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  1. Wang Y, Li J, Fu X, Li J, Liu L, Alkohlani A, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol, 2021 08;73:101958.
    PMID: 34020315 DOI: 10.1016/j.canep.2021.101958
    PURPOSE: Leptin and adiponectin are adipokines which have been commonly implicated in carcinogenesis. As such, many studies have investigated the association of circulating leptin and adiponectin levels with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, the results remained inconsistent.

    METHODS: In this work, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to precisely examine the association between circulating levels of leptin and adiponectin and CRC risk. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases from inception until October 2020. The pooled effect size was then estimated by calculating the odds ratio (OR).

    RESULTS: A total of 23 records (comprising 26 studies) were included in the meta-analysis. The overall analysis found that circulating levels of leptin and adiponectin were not significantly associated with CRC risk (P > 0.05). Interestingly, subgroup analysis revealed that a higher level of adiponectin was significantly associated with an increased CRC risk among overweight individuals (OR = 1.16; 95 % CI: 1.02, 1.32), and a decreased CRC risk among normal weight individuals (OR = 0.76; 95 % CI: 0.62, 0.92). Besides, a higher level of adiponectin was also significantly associated with a decreased risk of CRC in men (OR = 0.76; 95 % CI: 0.59, 0.98).

    CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, circulating leptin level was not associated with CRC risk, but that of adiponectin was associated with CRC risk only in specific subgroups.

    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  2. Ismail, A.K., Mohamad Ali, S., Che' Man, Z.
    Medicine & Health, 2016;11(1):29-37.
    MyJurnal
    Patients who self-discharge against medical advice (DAMA) are susceptible to life-threatening consequences. By understanding the factors associated with DAMA, healthcare centres can build strategies to assist patients to receive optimal medical care and prevent unfavourable outcome. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with DAMA from the Emergency Department (ED) of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). This was a prospective unmatched case control study conducted over a 4-month period. For every DAMA episode, two patients who were admitted on the same day were randomly selected as control. Following patient consent, data was collected using a standardized questionnaire. Patients were contacted by the investigator for information regarding hospitalization within two weeks of DAMA. Ninety three patients were recruited; 31 DAMA patients and 62 admitted patients. Payment method was significantly associated with DAMA (OR 3.17 95% CI 1.29-7.98; p=0.01). The likelihood of self-paying patients to take DAMA was three times higher than those who had a guarantor letter from their employer or insurance provider. Other factors which influence DAMA were family obligations (OR 4.08 95% CI 1.09-15.26; p = 0.03) and work problems (OR 3.83 95% CI 1.13-12.94; p=0.03). A total of 19.4% of DAMA patients left following symptomatic pain relief. A total of 80.6% DAMA patients were admitted to hospital within two weeks of the DAMA episode. Payment method significantly influences DAMA. Payment planning, social welfare services, non-governmental organization funds and the introduction of a national health policy scheme may aid hospital payment, alleviate financial limitation of patients and reduce DAMA episodes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  3. Tan DT, Siri JG, Gong Y, Ong B, Lim SC, MacGillivray BH, et al.
    Global Health, 2019 12 18;15(1):85.
    PMID: 31847865 DOI: 10.1186/s12992-019-0527-1
    BACKGROUND: Localisation is a pervasive challenge in achieving sustainable development. Contextual particularities may render generalized strategies to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) unfeasible, impractical, or ineffective. Furthermore, many localities are resource- and data-poor, limiting applicability of the global SDG indicator framework. Tools to enable local actors to make sense of complex problems, communicate this understanding, and act accordingly hold promise in their ability to improve results.

    AIM: Systems approaches can help characterise local causal systems, identify useful leverage points, and foster participation needed to localise and catalyse development action. Critically, such efforts must be deeply rooted in place, involving local actors in mapping decision-processes and causation within local physical, social and policy environments. Given that each place has a unique geographical or spatial extent and therein lies its unique characters and problems, we term these activities "placially explicit." We describe and reflect on a process used to develop placially explicit, systems-based (PESB) case studies on issues that intersect with and impact urban health and wellbeing, addressing the perspectives of various actors to produce place-based models and insights that are useful for SDG localisation.

