Human behaviour is not only influenced by the physical presence of others, but also implied social presence. This study examines the impact of awareness of being eye-tracked on eye movement behaviour in a laboratory setting. During a classic yes/no face recognition task, participants were made to believe that their eye movements were recorded (or not recorded) by eye trackers. Their looking patterns with and without the awareness of being eye-tracked were compared while perceiving social (faces, faces-and-bodies) and non-social (inanimate objects) video stimuli. Area-of-interest (AOI) analysis revealed that misinformed participants (who were not aware that their eye movements were being recorded) looked more at the body (chest and waist) compared to informed participants (who believed they were being eye-tracked), whereas informed participants fixated longer on the mouth and shorter on the eyes of female models than misinformed participants did. These findings highlight the potential impact of an awareness of being eye tracked on one's eye movement pattern when perceiving a social stimulus. We conclude that even within laboratory settings an eye tracker may function as an implied social presence that leads individuals to modify their eye movement behaviour according to socially-derived inhibitory norms.
University students are known to have different sleeping schedules. Students’ sleep difficulties will affect their health and their performances in studies. Sleep hygiene is a collection of healthy sleep habits that can improve one’s ability to fall asleep and stay asleep. It is considered to be imperative to treat sleep disturbance especially among university students. The aim of this study is to examine the sleep beliefs among the students of UiTM Sabah based on gender and academic performance. This study was conducted on Diploma students between March and July 2018. The respondents were randomly selected from Diploma students of all faculties in UiTM Sabah: Accounting, Business Management, Public Administration, Science, Planting Industry Management, Hotel Management, and Tourism Management. This paper is based on the Sleep Belief Scale questionnaire to assess the sleep hygiene awareness. Questionnaires were distributed using online survey. Findings of this study were analyzed using SPSS statistical software. The result of findings showed that the Sleep Incompatible Behaviours (drinking coffee, taking sleep medication, smoking before sleep) is the highest contributor of the students’ sleep hygiene and therefore it affects the sleep quality. While the Sleep Wake Cycle Behaviours (going to bed & waking up always at the same hour, going to bed two hours earlier than the habitual hour) and Thoughts and Attitude to Sleep (over thinking before sleep, trying to fall asleep without having a sleep sensation)also contributed to the sleep hygiene of the students but not as high as the Sleep Incompatible Behaviours. Based on the results of the findings, the counseling department of UiTM Sabah may organise an education program to create awareness among students about the intervention and prevention strategies as well as the incorrect beliefs about sleep.
Heterotrigona itama is a Malaysian stingless bee species that actively reared for meliponiculture. This stingless bee is cultivated in a commercial scale for its honey production, propolis and among the greatest commercial potential as crop pollinators. However, this species has been potentially exposed to agronomic practices, among which the use of synthetic insecticides against pests.The indirect toxicity effect of the post-insecticide had affected the mortalities of H. itama especially, to the foragers. Due to that, a study has been conducted to determine the lethal concentration of 50% (LC50) and 95% (LC95) of the selected insecticides against stingless bee forager workers through residual exposure. The bioassay test was conducted to the local stingless bee H. itama at Agricultural Research Station, Tenom. Four commonly used insecticides in crop protection; Deltamethrin, Chlorpyrifos, Cypermethrin and Malathion were tested at five concentrations that diluted with 500 ml of distilled water in three replications for each insecticide. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95) were obtained from probit analysis after 1-hour dry residues exposure and 24-hour mortality observation. The result shows that; all four tested insecticides were harmful to H. itama through dry residue. Deltamethrin shows the higher value of LC50 (1.256 ml) and LC95 (3.582ml) that make it less toxic to the H. itama than cypermethrin, malathion, and chlorpyrifos, however, as the concentration gets higher it becomes more toxic.
Aspect extraction is a subtask of sentiment analysis that deals with identifying opinion targets in an opinionated text. Existing approaches to aspect extraction typically rely on using handcrafted features, linear and integrated network architectures. Although these methods can achieve good performances, they are time-consuming and often very complicated. In real-life systems, a simple model with competitive results is generally more effective and preferable over complicated models. In this paper, we present a multichannel convolutional neural network for aspect extraction. The model consists of a deep convolutional neural network with two input channels: a word embedding channel which aims to encode semantic information of the words and a part of speech (POS) tag embedding channel to facilitate the sequential tagging process. To get the vector representation of words, we initialized the word embedding channel and the POS channel using pretrained word2vec and one-hot-vector of POS tags, respectively. Both the word embedding and the POS embedding vectors were fed into the convolutional layer and concatenated to a one-dimensional vector, which is finally pooled and processed using a Softmax function for sequence labeling. We finally conducted a series of experiments using four different datasets. The results indicated better performance compared to the baseline models.
