Browse publications by year: 2019

  1. Bolarinwa OA, Juni MH, Nor Afiah MZ, Salmiah MS, Akande TM
    Niger J Clin Pract, 2019 Jan;22(1):69-78.
    PMID: 30666023 DOI: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_246_17
    Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important clinical outcome assessment in hypertension management, given the lifelong (chronicity) nature and the need for daily self-management for hypertensive patents. Of some of the studies that implemented home-based interventions on hypertension globally, the HRQoL is rarely used as a primary outcome measure. This study developed, implemented, and assessed the impact of home-based follow-up care (HBFC) on HRQoL of hypertensive patients attending outpatients' clinics in Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Materials and Methods: A total of 149 and 150 patients were randomized to intervention and usual care (control) groups, respectively. A 12-month task-shifting (nurse-driven) HBFC intervention was administered to intervention group. The mid-term impact of intervention on HRQoL was assessed after 6 months intervention. Data were analyzed with intention-to-treat principle. Treatment effects were measured with the t-tests, analysis of covariance, and multivariate analysis of covariance analysis. Significant levels were set at P < 0.05 and 95% confidence interval.

    Results: The between-group treatment effect was not statistically significant (P > 0.05), whereas the within-group treatment effects were statistically significant for both the intervention and control arms (P < 0.05) at 6 months. After controlling for age and baseline HRQoL, the intervention group had an improved physical component of HRQoL than the control group. The intervention group also had statistically significant improvement in blood pressure control, medication adherence, and symptom counts (P < 0.05).

    Conclusion: The HBFC intervention for hypertensive patients impacted positively on physical component of HRQoL after controlling for baseline HRQoL and age of the patients at 6 months post-intervention.

    MeSH terms: Aftercare; Ambulatory Care Facilities; Blood Pressure; Blood Pressure Determination; Humans; Hypertension; Nigeria; Outpatients; Quality of Life; Multivariate Analysis; Confidence Intervals; Outcome Assessment (Health Care); Control Groups; Medication Adherence; Intention to Treat Analysis
  2. Veettil SK, Nathisuwan S, Ching SM, Jinatongthai P, Lim KG, Kew ST, et al.
    Cancer Manag Res, 2019;11:561-571.
    PMID: 30666154 DOI: 10.2147/CMAR.S180261
    Background: Celecoxib has previously been shown to be effective in reducing recurrent colorectal adenomas, but its long-term effects are unknown. In addition, safety issues are of major concern. Therefore, we examined the efficacy and safety of celecoxib as a chemopreventive agent along with its posttreatment effect.

    Methods: We performed a meta-analysis based on a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing celecoxib at various doses (400 mg once daily, 200 mg twice daily, and 400 mg twice daily) vs placebo in persons with history of colorectal adenomas. Several databases were searched from inception up to April 2018. Long-term follow-ups of RCTs were also included to evaluate posttreatment effect. Primary outcome was the incidence of recurrent colorectal adenomas. Various safety outcomes were evaluated, especially cardiovascular (CV) events. Risk-benefit integrated analyses were also performed.

    Results: A total of three RCTs (4,420 patients) and three post-trial studies (2,159 patients) were included in the analysis. Use of celecoxib at any dose for 1-3 years significantly reduced the incidence of recurrent advanced adenomas (risk ratio, 0.42 [95% CI, 0.34-0.53]) and any adenomas (0.67 [95% CI, 0.62-0.72]) compared with placebo. Subgroup analysis on different dosing suggested a greater effect with 400 mg twice daily. However, celecoxib 400 mg twice daily significantly increased the risk of serious adverse (1.2 [95% CI, 1.0-1.5]) and CV events (3.42 [95% CI, 1.56-7.46]), while celecoxib at 400 mg/day, especially with once daily dosing, did not increase CV risk (1.01 [95% CI, 0.70-1.46]). Analysis of post-trial studies indicated that the treatment effect disappeared (1.15 [95% CI, 0.88-1.49]) after discontinuing celecoxib for >2 years.