    METHODS: Seven case studies were co-produced by one or more Partners with place-based knowledge of the case study issue and a Systems Thinker. In each case, joint delineation of an appropriate framing was followed by iterative dialogue cycles to uncover key contextual factors, with attention to institutional and societal structures and paradigms and the motivations and constraints of other actors. Casual loop diagrams (CLDs) were iteratively developed to capture complex narratives in a simple visual way.

    RESULTS: Case study development facilitated transfer of local knowledge and development of systems thinking capacity. Partners reported new insights, including a shifting of problem frames and corresponding solution spaces to higher systems levels. Such changes led partners to re-evaluate their roles and goals, and thence to new actions and strategies. CLD-based narratives also proved useful in ongoing communications.

    CONCLUSION: Co-production of PESB case studies are a useful component of transdisciplinary toolsets for local SDG implementation, building the capacity of local actors to explore complex problems, identify new solutions and indicators, and understand the systemic linkages inherent in SDG actions across sectors and scales.

    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  4. Mohamed Fuad Z, Mahadzir H, Syed Zakaria SZ, Mohamed Ibrahim N
    Front Public Health, 2020;8:577940.
    PMID: 33282811 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.577940
    Background: Stroke is highly prevalent globally and is an important cause of cognitive impairment and dementia. Aims: We determined the frequency of post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) at 1, 3, and 6 months among patients with first clinical ischemic stroke compared to risk and age-matched controls. Methods: This study involved 32 cases and 32 controls, and was conducted over 6 months. Cases were inpatients aged >60 with first clinical ischemic stroke. Controls were age-matched subjects without prior stroke. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was performed in all patients at 1, 3, and 6 month post stroke. A MoCA score of <26 was used for mild PSCI and <22 for moderate PSCI (post stroke dementia). Results: Post-stroke dementia was detected in 12 patients (37.5%) at 1st month, in 13 (40.6%) at 3rd month and 15 (48.4%) at 6th months. Mild PSCI was present in 7 patients (21.6%) at 1 month, 16 patients (50%) at 3 months, and 15 patients (48%) at 6 months. The odds ratio (OR) for post-stroke dementia was 3.2 (95%CI 0.98-10.68; p = 0.05) at 1 month; 3.69(95% CI 1.13-12.11; p = 0.031) at 3 months, and 4.88 (95% CI 1.49-15.99; p = 0.009) at 6 months. Years of education was an independent predictor for dementia (OR 0.60; p = 0.046). The OR for post-stroke dementia at 6th month was 7.23 with education level adjusted (95%CI 1.46-35.86, p = 0.015). Conclusion: The frequency of PSCI was high as early as 1 month after stroke. Stroke alone conferred a 7.2 times risk for post-stroke dementia compared to controls.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  5. Mohd-Ali B, Liew LY, Tai HJ, Wong YY
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Mar;66(1):53-5.
    PMID: 23765144 MyJurnal
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate tears of newly diagnosed keratoconus patients attending the Optometry clinic in Malaysia and to compare this with tears of normal myopic subjects.
    METHODS: The ocular surface of newly diagnosed keratoconus patients were evaluated using tear break up time (TBUT) test, non invasive tear break up time test (NIBUT) and Schirmer test. Twenty keratoconus patients (40 eyes) and 40 normal subjects (80 eyes) participated in this study.
    RESULTS: Significantly lower TBUT and NIBUT values were found in keratoconus patients than normal control subjects (p<0.05). Mean TBUT and NIBUT for keratoconus patients were 3.99±1.69s and 7.03±3.48s and for normal subjects were 7.24±4.39s and 13.67±10.81s respectively. However, no significant difference was detected in Schirmer test values. Mean values of Schirmer tests I and II for keratoconus patients were 20.52±10.66mm and 10.71±10.43mm and for normals were 23.83±11.34mm and 13.27±8.28mm accordingly.
    CONCLUSION: It was concluded from this study that keratoconus patients have poor tear stability which need to be considered appropriately during management of the patients.
    Study site: Optometry clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  6. Hamidin, A., Maniam, T.
    MyJurnal
    Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of life events among parasuicide patients
    with the prevalence of similar life events among age, sex and race matched patients with non-chronic
    medical illness. Methods: A hospital-based case-control study using convenience sampling method
    was conducted in Hospital Kuala Lumpur for a period of three and a half months. A total of 50 patients
    admitted consecutively after an episode of parasuicide and who fulfilled criteria for entry into the study
    agreed to participate. For each case one age-, sex- and race-matched control was selected from the list of patients who were admitted to the same hospital for non-chronic medical illness. Result: Statistical analysis showed that compared with medically ill patients, parasuicide patients had significantly higher prevalence of threatening life events six months (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  7. Aftab S, Ejaz I, Waqar U, Khan HI, Hanif A, Usman A, et al.
    MyJurnal
    Background: Pneumonia is defined as the inflammation of parenchyma of the lung. It is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood throughout the world. The incidence of pneumonia in children under the age of five years is 0.29 episodes per child-year, which equates 151.8 million cases annually in developing countries. Objective: To determine the risk factors for complicated pneumonia.