MeSH terms: Research Design; Semantics; Speech; Neoplasms, Squamous Cell
Trajectory clustering and path modelling are two core tasks in intelligent transport systems with a wide range of applications, from modeling drivers' behavior to traffic monitoring of road intersections. Traditional trajectory analysis considers them as separate tasks, where the system first clusters the trajectories into a known number of clusters and then the path taken in each cluster is modelled. However, such a hierarchy does not allow the knowledge of the path model to be used to improve the performance of trajectory clustering. Based on the distance dependent Chinese restaurant process (DDCRP), a trajectory analysis system that simultaneously performs trajectory clustering and path modelling was proposed. Unlike most traditional approaches where the number of clusters should be known, the proposed method decides the number of clusters automatically. The proposed algorithm was tested on two publicly available trajectory datasets, and the experimental results recorded better performance and considerable improvement in both datasets for the task of trajectory clustering compared to traditional approaches. The study proved that the proposed method is an appropriate candidate to be used for trajectory clustering and path modelling.
MeSH terms: Algorithms; Data Collection; Humans; Restaurants; Cluster Analysis; Asian Continental Ancestry Group
Conventional paper currency and modern electronic currency are two important modes of transactions. In several parts of the world, conventional methodology has clear precedence over its electronic counterpart. However, the identification of forged currency paper notes is now becoming an increasingly crucial problem because of the new and improved tactics employed by counterfeiters. In this paper, a machine assisted system-dubbed DeepMoney-is proposed which has been developed to discriminate fake notes from genuine ones. For this purpose, state-of-the-art models of machine learning called Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) are employed. GANs use unsupervised learning to train a model that can then be used to perform supervised predictions. This flexibility provides the best of both worlds by allowing unlabelled data to be trained on whilst still making concrete predictions. This technique was applied to Pakistani banknotes. State-of-the-art image processing and feature recognition techniques were used to design the overall approach of a valid input. Augmented samples of images were used in the experiments which show that a high-precision machine can be developed to recognize genuine paper money. An accuracy of 80% has been achieved. The code is available as an open source to allow others to reproduce and build upon the efforts already made.
As the technology for 3D photography has developed rapidly in recent years, an enormous amount of 3D images has been produced, one of the directions of research for which is face recognition. Improving the accuracy of a number of data is crucial in 3D face recognition problems. Traditional machine learning methods can be used to recognize 3D faces, but the face recognition rate has declined rapidly with the increasing number of 3D images. As a result, classifying large amounts of 3D image data is time-consuming, expensive, and inefficient. The deep learning methods have become the focus of attention in the 3D face recognition research. In our experiment, the end-to-end face recognition system based on 3D face texture is proposed, combining the geometric invariants, histogram of oriented gradients and the fine-tuned residual neural networks. The research shows that when the performance is evaluated by the FRGC-v2 dataset, as the fine-tuned ResNet deep neural network layers are increased, the best Top-1 accuracy is up to 98.26% and the Top-2 accuracy is 99.40%. The framework proposed costs less iterations than traditional methods. The analysis suggests that a large number of 3D face data by the proposed recognition framework could significantly improve recognition decisions in realistic 3D face scenarios.
This is a case of a 62-year-old Indian man who was diagnosed with a rare type of lung
neuroendocrine tumour (NET) of atypical carcinoid (AC) subtype which comprises only 0.1%–
0.2% of pulmonary neoplasms. He initially presented to a private hospital in May 2018 with a
6-month history of chronic productive cough and haemoptysis. Chest X-Ray (CXR), CT scan,
bronchoscopy, biopsy and broncho-alveolar lavage were conducted. At this stage, imaging and
histopathological investigations were negative for malignancy. Diagnosis of bronchiectasis was
made and he was treated with antibiotic and tranexamic acid. Due to financial difficulties, his
care was transferred to a university respiratory clinic in June 2018. His condition was monitored
with CXR at every visit and treatment with tranexamic acid was continued for 6 months.
