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  1. Ismail, A.K., Mohamad Ali, S., Che' Man, Z.
    Medicine & Health, 2016;11(1):29-37.
    MyJurnal
    Patients who self-discharge against medical advice (DAMA) are susceptible to life-threatening consequences. By understanding the factors associated with DAMA, healthcare centres can build strategies to assist patients to receive optimal medical care and prevent unfavourable outcome. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with DAMA from the Emergency Department (ED) of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). This was a prospective unmatched case control study conducted over a 4-month period. For every DAMA episode, two patients who were admitted on the same day were randomly selected as control. Following patient consent, data was collected using a standardized questionnaire. Patients were contacted by the investigator for information regarding hospitalization within two weeks of DAMA. Ninety three patients were recruited; 31 DAMA patients and 62 admitted patients. Payment method was significantly associated with DAMA (OR 3.17 95% CI 1.29-7.98; p=0.01). The likelihood of self-paying patients to take DAMA was three times higher than those who had a guarantor letter from their employer or insurance provider. Other factors which influence DAMA were family obligations (OR 4.08 95% CI 1.09-15.26; p = 0.03) and work problems (OR 3.83 95% CI 1.13-12.94; p=0.03). A total of 19.4% of DAMA patients left following symptomatic pain relief. A total of 80.6% DAMA patients were admitted to hospital within two weeks of the DAMA episode. Payment method significantly influences DAMA. Payment planning, social welfare services, non-governmental organization funds and the introduction of a national health policy scheme may aid hospital payment, alleviate financial limitation of patients and reduce DAMA episodes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  2. Tan DT, Siri JG, Gong Y, Ong B, Lim SC, MacGillivray BH, et al.
    Global Health, 2019 12 18;15(1):85.
    PMID: 31847865 DOI: 10.1186/s12992-019-0527-1
    BACKGROUND: Localisation is a pervasive challenge in achieving sustainable development. Contextual particularities may render generalized strategies to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) unfeasible, impractical, or ineffective. Furthermore, many localities are resource- and data-poor, limiting applicability of the global SDG indicator framework. Tools to enable local actors to make sense of complex problems, communicate this understanding, and act accordingly hold promise in their ability to improve results.

    AIM: Systems approaches can help characterise local causal systems, identify useful leverage points, and foster participation needed to localise and catalyse development action. Critically, such efforts must be deeply rooted in place, involving local actors in mapping decision-processes and causation within local physical, social and policy environments. Given that each place has a unique geographical or spatial extent and therein lies its unique characters and problems, we term these activities "placially explicit." We describe and reflect on a process used to develop placially explicit, systems-based (PESB) case studies on issues that intersect with and impact urban health and wellbeing, addressing the perspectives of various actors to produce place-based models and insights that are useful for SDG localisation.

    METHODS: Seven case studies were co-produced by one or more Partners with place-based knowledge of the case study issue and a Systems Thinker. In each case, joint delineation of an appropriate framing was followed by iterative dialogue cycles to uncover key contextual factors, with attention to institutional and societal structures and paradigms and the motivations and constraints of other actors. Casual loop diagrams (CLDs) were iteratively developed to capture complex narratives in a simple visual way.

    RESULTS: Case study development facilitated transfer of local knowledge and development of systems thinking capacity. Partners reported new insights, including a shifting of problem frames and corresponding solution spaces to higher systems levels. Such changes led partners to re-evaluate their roles and goals, and thence to new actions and strategies. CLD-based narratives also proved useful in ongoing communications.

    CONCLUSION: Co-production of PESB case studies are a useful component of transdisciplinary toolsets for local SDG implementation, building the capacity of local actors to explore complex problems, identify new solutions and indicators, and understand the systemic linkages inherent in SDG actions across sectors and scales.