    Conclusion: Celecoxib 400 mg once daily dosing could potentially be considered as a viable chemopreventive option in patients with high risk of adenomas but with low CV risk. Long-term trials on celecoxib at a dose of ≤400 mg either once or twice daily are warranted.

  3. Vockerodt M, Vrzalikova K, Ibrahim M, Nagy E, Margielewska S, Hollows R, et al.
    J. Pathol., 2019 Jan 21.
    PMID: 30666658 DOI: 10.1002/path.5237
    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is found almost exclusively in the activated B cell (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), yet its contribution to this tumour remains poorly understood. We have focussed on the EBV-encoded latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1), a constitutively activated CD40 homologue expressed in almost all EBV-positive DLBCL and which can disrupt germinal centre (GC) formation and drive lymphomagenesis in mice. Comparison of the transcriptional changes that follow LMP1 expression with those that follow transient CD40 signalling in human GC B cells enabled us to define pathogenic targets of LMP1 aberrantly expressed in ABC-DLBCL. These included the down-regulation of S1PR2, a sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor that is transcriptionally down-regulated in ABC-DLBCL, and when genetically ablated leads to DLBCL in mice. Consistent with this we found that LMP1-expressing primary ABC-DLBCL were significantly more likely to lack S1PR2 expression than were LMP1-negative tumours. Furthermore, we showed that the down-regulation of S1PR2 by LMP1 drives a signalling loop leading to constitutive activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3-K) pathway. Finally, core LMP1-PI3-K targets were enriched for lymphoma-related transcription factors and genes associated with shorter overall survival in patients with ABC-DLBCL. Our data identify a novel function for LMP1 in aggressive DLBCL. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    MeSH terms: Animals; B-Lymphocytes; Copyright; Herpesvirus 4, Human; Humans; Phosphatidylinositols; Transcription Factors; Viral Matrix Proteins; Down-Regulation; Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse; Germinal Center; Receptors, Lysosphingolipid; Mice; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase
  4. Chua CL, Chan YF, Andu ESGS, Rovie-Ryan JJ, Sitam FT, Verasahib K, et al.
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2019 Feb;25(2):374-376.
    PMID: 30666941 DOI: 10.3201/eid2502.180258
    We tested a sample of 234 wild long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) trapped in Peninsular Malaysia in 2009, 2010, and 2016 for Zika virus RNA and antibodies. None were positive for RNA, and only 1.3% were seropositive for neutralizing antibodies. Long-tailed macaques are unlikely to be reservoirs for Zika virus in Malaysia.
    MeSH terms: Zika Virus; Animals; Macaca fascicularis; Malaysia; RNA; Antibodies, Neutralizing; Serogroup
  5. Yapp JH, Kamil R, Rozi M, Mohtarrudin N, Loqman MY, Ezamin AR, et al.
    Wound Repair Regen, 2019 Jan 22.
    PMID: 30667138 DOI: 10.1111/wrr.12698
    Frequent repositioning is important to prevent pressure ulcer (PU) development, by relieving pressure and recovering damages on skin areas induced by repetitive loading. Although repositioning is the gold standard to prevent PU, there is currently no strategy for determining tissue condition under preventive approaches. In this study, the peak reactive hyperemia (RH) trends and ultrasonographic (US) features are compared with the tissue condition under histopathological examination to determine the potential use of these features in determining the tissue condition non-invasively. Twenty-one male Sprague-Dawley rats (seven per group), with body weight of 385-485g, were categorised into three groups and subjected to different recovery times, each with three repetitive loading cycles at skin tissues above of right trochanter area. The first, second, and third groups were subjected to short (3 min), moderate (10 min), and prolonged (40 min) recovery, respectively, while applying fixed loading time and pressure (10 min and 50 mmHg, respectively), to provide different degree of recovery and tissue conditions (tissue damage and tissue recovery). Peak RH was measured in the three cycles to determine RH trend (increasing, decreasing, and inconsistent). All rat tissues were evaluated using ultrasound at pre- and post-experiment and rated by two raters to categorise the severity of tissue changes (no, mild, moderate, and severe). The tissue condition was also evaluated using histopathological examination to distinguish between normal and abnormal tissues. Most of the samples with increasing RH trend is related to abnormal tissue (71%); while inconsistent RH trends is more related to normal tissue (82%). There is no relationship between the tissue conditions evaluated under ultrasonographic and histopathological examination. Peak RH trend over repetitive loading may serve as a new feature for determining the tissue condition that leading to pressure ulcer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Body Weight; Copyright; Pressure Ulcer; Hyperemia; Male; Pressure; Skin; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Rats
  6. Ahmad P, Dummer PMH, Noorani TY, Asif JA
    Int Endod J, 2019 Jan 22.
    PMID: 30667524 DOI: 10.1111/iej.13083
    AIM: To analyze the main characteristics of the top 50 most-cited articles published in the International Endodontic Journal from 1967 to 2018.