    Material and Methods: This case-control study conducted in Medical Unit III, The Children’s Hospital & Institute of Child Health Lahore. Out of total of 180 cases of pneumonia, 100 were labeled as complicated pneumonia (case) and 80 were labeled as uncomplicated pneumonia (control). Complicated pneumonia included pneumonia with associated complications. Detail history was taken in both groups and recorded on predesigned proforma. Data was analyzed by SPSS 20. Quantitative risk factors like child age, maternal age and father age were analyzed by mean and standard deviation. However qualitative risk factors like method of feeding, malnutrition, immunization, anaemia, and non-vaccination were analyzed by applying chi-square test and finding odd ratios.

    Results: Most significant risk factors associated with complicated pneumonia included younger age, maternal and father education, rural area, malnutrition, anaemia, rickets, birth problems, admission during neonatal life due to pneumonia, bottle feeding, nonvaccination, referral and delayed in presentation (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  8. Hasanain Faisal Ghaz, Al-abed Ali Ahmed Al-abed, TibaNezar Hasan, Zaleha Md. Is, Mohammed A. AbdalQader, Saif Abdul-Majeed
    MyJurnal
    The association between nutrition and cancer in general had been a controversial issue between scientists in the last
    three decades, because some argued that there is a relationship and some nutrients can help in preventing cancer
    occurrence, although this has not been a consistent finding by other studies. Studies were identified through a
    systematic review of literature available on PubMed in between 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2013. We
    included all studies that assessed nutrition or diet with occurrence or mortality of breast cancer. Out of 42 articles,
    we included 8 articles in our screening and discussion. Among these 8 studies, there were 2 case-controls, 3 cohort
    and 3 randomized control trials (RCT) studies. Although most studies reported that nutrition isassociated with
    decreased risk, some reported the contrary,whereas others reported no relation. It was demonstrated a conflict
    between the included papers in regards of the association between nutrition and breast cancer. These finding needs
    to be re-evaluated in future studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  9. Zakaria WNA, Mohd Yunus N, Yaacob NM, Omar J, Wan Mohamed WMI, Sirajudeen KNS, et al.
    PMID: 33567588 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18041595
    (1) Background: Several studies have suggested that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene plays a role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) susceptibility. Nonetheless, the association between T2DM and VDR polymorphisms remains inconclusive. We determined the genotype of VDR rs1544410 (BsmI) and rs2228570 (FokI) polymorphisms among Malaysian patients with T2DM and their association with glycemic control factors (vitamin D levels, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate). (2) Methods: A total of 189 participants comprising 126 patients with T2DM (63 with good glycemic control and 63 with poor glycemic control) and 63 healthy controls were enrolled in this case-control study. All biochemical assays were measured using spectrophotometric analysis. VDR gene FokI and BsmI polymorphisms were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction and endonuclease digestion. (3) Results: Our findings revealed no significant differences in VDR FokI and BsmI genotypes between participants with T2DM and healthy controls. Moreover, no significant association was observed between both single nucleotide polymorphisms and glycemic control factors. Participants with poor glycemic control had significantly lower serum magnesium levels and significantly higher HOMA-IR compared to the other groups. (4) Conclusions: The present study revealed that VDR gene BsmI and FokI polymorphisms were not significantly associated with T2DM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  10. Alias H, Morthy SK, Zakaria SZS, Muda Z, Tamil AM
    BMC Pediatr, 2020 02 05;20(1):53.
    PMID: 32020861 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-020-1951-3
    BACKGROUND: Advances in the treatment of childhood brain tumors have significantly improved survival rates. With improved survival rates, long-term treatment-related toxicities have become important, and the resulting complications can affect patients' emotion and behavior. This study aimed to 1) evaluate behavioral outcomes among survivors of childhood brain tumors, 2) compare behavioral outcomes among survivors of childhood brain tumors with survivors of childhood leukemia and healthy children, and 3) determine any demographic, disease, and/or treatment-related factors that could affect the behavioral outcomes of survivors of childhood brain tumors.

    METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 1 year (June 1st, 2018-May 31st, 2019) in two tertiary referral centers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Thirty-eight survivors of childhood brain tumors aged 6 to 18 years old who had been off-treatment for at least 1 year and were in remission, 38 age- and gender-matched survivors of childhood leukemia who had been off-treatment for at least 1 year and were in remission, and 38 age- and gender-matched unrelated healthy children were recruited. The Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) parent report and Youth Self-Report (YSR) questionnaires were used to assess behavioral outcomes.

    RESULTS: Survivors of childhood brain tumors showed statistically significantly worse behavioral outcomes than healthy children for social problems and attention problems (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  11. Sajid MR, Muhammad N, Zakaria R, Shahbaz A, Bukhari SAC, Kadry S, et al.
    Interdiscip Sci, 2021 Jun;13(2):201-211.
    PMID: 33675528 DOI: 10.1007/s12539-021-00423-w
    BACKGROUND: In the broader healthcare domain, the prediction bears more value than an explanation considering the cost of delays in its services. There are various risk prediction models for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the literature for early risk assessment. However, the substantial increase in CVDs-related mortality is challenging global health systems, especially in developing countries. This situation allows researchers to improve CVDs prediction models using new features and risk computing methods. This study aims to assess nonclinical features that can be easily available in any healthcare systems, in predicting CVDs using advanced and flexible machine learning (ML) algorithms.

    METHODS: A gender-matched case-control study was conducted in the largest public sector cardiac hospital of Pakistan, and the data of 460 subjects were collected. The dataset comprised of eight nonclinical features. Four supervised ML algorithms were used to train and test the models to predict the CVDs status by considering traditional logistic regression (LR) as the baseline model. The models were validated through the train-test split (70:30) and tenfold cross-validation approaches.

    RESULTS: Random forest (RF), a nonlinear ML algorithm, performed better than other ML algorithms and LR. The area under the curve (AUC) of RF was 0.851 and 0.853 in the train-test split and tenfold cross-validation approach, respectively. The nonclinical features yielded an admissible accuracy (minimum 71%) through the LR and ML models, exhibiting its predictive capability in risk estimation.

    CONCLUSION: The satisfactory performance of nonclinical features reveals that these features and flexible computational methodologies can reinforce the existing risk prediction models for better healthcare services.