    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  3. Mohd-Ali B, Liew LY, Tai HJ, Wong YY
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2011 Mar;66(1):53-5.
    PMID: 23765144 MyJurnal
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate tears of newly diagnosed keratoconus patients attending the Optometry clinic in Malaysia and to compare this with tears of normal myopic subjects.
    METHODS: The ocular surface of newly diagnosed keratoconus patients were evaluated using tear break up time (TBUT) test, non invasive tear break up time test (NIBUT) and Schirmer test. Twenty keratoconus patients (40 eyes) and 40 normal subjects (80 eyes) participated in this study.
    RESULTS: Significantly lower TBUT and NIBUT values were found in keratoconus patients than normal control subjects (p<0.05). Mean TBUT and NIBUT for keratoconus patients were 3.99±1.69s and 7.03±3.48s and for normal subjects were 7.24±4.39s and 13.67±10.81s respectively. However, no significant difference was detected in Schirmer test values. Mean values of Schirmer tests I and II for keratoconus patients were 20.52±10.66mm and 10.71±10.43mm and for normals were 23.83±11.34mm and 13.27±8.28mm accordingly.
    CONCLUSION: It was concluded from this study that keratoconus patients have poor tear stability which need to be considered appropriately during management of the patients.
    Study site: Optometry clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  4. Hamidin, A., Maniam, T.
    MyJurnal
    Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of life events among parasuicide patients
    with the prevalence of similar life events among age, sex and race matched patients with non-chronic
    medical illness. Methods: A hospital-based case-control study using convenience sampling method
    was conducted in Hospital Kuala Lumpur for a period of three and a half months. A total of 50 patients
    admitted consecutively after an episode of parasuicide and who fulfilled criteria for entry into the study
    agreed to participate. For each case one age-, sex- and race-matched control was selected from the list of patients who were admitted to the same hospital for non-chronic medical illness. Result: Statistical analysis showed that compared with medically ill patients, parasuicide patients had significantly higher prevalence of threatening life events six months (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  5. Hasanain Faisal Ghaz, Al-abed Ali Ahmed Al-abed, TibaNezar Hasan, Zaleha Md. Is, Mohammed A. AbdalQader, Saif Abdul-Majeed
    MyJurnal
    The association between nutrition and cancer in general had been a controversial issue between scientists in the last
    three decades, because some argued that there is a relationship and some nutrients can help in preventing cancer
    occurrence, although this has not been a consistent finding by other studies. Studies were identified through a
    systematic review of literature available on PubMed in between 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2013. We
    included all studies that assessed nutrition or diet with occurrence or mortality of breast cancer. Out of 42 articles,
    we included 8 articles in our screening and discussion. Among these 8 studies, there were 2 case-controls, 3 cohort
    and 3 randomized control trials (RCT) studies. Although most studies reported that nutrition isassociated with
    decreased risk, some reported the contrary,whereas others reported no relation. It was demonstrated a conflict
    between the included papers in regards of the association between nutrition and breast cancer. These finding needs
    to be re-evaluated in future studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  6. Aftab S, Ejaz I, Waqar U, Khan HI, Hanif A, Usman A, et al.
    MyJurnal
    Background: Pneumonia is defined as the inflammation of parenchyma of the lung. It is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood throughout the world. The incidence of pneumonia in children under the age of five years is 0.29 episodes per child-year, which equates 151.8 million cases annually in developing countries. Objective: To determine the risk factors for complicated pneumonia.

    Material and Methods: This case-control study conducted in Medical Unit III, The Children’s Hospital & Institute of Child Health Lahore. Out of total of 180 cases of pneumonia, 100 were labeled as complicated pneumonia (case) and 80 were labeled as uncomplicated pneumonia (control). Complicated pneumonia included pneumonia with associated complications. Detail history was taken in both groups and recorded on predesigned proforma. Data was analyzed by SPSS 20. Quantitative risk factors like child age, maternal age and father age were analyzed by mean and standard deviation. However qualitative risk factors like method of feeding, malnutrition, immunization, anaemia, and non-vaccination were analyzed by applying chi-square test and finding odd ratios.