    METHODOLOGY: The Clarivate Analytics' Web of Science "All Databases", Elsevier's Scopus, Google Scholar and PubMed Central were searched to retrieve the 50 most-cited articles in the IEJ published from April 1967 to December 2018. The articles were analyzed and information including number of citations, year of publication, contributing authors, institutions and countries, study design, study topic, impact factor, and keywords was extracted.

    RESULTS: The number of citations of the 50 selected papers varied from 575 to 130 (Web of Science), 656 to164 (Elsevier's Scopus), 1354 to 199 (Google Scholar), and 123 to 3 (PubMed). The majority of papers were published in the year 2001 (n=7). Among 102 authors, the greatest contribution was made by four contributors that included Gulabivala K (n=4), Ng YL (n=4), Pitt Ford TR (n=4) and Wesselink PR (n=4). The majority of papers originated from the United Kingdom (n=8) with most contributions from King's College London Dental Institute (UK) and Eastman Dental Hospital, London. Reviews were the most common study design (n=19) followed by Clinical Research (n=16) and Basic Research (n=15). The majority of topics covered by the most-cited articles were Outcome Studies (n=9), Intracanal medicaments (n=8), Endodontic microbiology (n=7) and Canal instrumentation (n=7). Among 76 unique key words, Endodontics (n=7), Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) (n=7) and Root Canal Treatment (n=7) were the most frequently used.

    CONCLUSION: This is the first study to identify and analyze the top 50 most-cited articles in a specific professional journal within Dentistry. The analysis has revealed information regarding the development of the IEJ over time as well as scientific progress in the field of Endodontology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    MeSH terms: Copyright; Dental Pulp Cavity; Drug Combinations; Endodontics; Humans; London; Oxides; Outcome Assessment (Health Care); Aluminum Compounds; Calcium Compounds; Silicates; PubMed; Journal Impact Factor
  7. Willeam Peter SS, Hassan SS, Khei Tan VP, Ngim CF, Azreen Adnan NA, Pong LY, et al.
    PMID: 30668248 DOI: 10.1089/vbz.2018.2379
    BACKGROUND: There is an escalation of frequency and magnitude of dengue epidemics in Malaysia, with a concomitant increase in patient hospitalization. Prolonged hospitalization (PH) due to dengue virus (DENV) infections causes considerable socioeconomic burden. Early identification of patients needing PH could optimize resource consumption and reduce health care costs. This study aims to identify clinicopathological factors present on admission that are associated with PH among patients with DENV infections.

    METHODS: This study was conducted in a tertiary referral hospital in Southern Malaysia. Relevant clinical and laboratory data upon admission were retrieved from medical records of 253 consecutive DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen and PCR-positive hospitalized patients. The DENV serotype present in each patient was determined. Patients were stratified based on duration of hospital stay (<4 vs. ≥4 days). Data were analyzed using IBM® SPSS® 25.0. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to examine the association between PH and admission parameters.