    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  12. Nayan NA, Ab Hamid H, Suboh MZ, Abdullah N, Jaafar R, Mhd Yusof NA, et al.
    DOI: 10.3991/ijoe.v16i07.13569
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of deaths worldwide. In 2017, CVD contributed to 13,503 deaths in Malaysia. The current approaches for CVD prediction are usually invasive and costly. Machine learning (ML) techniques allow an accurate prediction by utilizing the complex interactions among relevant risk factors. This study presents a casecontrol study involving 60 participants from The Malaysian Cohort, which is a prospective population-based project. Five parameters, namely, the R–R interval and root mean square of successive differences extracted from electrocardiogram (ECG), systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and total cholesterol level, were statistically significant in predicting CVD. Six ML algorithms, namely, linear discriminant analysis, linear and quadratic support vector machines, decision tree, knearest neighbor, and artificial neural network (ANN), were evaluated to determine the most accurate classifier in predicting CVD risk. ANN, which achieved 90% specificity, 90% sensitivity, and 90% accuracy, demonstrated the highest prediction performance among the six algorithms. In summary, by utilizing ML techniques, ECG data can serve as a good parameter for CVD prediction among the Malaysian multiethnic population.
    Keywords—CVD, ECG, machine learning, The Malaysian Cohort, RMSSD
    Study name: The Malaysian Cohort (TMC) project
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  13. Chandrasekaran S, Ramli N, Ahmad MJ, Effendi I, Amir NN, Chow RC, et al.
    J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol, 2021 08;10(4):425-431.
    PMID: 32996803 DOI: 10.1089/jayao.2020.0064
    Purpose: Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) demonstrate features of premature aging in a multitude of organ systems. The aim of this pilot study is to determine the presence of premature ocular aging features in CCS, specifically childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors. Methods: This prospective case-control study was conducted over a period of 21 months, starting July 2015 till March 2017. A total of 59 childhood ALL survivors who attended the Paediatric Oncology Clinic of University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) and 48 age, race, and gender-matched controls went through a series of ocular examinations and tests. Inclusion criteria used to recruit survivors were age above 16 years, history of ALL in childhood, completion of treatment for ALL, and a remission period of at least 5 years. Patients with ocular disease and those who received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were excluded. The parameters measured were visual acuity, amplitude of accommodation, pupil cycle time (PCT), and tear break-up time (TBUT). Results: Survivors of childhood ALL demonstrated significant differences in amplitude of accommodation, PCT, and TBUT compared to age-matched controls. Survivors had a lower median (interquartile range [IQR]) amplitude of accommodation compared to controls (11.0 D [9.0-13.0] vs. 12.0 D [10.5-15]; p = 0.045). Survivors also showed a longer median (IQR) PCT in comparison to controls (931.00 mseconds (857.00-1063.00) vs. 875.50 mseconds (825.75-966.00); p = 0.024). In addition, median (IQR) TBUT was worse in survivors in comparison to the control group (9 seconds [6-13] vs. 11 seconds [10-15]; p = 0.001). Conclusion: Survivors of childhood ALL demonstrate premature ocular aging features compared to age-matched controls. Thus, survivors may benefit from having ocular examinations as part of their routine late-effects screening to detect age-related ocular morbidities early in its course.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  14. Andlauer TFM, Guzman-Parra J, Streit F, Strohmaier J, González MJ, Gil Flores S, et al.
    Mol Psychiatry, 2021 04;26(4):1286-1298.
    PMID: 31712721 DOI: 10.1038/s41380-019-0558-2
    Multiplex families with a high prevalence of a psychiatric disorder are often examined to identify rare genetic variants with large effect sizes. In the present study, we analysed whether the risk for bipolar disorder (BD) in BD multiplex families is influenced by common genetic variants. Furthermore, we investigated whether this risk is conferred mainly by BD-specific risk variants or by variants also associated with the susceptibility to schizophrenia or major depression. In total, 395 individuals from 33 Andalusian BD multiplex families (166 BD, 78 major depressive disorder, 151 unaffected) as well as 438 subjects from an independent, BD case/control cohort (161 unrelated BD, 277 unrelated controls) were analysed. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for BD, schizophrenia (SCZ), and major depression were calculated and compared between the cohorts. Both the familial BD cases and unaffected family members had higher PRS for all three psychiatric disorders than the independent controls, with BD and SCZ being significant after correction for multiple testing, suggesting a high baseline risk for several psychiatric disorders in the families. Moreover, familial BD cases showed significantly higher BD PRS than unaffected family members and unrelated BD cases. A plausible hypothesis is that, in multiplex families with a general increase in risk for psychiatric disease, BD development is attributable to a high burden of common variants that confer a specific risk for BD. The present analyses demonstrated that common genetic risk variants for psychiatric disorders are likely to contribute to the high incidence of affective psychiatric disorders in the multiplex families. However, the PRS explained only part of the observed phenotypic variance, and rare variants might have also contributed to disease development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  15. Acharya UR, Faust O, Sree V, Swapna G, Martis RJ, Kadri NA, et al.
