.5 g (T2), 0.7 g (T3), 0.9 g (T4) and 1.1 g (T5) in 7 days. The result shows the highest delignification in sample inoculated with 1.1g of G. boninense spores, in which the spores are successfully reduced by 61.97% of lignin from total EFB biomass in 7 days compared to 60.08% (T4), 58.65% (T3) and 54.85% (T2). Meanwhile, for control the lignin content was reduced by 5.07% in 7 days. The study shows that G. boninense has the ability to remove lignin from EFB whereby longer incubation period and higher number of spores contribute to higher delignification percentage.
Concrete durability determines service life of structures. It can though, be weakened by aggressive environmental conditions. For instance, bio-corrosion process is due to the presence and activity of microorganisms which produce sulphuric acid to form sulphate deterioration of concrete materials. The problems related to durability and repair systems are due to lack of suitable concrete materials. The use bacteria for concrete repairing and plugging of pores and cracking in concrete has been recently explored. Previous studies had proved the possibility of using specific bacteria via bio concrete as a sustainable method for improving concrete properties. Thus, lack of information on the application of bio concrete exposed to extreme condition was the motivation for this research.
The liquefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) in phenol was carried out in the presence of sulfuric acid as a catalyst in the reflux condenser system. The effect of initial phenol input and EFB on liquefaction reaction was investigated by measuring the reaction yield, EFB residue and combined phenol. The initial ratio of phenol to EFB has the greatest influence on the residue and reaction yield. The liquefaction products consist of some liquid by products with high amount of OH groups. The amount of this byproduct is 0.5 time of the solid product (phenolic resin).
Biofiber is used in the polymer based composite as a renewable resource due to its positive environmental benefits, biodegradable properties, low cost and high toughness. Biocomposite was fabricated using oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) as filler in phenolated EFB (PEFB) matrix. Phenolated EFB (PEFB) obtained from liquefaction of EFB in phenol was used as a biopolymer to replace novolak phenolic resin which is commonly used in composite materials. Sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst in the liquefaction reaction. The effect of thermal aging and blending ratio of PEFB matrix and EFB fibers on the mechanical properties of composites has been studied. The flexural data before and after thermal aging revealed the optimum amount of EFB filler is 50% . The result showed better compatibility between EFB and PEFB when compared with EFB and commercial novolak resin.
Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibres were pretreated by gamma irradiation followed by sodium carbonate (Na2
before the acid hydrolysis process to produce reducing sugars using diluted sulphuric acid (H2
). In this study, EFB
fibres were irradiated at different doses, i.e. 0, 100 and 200 kGy. Meanwhile, the gamma irradiated sample were then
subjected to Na2
CO3 pretreatment with 0 and 5% total titratable alkali (TTA). The effect of the pretreatment using gamma
irradiation and Na2
on the physical and chemical properties of the EFB fibres and the yield of the reducing sugar
obtained from the acid hydrolysis process was investigated. The obtained results showed that the content of holocellulose
was increased significantly with the increase of irradiation doses combined with Na2
CO3 pretreatment, whereas lignin
content of the EFB was decreased. The gamma irradiation and Na2
CO3 pretreatment resulted in structure breakage
and removal of silica of EFB fibres which can be due to the swelling of the fibres. A synergistic effect between gamma
irradiation and Na2
CO3 was observed, in which the yield of reducing sugars was increased by combining the gamma
irradiation and Na2
Since 5-sulfosalicylic acid (SFA) has been increasingly released to the environment, SO4--based oxidation processes using Oxone have been considered as useful methods to eliminate SFA. As Co3O4 has been a promising material for OX activation, the four 3D Co3O4 catalysts with distinct morphologies, including Co3O4-C (with cubes), Co3O4-P (with plates), Co3O4-N (with needles) and Co3O4-F (with floral structures), are fabricated for activating OX to degrade SFA. In particular, Co3O4-F not only exhibits the highest surface area but also possesses the abundant Co2+ and more reactive surface, making Co3O4-F the most advantageous 3D Co3O4 catalyst for OX activation to degrade SFA. The mechanism of SFA by this 3D Co3O4/OX is also investigated and the corresponding SFA degradation pathway has been elucidated. The catalytic activities of Co3O4 catalysts can be correlated to physical and chemical properties which were associated with particular morphologies to provide insights into design of 3D Co3O4-based catalysts for OX-based technology to degrade emerging contaminants, such as SFA.