However, due to persistent haemoptysis, he presented to the university primary care clinic in
Dec 2018. Investigations were repeated in January 2019 where his CXR showed increased
opacity of the left retrocardiac region and CT scan revealed a left lower lobe endobronchial
mass causing collapse with mediastinal lymphadenopathy suggestive of malignancy.
Bronchoscopy, biopsy and histopathology confirmed the presence of NET. Although the Ki-67
index was low, the mitotic count, presence of necrosis and evidence of liver metastases
favoured the diagnosis of AC. A positron emission tomography Ga-68 DONATOC scan showed
evidence of somatostatin receptor avid known primary malignancy in the lungs with suspicions
of liver metastasis. He was subsequently referred to the oncology team and chemotherapy was
initiated. This case highlights the challenge in diagnosis and management of patients with AC.
Physicians ought to be vigilant and have a high index of suspicion in patients who present with
persistent symptoms on multiple visits. Early diagnosis of NET would prevent metastasis and
provide better prognosis. Continuous follow-up shared care between primary care and
secondary care physicians is also essential to provide ongoing psychosocial support for
patients with NET, especially those with metastatic disease
Safety and feasibility of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) in adults for otolaryngology surgery,
mainly in the treatment of oropharyngeal carcinoma and obstructive sleep apnoea has already
been established several years ago. However, less is known with respect to the role and safety
of TORS for otolaryngology surgery in the paediatric age group and its description in the
literature is currently insufficient. As paediatric patients are unique in their anatomy, physiology
and pharmacological kinetic, special attention and consideration has to be applied when using
TORS, hence this increases the perioperative challenges. Herewith we present our experience
in anaesthetising a paediatric patient for TORS adenotonsillectomy which is the first not only
in our centre but in Malaysia. Our major obstacle was the limited airway access as the area of
concern was shared by the anaesthesiologist, surgeon and also the robotic system.
Haemodynamic stabilisation was a challenge compared to the conventional method as the
operative time increased due to robot docking time and the new surgical learning process. In
our opinion, the key point for the success of TORS adenotonsillectomy in paediatric patients is
good communication and teamwork between all personnel involved in the surgery.
Heterotopic interstitial pregnancy in natural conception is very rare. Definitive diagnosis is
made by systematic pelvic ultrasound. Simultaneous viable conception observed in both intraand extra-uterine is pathognomonic of heterotopic interstitial pregnancy. We report a 34-yearold woman primigravida at 10 weeks’ amenorrhoea who underwent evacuation of retained
product of conception for missed miscarriage. Intraoperatively, minimal product of conception
was retrieved. Bedside pelvic ultrasound showed cystic mass at right superolateral part of
uterine fundus suspicious of interstitial pregnancy. Cornual resection was performed via
laparotomy. Histopathological examination showed presence of product of conception and
interstitial pregnancy. Serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin dropped from 10,027 IU/l on day
one post-ERPC to 210 IU/l at day three post-cornual resection. This case report highlighted
the challenge in diagnosing heterotopic interstitial pregnancy conceived naturally. Timely
diagnosis may avert dire consequences of massive haemorrhage from ruptured uterine cornua
Thrombolytic therapy remains widely used in majority of developing countries, where delivery
of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains a challenge. Unfortunately,
complications following such therapy remains prominent, predominantly bleeding-related
problems. We present a rare case of massive renal subcapsular haemorrhage and hematoma
following thrombolytic therapy. A 61-year old gentleman presented following an episode of
chest pain due to acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Due to potential delays in obtaining
PCI, the patient was counselled for thrombolysis using streptokinase which he had consented
to. Unfortunately, within 36 hours of admission, he developed abdominal pain, haematuria,
hypotension and altered mental status, associated with acute drops in haemoglobin levels.