    Results: Most significant risk factors associated with complicated pneumonia included younger age, maternal and father education, rural area, malnutrition, anaemia, rickets, birth problems, admission during neonatal life due to pneumonia, bottle feeding, nonvaccination, referral and delayed in presentation (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  7. Acharya UR, Faust O, Sree V, Swapna G, Martis RJ, Kadri NA, et al.
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2014;113(1):55-68.
    PMID: 24119391 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2013.08.017
    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the dangerous cardiac disease, often may lead to sudden cardiac death. It is difficult to diagnose CAD by manual inspection of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. To automate this detection task, in this study, we extracted the heart rate (HR) from the ECG signals and used them as base signal for further analysis. We then analyzed the HR signals of both normal and CAD subjects using (i) time domain, (ii) frequency domain and (iii) nonlinear techniques. The following are the nonlinear methods that were used in this work: Poincare plots, Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) parameters, Shannon entropy, Approximate Entropy (ApEn), Sample Entropy (SampEn), Higher Order Spectra (HOS) methods, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), Cumulants, and Correlation Dimension. As a result of the analysis, we present unique recurrence, Poincare and HOS plots for normal and CAD subjects. We have also observed significant variations in the range of these features with respect to normal and CAD classes, and have presented the same in this paper. We found that the RQA parameters were higher for CAD subjects indicating more rhythm. Since the activity of CAD subjects is less, similar signal patterns repeat more frequently compared to the normal subjects. The entropy based parameters, ApEn and SampEn, are lower for CAD subjects indicating lower entropy (less activity due to impairment) for CAD. Almost all HOS parameters showed higher values for the CAD group, indicating the presence of higher frequency content in the CAD signals. Thus, our study provides a deep insight into how such nonlinear features could be exploited to effectively and reliably detect the presence of CAD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  8. Saeedi P, Mohd Taib MN, Hazizi AS
    Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2012 Oct;22(5):323-30.
    PMID: 22805627
    Nutritional supplement (NS) use has increased among the general population, athletes, and fitness club participants and has become a widespread and acceptable behavior. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in sociodemographic, health-related, and psychological factors between NS users and nonusers. A case-control study design was used, whereby participants included 147 NS users (cases) and 147 nonusers (controls) age 18 yr and above who exercised at least 3 d/wk in 24 fitness clubs in Tehran. A self-administered pretested and validated questionnaire was used to collect data. The results showed that on average, NS users were younger (29.8 ± 9.5 yr) than nonusers (35.5 ± 12.2 yr). Logistic-regression analysis showed that NS use was significantly associated with moderate or high physical activity level (PAL), smoking, gender, eating attitude, and age. In conclusion, NS users were more likely to be female, younger, and smokers; to have moderate or high PAL; and to be more prone to eating disorders than nonusers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  9. Zabidi A, Khuan LY, Mansor W, Yassin IM, Sahak R
    PMID: 22254916 DOI: 10.1109/IEMBS.2011.6090759
    Hypothyroidism in infants is caused by the insufficient production of hormones by the thyroid gland. Due to stress in the chest cavity as a result of the enlarged liver, their cry signals are unique and can be distinguished from the healthy infant cries. This study investigates the effect of feature selection with Binary Particle Swarm Optimization on the performance of MultiLayer Perceptron classifier in discriminating between the healthy infants and infants with hypothyroidism from their cry signals. The feature extraction process was performed on the Mel Frequency Cepstral coefficients. Performance of the MLP classifier was examined by varying the number of coefficients. It was found that the BPSO enhances the classification accuracy while reducing the computation load of the MLP classifier. The highest classification accuracy of 99.65% was achieved for the MLP classifier, with 36 filter banks, 5 hidden nodes and 11 BPS optimised MFC coefficients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  10. Nor Hashim NA, Ramzi NH, Velapasamy S, Alex L, Chahil JK, Lye SH, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(12):6005-10.
    PMID: 23464394
    BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic in Southern Chinese and Southeast Asian populations. Geographical and ethnic clustering of the cancer is due to genetic, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors. This case-control study aimed to identify or confirm both genetic and non-genetic risk factors for NPC in one of the endemic countries, Malaysia.

    MATERIALS AND METHOD: A panel of 768 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with various cancers and known non-genetic risk factors for NPC were selected and analyzed for their associations with NPC in a case-control study.

    RESULTS: Statistical analysis identified 40 SNPs associated with NPC risk in our population, including 5 documented previously by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and other case-control studies; the associations of the remaining 35 SNPs with NPC were novel. In addition, consistent with previous studies, exposure to occupational hazards, overconsumption of salt-cured foods, red meat, as well as low intake of fruits and vegetables were also associated with NPC risk.

    CONCLUSIONS: In short, this study confirmed and/or identified genetic, environmental and dietary risk factors associated with NPC susceptibility in a Southeast Asian population.