    RESULTS: Of 253 DENV hospitalized patients, 95 (37.5%) had PH (≥4 days). The mean duration of hospital stay was 3.43 ± 2.085 days (median = 3 days, interquartile range = 7 days). Diabetes mellitus (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.261, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.130-18.406, p = 0.001), DENV-2 serotype (AOR = 2.581, 95% CI = 1.179-5.650, p = 0.018), duration of fever ≤4 days (AOR = 2.423, 95% CI = 0.872-6.734, p = 0.09), and a shorter preadmission fever duration (AOR = 0.679, 95% CI = 0.481-0.957, p = 0.027) were independently associated with PH. However, PH was not found to be associated with symptoms on admission, secondary DENV infections or platelet count, hematocrit, or liver enzyme levels on admission.

    CONCLUSIONS: Early identification of these factors at presentation may alert clinicians to anticipate and recognize challenges in treating such patients, leading to more focused management plans that may shorten the duration of hospitalization.

  8. Xu G, You D, Wong L, Duan D, Kong F, Zhang X, et al.
    Eur. J. Endocrinol., 2019 Jan 01.
    PMID: 30668524 DOI: 10.1530/EJE-18-0792
    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown sex-specific differences in all-cause and CHD mortality in type 2 diabetes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a global picture of the estimated influence of type 2 diabetes on the risk of all-cause and CHD mortality in women versus men.

    METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science for studies published from their starting dates to 7 Aug 2018. The sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and their pooled ratio (women vs. men) of all-cause and CHD mortality associated with type 2 diabetes were obtained through an inverse-variance weighted random-effects meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were used to explore potential sources of heterogeneity.

    RESULTS: The 35 analyzed prospective cohort studies included 2,314,292 individuals, among whom 254,038 all-cause deaths occurred. The pooled women vs. men ratio of the HRs for all-cause and CHD mortality were 1.17 (95% CI 1.12-1.23, I2=81.6%) and 1.97 (95% CI 1.49-2.61, I2=86.4%), respectively. The pooled estimate of the HR for all-cause mortality was approximately 1.30 in articles in which the duration of follow-up longer than 10 years, and 1.10 in articles in which the duration of follow-up less than 10 years. The pooled HRs for all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes was 2.33 (95% CI 2.02-2.69) in women and 1.91 (95% CI 1.72-2.12) in men, compared with their healthy counterparts.

    CONCLUSIONS: The effect of diabetes on all-cause and CHD mortality is approximately 17% and 97% greater, respectively, for women than for men.

  9. Auburn S, Getachew S, Pearson RD, Amato R, Miotto O, Trimarsanto H, et al.
    J. Infect. Dis., 2019 Jan 21.
    PMID: 30668735 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiz016
    The Horn of Africa harbours the largest reservoir of Plasmodium vivax in the continent. Most of sub-Saharan Africa has remained relatively vivax-free due to a high prevalence of the human Duffy-negative trait, but the emergence of strains able to invade Duffy-negative reticulocytes poses a major public health threat. We undertook the first population genomic investigation of P. vivax from the region, comparing the genomes of 24 Ethiopian isolates against data from Southeast Asia to identify important local adaptions. The prevalence of the duffy binding protein amplification in Ethiopia was 79%, potentially reflecting adaptation to Duffy-negativity. There was also evidence of selection in a region upstream of the chloroquine resistance transporter, a putative chloroquine-resistance determinant. Strong signals of selection were observed in genes involved in immune evasion and regulation of gene expression, highlighting the need for a multifaceted intervention approach to combat P. vivax in the region.
    MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern; Carrier Proteins; Chloroquine; Duffy Blood-Group System; Ethiopia; Gene Expression Regulation; Humans; Plasmodium vivax; Public Health; Reticulocytes; Prevalence; Malaria, Vivax; Membrane Transport Proteins; Metagenomics; Immune Evasion
  10. Ogar I, Egbung GE, Nna VU, Atangwho IJ, Itam EH
    Life Sci., 2019 Jan 19.
    PMID: 30668955 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2019.01.027
    AIMS: Chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the production of free radicals which results in oxidative stress and related disorders such as cardiovascular diseases, compromised hepatic and renal functions. Hyptis verticillata reportedly demonstrated glucose lowering activity in previous studies. The present study therefore evaluated the effect of H. verticillata on hyperglycaemia-induced dyslipidaemia, hepatorenal distortions, oxidative stress, as well as calculated indices of cardiovascular function.