The investigation of protein-nanoparticle interactions contributes to the understanding of nanoparticle bio-reactivity and creates a database of nanoparticles for use in nanomedicine, nanodiagnosis, and nanotherapy. In this study, hen's egg white was used as the protein source to study the interaction of proteins with sulphuric acid hydrolysed nanocellulose (CNC). Several techniques such as FTIR, zeta potential measurement, UV-vis spectroscopy, compressive strength, TGA, contact angle and FESEM provide valuable information in the protein-CNC interaction study. The presence of a broader peak in the 1600-1050 cm-1 range of CNC/egg white protein FTIR spectrum compared to the 1600-1050 cm-1 range of CNC sample indicated the binding of egg white protein to CNC surface. The contact angle with the glass surface decreased with the addition of CNC to egg white protein. The FESEM EDX spectra showed a higher amount of N and Na on the surface of CNC. It indicates the density of protein molecules higher around CNC. The zeta potential of CNC changed from -26.7 ± 0.46 to -21.7 ± 0.2 with the introduction of egg white protein due to the hydrogen bonding, polar bonds and electrostatic interaction between surface CNC and protein. The compressive strength of the egg white protein films increased from 0.064 ± 0.01 to 0.36 ± 0.02 MPa with increasing the CNC concentration from 0 to 4.73% (w/v). The thermal decomposition temperature of CNC/egg white protein decreased compared to egg white protein thermal decomposition temperature. According to UV-Vis spectroscopy, the far-UV light (207-222nm) absorption peak slightly changed in the CNC/egg white protein spectrum compared to the egg white protein spectrum. Based on the results, the observations of protein nanoparticle interactions provide an additional understanding, besides the theoretical simulations from previous studies. Also, the results indicate to aim CNC for the application of nanomedicine and nanotherapy. A new insight given by us in this research assumes a reasonable solution to these crucial applications.
In this work, fractionation of empty fruit bunch (EFB) by bisulfite pretreatment was studied for the production of bioethanol and high value products to achieve biorefinery of EFB. EFB was fractionated to solid and liquor components by bisulfite process. The solid components were used for bioethanol production by quasi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The liquor components were then converted to furfural by hydrolysis with sulfuric acid. Preliminary results showed that the concentration of furfural was highest at 18.8g/L with 0.75% sulfuric acid and reaction time of 25min. The conversion of xylose to furfural was 82.5%. Furthermore, we attempted to fractionate the liquor into hemicellulose sugars and lignin by different methods for producing potential chemicals, such as xylose, xylooligosaccharide, and lignosulfonate. Our research showed that the combination of bisulfite pretreatment and resin separation could effectively fractionate EFB components to produce bioethanol and other high value chemicals.
In July 1997 at 7 pm , 49 members 0f the public complained of dizziness, sore throat, eyes irritation and tightness of chest after exposed to sulphur dioxide while traveling on the road about 100 meter 90m the sulphuric acid factory in Teluk Kalong Kemaman. The incident was caused by leaking sulfur dioxide from return pipe of scrubber circulation. tank in the factory. The problem had occurred due to carelessness of the operator to inspect the level of water in the scrubber circulation tank during the operation.