    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  11. Goh HT, Nadarajah M, Hamzah NB, Varadan P, Tan MP
    PM R, 2016 12;8(12):1173-1180.
    PMID: 27268565 DOI: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2016.05.012
    BACKGROUND: Falls are common after stroke, with potentially serious consequences. Few investigations have included age-matched control participants to directly compare fall characteristics between older adults with and without stroke. Further, fear of falling, a significant psychological consequence of falls, has only been examined to a limited degree as a risk factor for future falls in a stroke population.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the fall history between older adults with and without a previous stroke and to identify the determinants of falls and fear of falling in older stroke survivors.

    DESIGN: Case-control observational study.

    SETTING: Primary teaching hospital.

    PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-five patients with stroke (mean age ± standard deviation, 66 ± 7 years) and 50 age-matched control participants with no previous stroke were tested.

    METHODS: Fall history, fear of falling, and physical, cognitive, and psychological function were assessed. A χ2 test was performed to compare characteristics between groups, and logistic regression was performed to determine the risk factors for falls and fear of falling.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fall events in the past 12 months, Fall Efficacy Scale-International, Berg Balance Scale, Functional Ambulation Category, Fatigue Severity Scale, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Patient Healthy Questionnaire-9 were measured for all participants. Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment was used to quantify severity of stroke motor impairments.

    RESULTS: Twenty-three patients and 13 control participants reported at least one fall in the past 12 months (P = .58). Nine participants with stroke had recurrent falls (≥2 falls) compared with none of the control participants (P < .01). Participants with stroke reported greater concern for falling than did nonstroke control participants (P < .01). Female gender was associated with falls in the nonstroke group, whereas falls in the stroke group were not significantly associated with any measured outcomes. Fear of falling in the stroke group was associated with functional ambulation level and balance. Functional ambulation level alone explained 22% of variance in fear of falling in the stroke group.

    CONCLUSIONS: Compared with persons without a stroke, patients with stroke were significantly more likely to experience recurrent falls and fear of falling. Falls in patients with stroke were not explained by any of the outcome measures used, whereas fear of falling was predicted by functional ambulation level. This study has identified potentially modifiable risk factors with which to devise future prevention strategies for falls in patients with stroke.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.

    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  12. Lujan-Barroso L, Zhang W, Olson SH, Gao YT, Yu H, Baghurst PA, et al.
    Pancreas, 2016 11;45(10):1401-1410.
    PMID: 27088489
    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the relation between menstrual and reproductive factors, exogenous hormones, and risk of pancreatic cancer (PC).

    METHODS: Eleven case-control studies within the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-control Consortium took part in the present study, including in total 2838 case and 4748 control women. Pooled estimates of odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a 2-step logistic regression model and adjusting for relevant covariates.

    RESULTS: An inverse OR was observed in women who reported having had hysterectomy (ORyesvs.no, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67-0.91), remaining significant in postmenopausal women and never-smoking women, adjusted for potential PC confounders. A mutually adjusted model with the joint effect for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and hysterectomy showed significant inverse associations with PC in women who reported having had hysterectomy with HRT use (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.48-0.84).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our large pooled analysis suggests that women who have had a hysterectomy may have reduced risk of PC. However, we cannot rule out that the reduced risk could be due to factors or indications for having had a hysterectomy. Further investigation of risk according to HRT use and reason for hysterectomy may be necessary.