    METHODS: Wistar rats employed for this study consisted of normoglycaemic and diabetic rats in nine experimental groups. The normoglycaemic and diabetic rats were either treated with metformin (500 mg/kg b.w.), quercetin (10 mg/kg b.w.), or ethanol extract of H. verticillata leaf (250 mg/kg b.w. and 500 mg/kg b.w.) administered orally for 28 days.

    KEY FINDINGS: Results revealed that H. verticillata significantly lowered blood glucose level, attenuated dyslipidaemia, decreased atherogenic coefficient, atherogenic and coronary risk indices, and increased cardioprotective index in diabetic rats. Also, H. verticillata significantly decreased serum urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and unconjugated bilirubin levels, related to untreated diabetic rats. Further, H. verticillata increased serum superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities and glutathione level, and decreased malondialdehyde level in diabetic rats in a manner similar to metformin and quercetin. Histopathological investigation of the liver and kidney revealed restored hepatocytes and amelioration of congested interstitial blood vessel of the bowman's space of the kidneys upon intervention with H. verticillata.

    SIGNIFICANCE: H. verticillata in addition to its anti-hyperglycaemic activity ameliorates oxidative stress, dyslipidaemia, atherogenicity and hepatorenal lesions in DM.

  11. Minhat HS, Mat Din H, Vasudevan R, Raja Adnan RNE, Ibrahim R
    Arch Gerontol Geriatr, 2019 Jan 08;81:240-244.
    PMID: 30669017 DOI: 10.1016/j.archger.2019.01.001
    BACKGROUND: Physical and pathological changes associated with advancing age affect sexual behaviours of the elderly. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of gender on sexual problems and perceptions among the urban Malay elderly.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 160 Malaysian elderly participants aged 60 years and older who live in Kuala Lumpur. Twelve neighbourhood associations were randomly selected using multi-stage cluster sampling. Data was collected using standardized and validated questionnaire by face-to-face interview technique with which was conducted by trained interviewers.

    RESULTS: Mean age of the participants was 65.33 (5.87) year old with majority were still married. Female (55.7%) reported more sexual problems as evidenced by the higher proportion of those with lacked interest in having sex (72.5%), find sex is unpleasant (34.8%) and unable to come to orgasm (55.1%). Gender was found to have significant impact on every model obtained in the analysis for both sexual problems and perceptions. Female elderly were 10.6 times more likely to have sexual problem compared to male elderly (OR = 10.64, P 

  12. Ashraf MA, Liu Z, Peng W, Parsaee Z
    Anal. Chim. Acta, 2019 Mar 21;1051:120-128.
    PMID: 30661608 DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2018.11.014
    The ultrasound wave assisted synthesis of a novel ZnWO3/rGO hybrid nono composition (ZnWO3/rGO HNC) as a high performance sensor for formaldehyde (FA) has been reported. Different techniques of analysis such as XRD, FE-SEM, TGA, XPS, HRTEM and BET were applied for morphological and spectroscopic characterization of the ZnWO3/rGO HNC. The sensing evaluation of the constructed sensor showed high selectivity, sensitivity and a linear correlation between achieved responses and concentration of target gas (1-10 ppm) with R2 = 0.993 at temperature of 95 °C. The determination of FA was validated and performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined by solid phase micro-extraction after derivatization with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro-benzyl)-hydroxylamine hydrochloride. Validation was carried out in terms of limit of detection linearity, precision, and recovery. The mechanistic evaluation of sensing behavior of the ZnWO3/rGO HNC was interpreted based on large specific surface area (SSA) to volume, mesoporous structure and the heterojunction between rGO and ZnWO3 at the interface between the rGO and ZnWO3.
  13. Siddiqui S, Zainal H, Harun SN, Sheikh Ghadzi SM
    Clin Nutr ESPEN, 2019 Feb;29:213-223.
    PMID: 30661689 DOI: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2018.10.002
    BACKGROUND: The contribution of dietary factors in the development and progression of pre-diabetes has been increasingly recognized. However, due to high variability in dietary habits measurement of dietary intake remains one of the most challenging tasks in this population. Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) which investigates usual dietary intake can be used to identify frequent consumption of foods such as dietary fat, fiber, grains that are linked to the risk of pre-diabetes.