Following initial resuscitation efforts, a Computed Tomography scan of the abdomen was
performed revealing a massive renal subcapsular hematoma, likely secondary to previous
thrombolysis. Renal subcapsular hematoma can either be spontaneous or iatrogenic, the latter
often due to coexisting renal-based neoplasm or vasculitidies. Iatrogenic causes include
trauma, following renal biopsies or anticoagulation therapy amongst a few others. Iatrogenic
renal subcapsular haemorrhage and hematoma formation are rare following thrombolysis. Our
literature search revealed only one other similar case, although this was following
administration of recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator in a case of acute ischaemic
cerebrovascular accident. This case highlights the complexity in management, following the
findings in terms of need for cessation of dual antiplatelet therapy and timing for PCI and stent
Introduction: The present study aims to investigate the effects of nicotine on foetal loss,
postnatal growth and corresponding levels of oestrogen and progesterone in pregnant rats.
Methods: Subcutaneous injection of nicotine tartrate (7.5 mg/kg/day) was administered to
groups of pregnant rats; with treatment scheduled from day 1 through day 5, day 5 through
day 9 or day 1 through day 9 of pregnancy. On day 10 of pregnancy, laparotomy was
performed to count the number of blastocyst implantation sites. During parturition, the
number of viable pups was recounted and statistically compared with the controls. One
group of rats which received nicotine from day 1 through day 9 of pregnancy was sacrificed
on day 16 of pregnancy, and circulating levels of oestrogen and progesterone were
measured. Upon delivery, the birth weight of the pups was measured, and their weights were
recorded until weaning. Results: There was a significant increase in foetal loss particularly in
rats which received nicotine from day 5 through day 9 and from day 1 through day 9 of
pregnancy. There was also significantly lower birth weight of pups in all groups; however,
this pattern did not continue until weaning. Plasma oestrogen level was significantly elevated
with a significant decrease in the plasma progesterone level. Conclusions: Nicotine
administration during pregnancy showed an increase in foetal loss with a corresponding
increase in oestrogen and decrease in progesterone levels. Although the birth weight of the
pups was low, there was catch-up growth in the pups.
Introduction: Optimal nutritional status is of utmost importance not only for foetal
development but also to maintain normoglycemia in women with gestational diabetes mellitus
(GDM). This cross-sectional study described the nutritional status of women with GDM and
explored whether self-reported nutrition education (NEd) exposure before a GDM diagnosis
would be able to promote better nutrition status. Methods: GDM women (n= 60; age= 31.6 ±
5.0 years) diagnosed between 13th and 28th week of gestation participated in the study. We
assessed nutritional status that included anthropometric and blood pressure assessments,
biochemical data, and dietary intake. The respondents self-reported their NEd exposure before
a GDM diagnosis was made. Results: The pre-pregnancy BMI of the participants was 27.9 ±
, which was categorised as overweight. Total (4.3 ± 5.6 kg) and rate (0.2 ± 0.3
kg/week) of gestational weight gain were within the recommendations. Glycemic parameters
and blood pressure were also within the normal range. Nevertheless, they had high intakes of
fat (35.5%) and sugar (14.4%) proportionate to their energy intake. They did not meet the
recommended nutrient intakes for fibre, calcium, and iron. Only 28.3% of women had prior
NEd exposure. Among them, almost all (94.1%) had recurrent GDM. Those with NEd
exposure had lower pre-prandial blood glucose profiles, systolic blood pressure, and
proportion of protein intake from energy than those without (p< 0.05). Conclusions:
Suboptimal maternal nutritional status and low exposure to NEd are evident in women with
GDM. Those with self-reported NEd exposure had better parameters of nutritional status. The
findings recognised the need of having proper nutrition education for women who are at high
risk of GDM since at early pregnancy.
Leptin, a 16 kDa protein and a product of the ob/ob gene, has a tertiary structure similar to that
of a cytokine. It is primarily secreted by white adipose tissue and its levels in the blood correlate
positively with percentage body fat. Leptin was first identified in 1994 as a major factor that
regulated food intake and energy balance. Leptin in the circulation exists either as a free
monomeric hormone or bound to its soluble receptor. Its serum levels usually range from 0.5 to
37.7 ng/ml in males and 2.0 to 45.2 ng/ml in females. The half-life of leptin is between 20 - 30
minutes and it is eliminated mainly by the kidneys. However, research over the last 25 years
has revealed numerous other physiological roles for leptin, including roles in inflammation,
immune function, neuro-endocrine function, bone metabolism, blood pressure regulation and
sexual maturation. Most of these roles have been identified from studies on leptin deficient
rodents. Apart from energy balance and sexual maturation, where its role is direct and obvious,
its actions on the rest of the other systems are permissive. Actions of leptin are both centrally
and peripherally mediated involving receptors that are widely distributed in the body. Six leptin
receptor isoforms, belonging to the class 1 cytokine receptor family, have been identified.