    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  13. Sakthiswary R, Rajalingam S, Norazman MR, Hussein H
    Clin Ter, 2015;166(2):e98-101.
    PMID: 25945451 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2015.1827
    OBJECTIVE: The etiology of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is unknown in a significant proportion of patients. Autoimmune processes have been implicated in the pathogenesis. The role of antinuclear antibody (ANA) in this context is largely undetermined. In an attempt to address the lack of evidence in this area, we explored the clinical significance of antinuclear antibody (ANA) in unexplained RPL.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 68 patients with RPL and 60 healthy controls from September 2005 to May 2012. All subjects were tested for ANA by immunofluorescence testing, and a titer of 1: 80 and above was considered positive. We compared the pregnancy outcome between the ANA positive and ANA negative RPL cases.
    RESULTS: The incidence of ANA positivity among the cases (35.3%) was significantly higher than the controls (13.3%) (p=0.005). ANA positive cases showed significantly higher number of RPL (p=0.006) and lower number of successful pregnancies (p=0.013) compared to the ANA negative cases . The ANA titre had a significant association with the number of RPL (p<0.05, r=0.724) but not with the number of successful pregnancies (p=0.054).
    CONCLUSIONS: ANA positivity predicts a less favorable pregnancy outcome in RPL. Our findings suggest that the ANA titre is a useful positive predictor of the number of RPL. Hence, ANA test is a potential prognostic tool for this condition which merits further research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  14. Boo NY, Lim SM, Koh KT, Lau KF, Ravindran J
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2008 Oct;63(4):306-10.
    PMID: 19385490 MyJurnal
    This study aimed to identify the risk factors which were significantly associated with low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) infants among the Malaysian population. This was a case-control study carried out at the Tuanku Jaafar Hospital, Seremban, Malaysia over a five-month period. Cases were all infants born with birth weight less than 2500 g. Control infant were selected with the help a random sampling table from among infants with birth weight of > or =2500 g born on the same day in the hospital. Of 3341 livebirths delivered in the hospital, 422 (12.6%) were LBW infants. Logistic regression analysis showed that, after controlling for various potential confounders, the only significant risk factors associated with infants of LBW were gestational age (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=0.6, 95% C.I.: 0.5, 0.6; < 0.0001), maternal pre-pregnancy weight (adjusted OR = 0.97, 95% C.I.: 0.95, 0.99; p < 0.0001), nulliparity (adjusted OR = 3.4, 95% C.I.: 2.2, 5.1; p < 0.0001), previous history of LBW infants (adjusted OR = 2.3, 95% C.I.: 1.4, 3.8; p=0.001) and PIH during current pregnancy (adjusted OR=3.3, 95% C.I.: 1.6, 6.6; p = 0.001). A number of potentially preventable or treatable risk factors were identified to be associated with LBW infants in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  15. Fatimah M, Osman A
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1997 Dec;52(4):402-8.
    PMID: 10968118
    A case control study was conducted in 1996 among primary school student in Terengganu. The objective of the study is to determine the relationship between road traffic accidents and factors such as socio-economic status, distance from school, number of siblings, behavioural problems, knowledge and attitudes of pupil and their parents towards road safety and parents' educational status. A total of 140 cases was obtained from 3 urban schools and 3 from rural schools. Cases were matched with control according to age sex and locality of residence. There were significant associations between road traffic accidents and pupils' knowledge regarding road crossing (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.19-0.85), parental supervision (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.19, 0.64) and parents having driving licences (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.856-0.999). Road safety education for pupils and parental supervision are key measures in preventing road traffic accidents among primary school children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  16. Shekhar KC, Pathmanathan R
    PMID: 1298078
    Two distinct strains of Schistosoma malayensis exist in Malaysia (designated the Baling and Koyan strains). Both these strains show intraspecific variations in pathology (Greer et al, 1988). To evaluate the differences in the pulmonary pathology resulting from infections of the two different strains of Malaysian schistosome, a total of 20 experimental rabbits were infected, 10 each with cercariae of the Koyan strains. Pathological changes were studied over a period of 28 weeks. Granulomas in the lung occurring as a result of infection with the Baling strain were compared with those caused by infection with the Koyan strain. Although both strains produced parenchymatous and alveolar lesions, granulomas caused by the Baling strain of Malaysian schistosome were more numerous and larger (when comparing mean diameter as well as area of granuloma, p < 0.05). In addition, pulmonary vascular hypertensive changes were present in Baling strain infected rabbits. These comprised of pulmonary arteriolar endothelial swelling and damage, intimal elastosis and medial hypertrophy. Angiitis and pulmonary periphlebitis were also noted occasionally. In contrast, Koyan strain infection resulted in fewer and smaller granulomas. Pulmonary vascular changes were minimal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  17. Amirullah Mohd Arshad, Rohaya A. Rahman, Mohd Jusoh, Fatimah Muda