    METHOD: This systematic review was conducted to identify and describe FFQs that measure dietary intake of pre-diabetic patients and to examine their relative validity and reliability. The systematic search was done through electronic databases such as PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest and Scopus. Methodological quality of included studies and results of study outcome was also summarized in this review.

    RESULT: The search identified 445 papers, of which 18 studies reported 15 FFQs, met inclusion criteria. Most of the FFQs (n = 12) were semi-quantitative while three were frequency measures with portion size estimation of selected food items. Test-retest reliability of FFQ was reported in 7 (38.3%) studies with the correlation coefficient of 0.33-0.92. Relative validity of FFQ was reported in 16 (88.8%) studies with the range of correlation coefficient of 0.08-0.83. Dietary patterns rich in carbohydrate, fat, animal protein and n-3 fatty acids were associated with increased risk of pre-diabetes.

    CONCLUSION: No well-established disease-specific FFQ identified in the literature. Development of a valid, practical and reliable tool is needed for better understanding of the impact of diet in pre-diabetic population.

  14. Abd Aziz NAS, Mohd Fahmi Teng NI, Kamarul Zaman M
    Clin Nutr ESPEN, 2019 Feb;29:77-85.
    PMID: 30661705 DOI: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2018.12.002
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Malnutrition is common among hospitalized elderly patients, and the prevalence is increasing not only in Malaysia but also in the rest of the world. The Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index (GNRI) and the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) were developed to identify malnourished individuals among this group. The MNA was validated as a nutritional assessment tool for the elderly. The GNRI is simpler and more efficient than the MNA, but studies on the use of the GNRI and its validity among the Malaysian population are absent. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of malnourished hospitalized elderly patients and assess the criterion validity of the GNRI and MNA among the geriatric Malaysian population against the reference standard for malnutrition, the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), and determine whether the optimal cutoff value of the GNRI is suitable for the Malaysian population and determine the optimal tool for use in this population.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 134 geriatric patients with a mean age of 68.9 ± 8.4 who stayed at acute care wards in Hospital Tuanku Ampuan Rahimah, Klang from July 2017 to August 2017. The SGA, MNA, and GNRI were administered through face-to-face interviews with all the participants who gave their consent. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the GNRI and MNA were analyzed against the SGA. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to obtain the area under the curve (AUC) and suitable optimal cutoff values for both the GNRI and MNA.

    RESULTS: According to the SGA, MNA, and GNRI, 26.9%, 42.5%, and 44.0% of the participants were malnourished, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for the GNRI were 0.622, 0.977, 0.982, and 0.558, respectively, while those for the MNA were 0.611, 0.909, 0.932, and 0.533, respectively. The AUC of the GNRI was comparable to that of the MNA (0.831 and 0.898, respectively). Moreover, the optimal malnutrition cutoff value for the GNRI was 94.95.

    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of malnutrition remains high among hospitalized elderly patients. Validity of the GNRI is comparable to that of the MNA, and use of the GNRI to assess the nutritional status of this group is proposed with the new suggested cutoff value (GNRI ≤ 94.95), as it is simpler and more efficient. Underdiagnosis of malnutrition can be prevented, possibly reducing the prevalence of malnourished hospitalized elderly patients and improving the quality of the nutritional care process practiced in Malaysia.