Biodegradable polymeric films, obtained from chitosan/natural rubber latex (CS/NRL) blends with different compositions, have been prepared by wetting process. The blends were characterized by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and found that the CS/NRL blends are thermodynamically incompatible. This is evident from the presence of two glass transitions, corresponding to CS and NRL phases in the blend. The mechanical properties of the CS/NRL blends were improved with increasing the amount of chitosan and after surface treatment with sulphuric acid due to the sulfonate ionic interaction. The dielectric properties was determined using Precision LCR meter in the frequency range 75 kHz up to 30 MHz. After CS/NRL surface treatment with sulphuric acid at high content of chitosan showed the highest dielectric constant. The surface properties of the CS/NRL blend films before and after surface treatment were confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively.
As methyltheobromine (MTB) has been increasingly detected in wastewater, it would be necessary to develop more intensive and effective approaches to remove MTB. As Co species immobilized on carbonaceous materials appears as a promising catalyst, doping carbon with nitrogen has been also validated to significantly enhance catalytic activities for Oxone activation. Therefore, it is desired to develop a composite of immobilizing Co species on N-doped carbonaceous supports for activating Oxone to degrade MTB. Unfortunately, very few studies have demonstrated such composites for activating Oxone to degrade MTB as this type of composites are conventionally prepared via complex procedures. Alternatively, this study aims to develop such a composite conveniently by using a cobaltic coordination polymer (CP) as a precursor. Specifically Co2+ and 4,4-bipyridine (BIPY) are selected for formulating a special one-dimensional CP, which is then carbonized to convert Co to Co nanoparticles (NPs) and transform BIPY to carbon nitride (CN) matrices. Because of 1-D coordinated structure of CoBIPY, the resulting magnetic Co NPs are well-distributed and protected within CN to form a magnetic Co-embedded carbon nitride composite (MCoCN). In comparison to pristine CN and Co3O4, MCoCN exhibits much higher catalytic activities to activate Oxone for degrading MTB completely within 7 min. MCoCN also shows a much lower activation energy of 24.6 kJ/mol than other reported catalysts for activating Oxone to degrade MTB. The findings of this study validate that the 1-D coordination polymer of CoBIPY is a useful precursor to prepare MCoCN for effectively activating Oxone to degrade MTB.
The purpose of this study is to determine the concentration of the selected elemental composition in a multi-storey hostel. Dust samples were taken from three random rooms at each level of the student hostel by sweeping the floor. The concentrations of elements (Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) were determined by using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICPOES) after digestion with nitric acid and sulfuric acid solutions. Dust samples analysis has shown the different levels of sampling point does not affect the concentration of the elements. The concentration of elements in investigated microenvironment was in the order of Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. The correlation analysis was applied to elements variable in order to identify the sources of an airborne contaminant. It was discovered the strong positive correlation between Cu-Zn which indicates the sources come from traffic emission and street dust. This result was supported by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) that revealed the presence of elements in the student hostel originated from the outdoor sources.
This study aims to produce biochar and sugars from a macroalga Eucheuma denticulatum using dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis along with microwave-assisted heating. The reactions were operated at sulfuric acid concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2M, reaction temperatures of 150-170°C and a heating time of 10min. Compared to the raw macroalga, biochar qualities were improved with increased carbon content and lower ash and moisture contents. The calorific value of the biochar could be intensified up to 45%, and 39% of energy yield was recovered. Apart from producing biochar, the highest total reducing sugars were 51.47g/L (74.84% yield) along with a low by-product 5-HMF of 0.20g/L, when the biomass was treated under the optimum conditions at 160°C with 0.1M H2SO4. Thus, this study demonstrated that macroalgae could be potentially used as biomass feedstock under microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis for the production of biofuel and value-added products.