    MyJurnal
    In August 2000, the Disease Control Unit of T erengganu noted an increase in the number of serologically confirmed cases of hepatitis A virus (HAH in Kuala Terengganu Hospital. Preliminary investigation revealed that there were an outbreak of hepatitis A in districts of Kuala Terengganu and Marang. Eventually, a total of 334 associated cases were reported among Kuala Terengganu residents and 59 cases among residents of Marang. The age of the patients range j9·om 2 years to 71 years old (median 16 years). Males accounted for ( 69.5% of cases and had a higher sex specyic attack rate (96.35/100,000) than females (42. 70/100,000). The highest attack rate (128.3/100,000} occurred among patients aged 10 — 14 years. The health staff of Kuala Terengganu and Marang District Health Ojice had investigated a total of 229 case. Most cases (62.4%) occurred amongst school children. A case control study was carried out amongst 35 cases that were matched with 71 controls by age group, class and sex, to identyy the potential source of injection. The results indicated that eating fried noodle with shelh‘ish significantly increased the risk of being infected during the outbreak (OR 16.38[4.2l-74.53]).
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  18. Riana, K.A.H., Azahadi, O., Rohani, I., Zainol Ariffin, P., Maznieda, M., Siti Zubaidah, A.
    Journal of Health Management, 2012;10(1):41-51.
    MyJurnal
    Purpose - An outbreak of food poisoning had occurred in Health Institute A on 1st June 2010 which involved twenty four staffs. Six of them were hospitalized and eighteen received outpatient treatment. A case control study was done to describe the epidemiological characteristics of the outbreak and to determine the source of infection.
    Design/methodology/approach - Food samples, rectal swab from cases, environmental and hand swab from the food handlers were also taken and sent for microbiological analysis.
    Finding- The outbreak was explosive, and the prominent clinical features were abdominal pain (62.2%), fever (51.4%), and diarrhea (56.8%). The onset time was between 9-24 hours and the median incubation period was at 15 hours. The possible source of the outbreak was durian gravy (OR= 14.00,95%CI: 2.72-92.55, p<0.001, food attack rate: 100%) and rotijala (OR= 6.69, 95%CI: LB5-24.23, p<0.001, food attack rate: 95%), The microbiological investigation revealed that various microorganisms including Salmonella spp, The food was supplied by the same food supplier from Caterer B since 2006 and the assessment of the kitchen showed that the cleanliness rate was only 54,3% with positive results of Coliform in all utensils and areas investigated in the kitchen.
    Conclusion- In conclusion, the most probable causative organism based on signs and symptoms, epidemiological analysis and microbiological results was Salmonella spp. from contaminated food seryed during the ceremony. Education on food safety and food hygiene especially personal hygiene and hand washing should be emphasized continuously for prevention of future outbreak,
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  19. Wan Mansor, W.H., Hamizah, M.S., Wan Sulaili, W.S., Jeriah, I., Che Nok @ Nawi, I., Noraini, I., et al.
    MyJurnal
    On March 17, 2003 the Kelantan Health Department was notihed about a possible typhoid outbreak following a wedding party. An investigation was carried out to identiy the source and recommend control measures. Active case detection, yield investigation and case»control study were conducted. Cases were symptomatic attendees with a stool or blood culture positive for Salmonella
    typhii. Each control had a negative culture and denied symptoms. Of the more than 1 OOO guests, 477 experienced fever; 152 met the case definition. The party hostess was found to be an Salmonelb typhii carrier. Syrup prepared with untreated well water was identified as the most likely source for this outbreak, with an odds ratio 14.0 (95% C1: 2.9, 104.1). This was a common source
    outbreak of typhoid. We recommend that all food handlers at large parties be screened for typhoid and other foodborne diseases and samples of higherisk foods should be kept for few days after each event in case they are needed for testing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  20. Ng LC, Helen, Razak IA, Ghani WMN, Marhazlinda J, Rahman ZAA, Norlida A, et al.
    Ann Dent, 2015;22(1):2-5.
    MyJurnal
    This study aims to identify the relationship between dietary intakes of β-carotene with risk of oral cancer.
    Methods: A hospital-based, case-control study was conducted on 306 Malaysians who seek treatment at participating centres/hospitals. Subjects selected from the Malaysian Oral Cancer Data and Tissue Banking System (MOCDTBS) consisted of 153 cases and 153 controls that were matched for gender, age (±5 years) and ethnicity. Food consumption was measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). NutrieMart Version 2.0.0 software was used to estimate daily nutrient of each subject from the FFQ. Logistic Regression analysis was conducted to compute the odds ratio (OR) for intakes of β-carotene and oral cancer risk.
    Results: Intake of β-carotene was found to be not associated with risk of oral cancer (OR 0.83, 95%CI: 0.42-1.66, p>0.05).
    Conclusion: No significant association was found between dietary intakes of β-carotene with oral cancer risk in this study population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
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