  15. Jarić I, Heger T, Castro Monzon F, Jeschke JM, Kowarik I, McConkey KR, et al.
    PMID: 30661709 DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2018.12.008
    Ecological effects of alien species can be dramatic, but management and prevention of negative impacts are often hindered by crypticity of the species or their ecological functions. Ecological functions can change dramatically over time, or manifest after long periods of an innocuous presence. Such cryptic processes may lead to an underestimation of long-term impacts and constrain management effectiveness. Here, we present a conceptual framework of crypticity in biological invasions. We identify the underlying mechanisms, provide evidence of their importance, and illustrate this phenomenon with case studies. This framework has potential to improve the recognition of the full risks and impacts of invasive species.
    MeSH terms: Ecology; Risk; Ecosystem; Introduced Species
  16. Sutoko S, Chan YL, Obata A, Sato H, Maki A, Numata T, et al.
    Neurophotonics, 2019 Jan;6(1):015001.
    PMID: 30662924 DOI: 10.1117/1.NPh.6.1.015001
    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a noninvasive functional imaging technique measuring hemodynamic changes including oxygenated (



    O


    2


    Hb

    ) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin. Low frequency (LF; 0.01 to 0.15 Hz) band is commonly analyzed in fNIRS to represent neuronal activation. However, systemic physiological artifacts (i.e., nonneuronal) likely occur also in overlapping frequency bands. We measured peripheral photoplethysmogram (PPG) signal concurrently with fNIRS (at prefrontal region) to extract the low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) as systemic noise regressors. We investigated three main points in this study: (1) the relationship between prefrontal fNIRS and peripheral PPG signals; (2) the denoising potential using these peripheral LFOs, and (3) the innovative ways to avoid the false-positive result in fNIRS studies. We employed spatial working memory (WM) and control tasks (e.g., resting state) to illustrate these points. Our results showed: (1) correlation between signals from prefrontal fNIRS and peripheral PPG is region-dependent. The high correlation with peripheral ear signal (i.e.,



    O


    2


    Hb

    ) occurred mainly in frontopolar regions in both spatial WM and control tasks. This may indicate the finding of task-dependent effect even in peripheral signals. We also found that the PPG recording at the ear has a high correlation with prefrontal fNIRS signal than the finger signals. (2) The systemic noise was reduced by 25% to 34% on average across regions, with a maximum of 39% to 58% in the highly correlated frontopolar region, by using these peripheral LFOs as noise regressors. (3) By performing the control tasks, we confirmed that the statistically significant activation was observed in the spatial WM task, not in the controls. This suggested that systemic (and any other) noises unlikely violated the major statistical inference. (4) Lastly, by denoising using the task-related signals, the significant activation of region-of-interest was still observed suggesting the manifest task-evoked response in the spatial WM task.
  17. Teoh PL, Liau M, Cheong BE
    Nutr Cancer, 2019 Jan 19.
    PMID: 30663402 DOI: 10.1080/01635581.2018.1559942
    Phyla nodiflora L. has been used as medicinal remedies for various ailments due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor activity. Previously, we found that the plant extracts induced DNA fragmentation in MCF-7. This study was to investigate the modes of action of P. nodiflora in inhibiting breast cancer cells using leaf ethyl acetate (EA leaf), stem ethyl acetate (EA stem) and stem methanol (Met stem) extracts. The MTT assay showed that the anti-proliferative effects of P. nodiflora extracts were selective towards MCF-7 with a minimal effect on MCF10A. Morphological changes such as cell shrinkage and nuclear condensation were observed in treated cells. We found that induction of apoptosis by EA leaf and EA stem was mitochondrial-dependent while loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was not found in Met stem-treated cells. In addition, the expression levels of AIFM1, CASP9, CFLAR, and IGF1R were altered after treatment. Decreased BCL-2 expression was found in treated cells while BAX and caspases' expression was upregulated or maintained. All extracts caused perturbation of cell cycle at S phase by dysregulating the expression of cell cycle regulators such as CDKs and cyclins. Our findings indicate that P. nodiflora inhibits MCF-7 cells by inducing apoptosis and perturbing cell cycle.
    MeSH terms: Acetates; Methanol; Breast Neoplasms; Humans; Plant Extracts; S Phase; Cyclins; Apoptosis; Caspases; Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial; Caspase 9; DNA Fragmentation; MCF-7 Cells
  18. Chongmelaxme B, Chaiyakunapruk N, Dilokthornsakul P
    J Med Econ, 2019 Jan 19.
    PMID: 30663455 DOI: 10.1080/13696998.2019.1572014
    AIMS: Non-adherence is associated with poor clinical outcomes among patients with asthma. While cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is increasingly used to inform value assessment of the interventions, most do not take into account adherence in the analyses. This study aims to: (1) Understand the extent of studies considering adherence as part of the economic analyses, and (2) summarize the methods of incorporating adherence in the economic models.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was performed from the inception to February 2018 using 4 databases: PubMed, EMBASE, NHS EED, and the Tufts CEA registry. Decision model-based CEA of asthma were identified. Outcomes of interest were the number of studies incorporating adherence in the economic models, and the incorporating methods. All data were extracted using a standardized data collection form.