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2014;113(1):55-68.
    PMID: 24119391 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2013.08.017
    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the dangerous cardiac disease, often may lead to sudden cardiac death. It is difficult to diagnose CAD by manual inspection of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. To automate this detection task, in this study, we extracted the heart rate (HR) from the ECG signals and used them as base signal for further analysis. We then analyzed the HR signals of both normal and CAD subjects using (i) time domain, (ii) frequency domain and (iii) nonlinear techniques. The following are the nonlinear methods that were used in this work: Poincare plots, Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) parameters, Shannon entropy, Approximate Entropy (ApEn), Sample Entropy (SampEn), Higher Order Spectra (HOS) methods, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), Cumulants, and Correlation Dimension. As a result of the analysis, we present unique recurrence, Poincare and HOS plots for normal and CAD subjects. We have also observed significant variations in the range of these features with respect to normal and CAD classes, and have presented the same in this paper. We found that the RQA parameters were higher for CAD subjects indicating more rhythm. Since the activity of CAD subjects is less, similar signal patterns repeat more frequently compared to the normal subjects. The entropy based parameters, ApEn and SampEn, are lower for CAD subjects indicating lower entropy (less activity due to impairment) for CAD. Almost all HOS parameters showed higher values for the CAD group, indicating the presence of higher frequency content in the CAD signals. Thus, our study provides a deep insight into how such nonlinear features could be exploited to effectively and reliably detect the presence of CAD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  16. Dipak S, Prepageran N, Haslinda S, Atiya A, Raman R
    PMID: 22319710 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-010-0067-8
    To assess if sensation of nasal mucosa affect the subjective sensation of nasal patency. This is a case control study with 50 patients, using 2% lignocaine as the active drug and normal saline as the placebo (2 groups of 25 patients each). Each subject had 2 ml of solution sprayed into the test nose. These subjects had no prior nasal symptoms, allergy or surgery. They were evaluated subjectively using Likert scale and objectively by acoustic rhinometry before and after lignocaine or normal saline. The patients in both normal saline and lignocaine groups demonstrated no significant change based upon Likert scale. The study also demonstrated the mean cross sectional area 1 (CSA1), mean cross sectional area 2 (CSA2), with mean Volume 1 and mean Volume 2, these results did not vary significantly in both groups with Acoustic Rhinometry. The analysis thus shows that the use of topical anesthetic spray on nasal mucosa produces no objective effect on nasal resistance or subjective sensation of altered nasal patency. Thus the study concludes that, tactile sensation of nasal mucosa does not play a role in the sensation of nasal obstruction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  17. Saeedi P, Mohd Taib MN, Hazizi AS
    Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2012 Oct;22(5):323-30.
    PMID: 22805627
    Nutritional supplement (NS) use has increased among the general population, athletes, and fitness club participants and has become a widespread and acceptable behavior. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in sociodemographic, health-related, and psychological factors between NS users and nonusers. A case-control study design was used, whereby participants included 147 NS users (cases) and 147 nonusers (controls) age 18 yr and above who exercised at least 3 d/wk in 24 fitness clubs in Tehran. A self-administered pretested and validated questionnaire was used to collect data. The results showed that on average, NS users were younger (29.8 ± 9.5 yr) than nonusers (35.5 ± 12.2 yr). Logistic-regression analysis showed that NS use was significantly associated with moderate or high physical activity level (PAL), smoking, gender, eating attitude, and age. In conclusion, NS users were more likely to be female, younger, and smokers; to have moderate or high PAL; and to be more prone to eating disorders than nonusers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  18. Nor Hashim NA, Ramzi NH, Velapasamy S, Alex L, Chahil JK, Lye SH, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2012;13(12):6005-10.
    PMID: 23464394
    BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic in Southern Chinese and Southeast Asian populations. Geographical and ethnic clustering of the cancer is due to genetic, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors. This case-control study aimed to identify or confirm both genetic and non-genetic risk factors for NPC in one of the endemic countries, Malaysia.