Guanine (G), adenine (A), thymine (T), and cytosine (C) are the four basic constituents of DNA. Studies on DNA composition have focused especially on DNA damage and genotoxicity. However, the development of a rapid, simple, and multiplex method for the simultaneous measurement of the four DNA bases remains a challenge. In this study, we describe a graphite-based nanocomposite electrode (Au-rGO/MWCNT/graphite) that uses a simple electro-co-deposition approach. We successfully applied the developed sensor for multiplex detection of G, A, T, and C, using square-wave voltammetry. The sensor was tested using real animal and plant DNA samples in which the hydrolysis of T and C could be achieved with 8 mol L-1 of acid. The electrochemical sensor exhibited excellent sensitivity (G = 178.8 nA/μg mL-1, A = 92.9 nA/μg mL-1, T = 1.4 nA/μg mL-1, and C = 15.1 9 nA/μg mL-1), low limit of detection (G, A = 0.5 μg mL-1; T, C = 1.0 μg mL-1), and high selectivity in the presence of common interfering factors from biological matrixes. The reliability of the established method was assessed by method validation and comparison with the ultraperformance liquid chromatography technique, and a correlation of 103.7% was achieved.
The efficacy of Virkon S, a commercial disinfectant as a virucidal spray against human enterovirus 71 (HEV71), the causative agent of the fatal form of hand, foot and mouth disease was examined. At least one log10 reduction of HEV71 titer was achieved when one spray of Virkon (1% or 2%) with ten minutes of contact time was applied. The infectivity was completely lost when four sprays of 1% or 2% Virkon were applied, suggesting that at least four sprays of 1% Virkon to the surface bound HEV71 was necessary to completely inactivate the virus. These findings suggest that Virkon S at the proper concentration is suitable to be used as an effective and easy to use disinfectant against HEV71.
An optical sensor for Hg(II) monitoring using a complex of zinc dithizonate immobilised on XAD 7 which is based on reflectance spectrophotometry has been developed in this study. Measurements were made using a kinetic approach whereby the reflectance signal is measured at a fixed time of 5 min. The sensor could be regenerated using a saturated solution of KCl in 1 M sulphuric acid. The sensor was found to have an optimum response at pH 3.0 with respective measurement repeatability and probe-to-probe reproducibility of 1.53% and 5.26%. A linear response was observed in the Hg(II) concentration range of 0.0-180.0 ppm with a calculated limit of detection (LOD) of 0.05 ppm. The results obtained for aqueous Hg(II) determination using this probe were found to be comparable with the well-established method of atomic absorption spectrometry.
Recently, a great attention has been paid to advanced microwave technology that can be used to markedly enhance the biodiesel production process. Ceiba pentandra Seed Oil containing high free fatty acids (FFA) was utilized as a non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production. Microwave-assisted esterification pretreatment was conducted to reduce the FFA content for promoting a high-quality product in the next step. At optimum condition, the conversion was achieved 94.43% using 2wt% of sulfuric acid as catalyst where as 20.83% conversion was attained without catalyst. The kinetics of this esterification reaction was also studied to determine the influence of factors on the rate of reaction and reaction mechanisms. The results indicated that microwave-assisted esterification was of endothermic second-order reaction with the activation energy of 53.717kJ/mol.
The chemical production of methyl oleate using chemically synthesized fatty acid alcohols and other toxic chemicals may lead to significant environmental hazards to mankind. Being a highly valuable fatty acid replacement raw material in oleochemical industry, the mass production of methyl oleate via environmentally favorable processes is of concern. In this context, an alternative technique utilizing Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) physically adsorbed on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been suggested. In this study, the acid-functionalized MWCNTs prepared using a mixture of HNO3 and H2SO4 (1:3 v/v) was used as support for immobilizing CRL onto MWCNTs (CRL-MWCNTs) as biocatalysts. Enzymatic esterification was performed and the efficiency of CRL-MWCNTs was evaluated against the free CRL under varying conditions, viz. temperature, molar ratio of acid/alcohol, solvent log P, and enzyme loading. The CRL-MWCNTs resulted in 30-110 % improvement in the production of methyl oleate over the free CRL. The CRL-MWCNTs attained its highest yield (84.17 %) at 50 °C, molar ratio of acid/alcohol of 1:3, 3 mg/mL of enzyme loading, and iso-octane (log P 4.5) as solvent. Consequently, physical adsorption of CRL onto acid-functionalized MWCNTs has improved the activity and stability of CRL and hence provides an environmentally friendly means for the production of methyl oleate.