    RESULTS: From 1,587 articles, 23 studies were decision model-based CEA of asthma, of which 4 CEA (17.4%) incorporated adherence in the analyses. Only the method of incorporating adherence by adjusting treatment effectiveness according to adherence levels was demonstrated in this review. Two approaches were used to derive the associations between adherence and effectiveness. The first approach was to apply a mathematical formula, developed by an expert panel, and the second was to extrapolate the associations from previous published studies. The adherence-adjusted effectiveness was then incorporated in the economic models.

    CONCLUSIONS: A very low number of CEA of asthma incorporated adherence in the analyses. All the CEA adjusted treatment effectiveness according to adherence levels, applied to the economic models.

    MeSH terms: Asthma; Cost-Benefit Analysis; Data Collection; Humans; Registries; Treatment Outcome; Models, Economic; PubMed
  19. Chai TT, Tan YN, Ee KY, Xiao J, Wong FC
    PMID: 30663883 DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2018.1561418
    The emergence of bacterial resistance against conventional antibiotics and the growing interest in developing alternative, natural antibacterial agents have prompted the search for plant-derived antibacterial peptides in recent decades. Different classes of endogenous antibacterial peptides have been identified from various plant species. Moreover, protein hydrolysates and hydrolysate-derived peptides with potent antibacterial effects have also been identified from numerous plant sources. Antibacterial peptides are often cationic and amphipathic, consisting of fewer than 100 amino acids. They are able to disrupt bacterial membrane integrity via pore formation and/or compromise bacterial metabolic processes. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the characteristics and modes of action of antibacterial peptides, as well as salient points concerning the production of antibacterial protein hydrolysates from plant proteins. Examples of plant-derived antibacterial hydrolysates and peptides will be highlighted, with particular attention to less explored seeds, fermented plant foods and agricultural by-products. Promising future research directions with regards to the application of plant-derived antibacterial hydrolysates and peptides in food preservation, farm animal disease management, and nutraceutical/functional food development will be proposed.
    MeSH terms: Amino Acids; Animals; Animals, Domestic; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Attention; Bacteria; Bacterial Infections; Food Preservation; Peptides; Plant Proteins; Protein Hydrolysates; Disease Management; Dietary Supplements; Functional Food
  20. Woo KT, Chan CM, Lim C, Choo J, Chin YM, Teng WL, et al.
    Clin. Nephrol., 2019 Jan 21.
    PMID: 30663975 DOI: 10.5414/CN109577
    This review of 3,289 native kidney biopsies over the past four decades in Singapore documents the changing pattern of biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis (GN)from that of a third world country to that of a developed nation. In the 1st decade, mesangial proliferative GN was the most common form of primary GN, similar to the Asian region. In the 2nd decade, the percentage of mesangial proliferative GN decreased, but membranous GN became more common, as was seen in China and Thailand. In the 3rd decade, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and membranous nephropathy continued to rise, but it was only recently, in the 4th decade, that FSGS prevalence increased dramatically, although membranous nephropathy continues to increase in some Asian countries. In the last decade in Singapore, Malaysia, and Japan, prevalence of IgA nephritis has decreased but remains the most common GN. The percentage of FSGS continues to increase in many countries like in Italy, United States of America, United Kingdom, China, and Malaysia. We surmise that socioeconomic factors play significant roles in the evolution of the renal biopsy pattern.
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