    MATERIALS AND METHOD: A panel of 768 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with various cancers and known non-genetic risk factors for NPC were selected and analyzed for their associations with NPC in a case-control study.

    RESULTS: Statistical analysis identified 40 SNPs associated with NPC risk in our population, including 5 documented previously by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and other case-control studies; the associations of the remaining 35 SNPs with NPC were novel. In addition, consistent with previous studies, exposure to occupational hazards, overconsumption of salt-cured foods, red meat, as well as low intake of fruits and vegetables were also associated with NPC risk.

    CONCLUSIONS: In short, this study confirmed and/or identified genetic, environmental and dietary risk factors associated with NPC susceptibility in a Southeast Asian population.

    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  19. Zabidi A, Khuan LY, Mansor W, Yassin IM, Sahak R
    PMID: 22254916 DOI: 10.1109/IEMBS.2011.6090759
    Hypothyroidism in infants is caused by the insufficient production of hormones by the thyroid gland. Due to stress in the chest cavity as a result of the enlarged liver, their cry signals are unique and can be distinguished from the healthy infant cries. This study investigates the effect of feature selection with Binary Particle Swarm Optimization on the performance of MultiLayer Perceptron classifier in discriminating between the healthy infants and infants with hypothyroidism from their cry signals. The feature extraction process was performed on the Mel Frequency Cepstral coefficients. Performance of the MLP classifier was examined by varying the number of coefficients. It was found that the BPSO enhances the classification accuracy while reducing the computation load of the MLP classifier. The highest classification accuracy of 99.65% was achieved for the MLP classifier, with 36 filter banks, 5 hidden nodes and 11 BPS optimised MFC coefficients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  20. Boo NY, Lim SM, Koh KT, Lau KF, Ravindran J
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Oct;63(4):306-10.
    PMID: 19385490 MyJurnal
    This study aimed to identify the risk factors which were significantly associated with low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) infants among the Malaysian population. This was a case-control study carried out at the Tuanku Jaafar Hospital, Seremban, Malaysia over a five-month period. Cases were all infants born with birth weight less than 2500 g. Control infant were selected with the help a random sampling table from among infants with birth weight of > or =2500 g born on the same day in the hospital. Of 3341 livebirths delivered in the hospital, 422 (12.6%) were LBW infants. Logistic regression analysis showed that, after controlling for various potential confounders, the only significant risk factors associated with infants of LBW were gestational age (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=0.6, 95% C.I.: 0.5, 0.6; < 0.0001), maternal pre-pregnancy weight (adjusted OR = 0.97, 95% C.I.: 0.95, 0.99; p < 0.0001), nulliparity (adjusted OR = 3.4, 95% C.I.: 2.2, 5.1; p < 0.0001), previous history of LBW infants (adjusted OR = 2.3, 95% C.I.: 1.4, 3.8; p=0.001) and PIH during current pregnancy (adjusted OR=3.3, 95% C.I.: 1.6, 6.6; p = 0.001). A number of potentially preventable or treatable risk factors were identified to be associated with LBW infants in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
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