These receptors are products of the OBR gene. The cellular actions of leptin are mediated
through any one of five different signalling pathways that include the JAK-STAT, PI3K, MAPK,
AMPK, and the mTOR signalling pathways.
MeSH terms: Animals; Blood Pressure; Eating; Energy Metabolism; Female; Half-Life; Inflammation; Kidney; Male; Rodentia; Sexual Maturation; Signal Transduction; Cytokines; Receptors, Cytokine; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; Protein Isoforms; Leptin; Adipose Tissue, White; AMP-Activated Protein Kinases; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
Occupational diseases are one of the major health problems related to workplace hazards.
However, the epidemiological data for this problem is scarce especially among Small and
Medium Industry (SMI) workers. These workers are vulnerable to occupational health problem
due to lack of knowledge and implementation of health and safety in the workplace. In Malaysia,
most of the SMI workers have limited coverage for basic occupational health services which
may worsen their health. Thus, this article aims to provide a review on the burden of
occupational health problems among them. The electronic and library searches were used to
extract the information from both published and unpublished articles that were not limited to any
year of publication until 2017. One hundred and ninety-six published articles and 198
unpublished articles were retrieved from the database. Only 19 published articles and 25
unpublished articles met the eligibility criteria. Prevalence data of occupational
diseases/poisoning, including overall and body specific (musculoskeletal disorders) was
extracted in raw data from the eligible studies. Prevalent statistics on occupational
musculoskeletal diseases (1.3% - 97.6%), noise-induced hearing loss (29.4% - 73.3%),
occupational skin diseases (10.5% - 84.3%), respiratory (1.9% - 92.2%) and occupational
poisoning (14.9% - 17.7%) among the working population is different within published papers
compared to unpublished ones. In Malaysia, there are no specific statistic that give a true picture
of the burden of occupational diseases in the SMI. However, this review concludes that
musculoskeletal diseases are significant occupational problems among SMI workers.
Introduction: Dental officers could be the first medical personal to diagnose HIV/AIDS and
cross–contamination may happen. More efforts should be taken to improve knowledge and
the behaviour of dental students towards HIV/AIDS patients. The objective of this study is to
assess and compare knowledge and the attitude of USIM dental students towards HIV
patients. Methods: A total of 136 dental students from Year 2 to Year 5 of academic year
2017/2018 participated in this study. Students were consented and briefed about the purpose
of the current project prior to answering self-administered questionnaires that have been
previously validated. Results: The mean total knowledge and attitude score were 69.65%
(good) and 68.54(%) (passive), respectively. Both clinical and pre-clinical students have
passive attitude towards HIV patients and showed good level of knowledge with 70.81% and
66.39% respectively. There were significant association between sex and knowledge of
HIV/AIDS among USIM dental students (p=0.001). There is also a statistically positive weak
correlation between knowledge and attitude towards HIV/AIDS patients. Conclusions: USIM
dental undergraduates have good knowledge and passive attitude towards HIV/AIDS patients.
Improvement of dental curriculum regarding HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude towards
HIV/AIDS patients is recommended through conducting activities such as seminar, workshop
and small-group discussion among dental students.
MeSH terms: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Biometry; Curriculum; HIV; Humans; Surveys and Questionnaires; Students, Dental; HIV Infections
A 49-year old patient presented with symptoms of adrenal suppression following an attempt to
withdraw Depo-Provera or Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA) injection. She had
been receiving DMPA injections for the past 16 years for contraception. She was initially
prescribed DMPA by her gynaecologist but later on began obtaining the medication directly
from a private pharmacy without prior consultation from her gynaecologist. Clinically, she had
been experiencing significant weight gain and appeared cushingoid. Blood investigations
confirmed partial adrenal suppression with presence of an adrenal incidentaloma. This case
reports a known side effect of DMPA but occurring at a much lower dose than previously
described. It also highlights the need to increase the awareness of the insidious side effect of
DMPA and to avoid unsupervised use of the drug.