• 1 Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • 2 International Medical University


The prevalence of cleft lip and palate in human is 1 in 500 live births worldwide. Non·syndromic clefts are a complex trait with both genetic and environmental etiology. The aim ofthe study was to assess the association between maternal exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy and ruk of having cleft child. Unmatched case-control study was carried out among Malays in Kelantan.
1 Case and control subjects were denned as mothers of cleft children and mothers of normal children respectively. The cleft children were recruited from the Combined Cleft Clinic at Kota Bharu Dental Clinic. Normal chiMren were selected at Orthodontic Clinic, Kota Bharu. A total of 184 cases and controb with age range from 17 to 50 years were interviewed using the standard craniofacial
registration form. Multiple Logistic Regression modeling was used to estimate adjusted odds ratio of factors associated with non-syndromic oral cleft. Signijicant factors include history of miscarriage (OR: 3.40; 95% C1:1.05, 11 .08) p=0.042; duration of exposure to second-hand smoke for 15-30 minutes (OR: 2.41; 95% C1:1.42, 4.09) p 30 minutes (OR: 5.16; 95% C1:Z.87, 9.28) p