Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 992 in total

  1. Alam MK, Alfawzan AA, Abutayyem H, Kanwal B, Alswairki HJ, Verma S, et al.
    Sci Prog, 2023;106(1):368504231156297.
    PMID: 36803068 DOI: 10.1177/00368504231156297
    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to strengthen the credibility of primary research results by combining open-source scientific material, namely a comparison of craniofacial features (Cfc) between Crouzon's syndrome (CS) patients and non-CS populations. All articles published up to October 7, 2021, were included in the search of PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Medline, and Web of Science. The PRISMA guidelines were followed to conduct this study. PECO framework was applied in the following ways: Those who have CS are denoted by the letter P, those who have been diagnosed with CS via clinical or genetic means by the letter E, those who do not have CS by the letter C, and those who have a Cfc of CS by the letter O. Independent reviewers collected the data and ranked the publications based on their adherence to the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. A total of six case-control studies were reviewed for this meta-analysis. Due to the large variation in cephalometric measures, only those published in at least two previous studies were included. This analysis found that CS patients had a smaller skull and mandible volumes than those without CS.in terms of SNA° (MD = -2.33, p = <0.001, I2 = 83.6%) and ANB°(MD = -1.89, p = <0.005, I2 = 93.1%)), as well as ANS (MD = -1.87, p = 0.001, I2 = 96.5%)) and SN/PP (MD = -1.99, p = 0.036, I2 = 77.3%)). In comparison to the general population, people with CS tend to have shorter and flatter cranial bases, smaller orbital volumes, and cleft palates. They differ from the general population in having a shorter skull base and more V-shaped maxillary arches.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  2. Wang Y, Li J, Fu X, Li J, Liu L, Alkohlani A, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol, 2021 08;73:101958.
    PMID: 34020315 DOI: 10.1016/j.canep.2021.101958
    PURPOSE: Leptin and adiponectin are adipokines which have been commonly implicated in carcinogenesis. As such, many studies have investigated the association of circulating leptin and adiponectin levels with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, the results remained inconsistent.

    METHODS: In this work, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to precisely examine the association between circulating levels of leptin and adiponectin and CRC risk. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases from inception until October 2020. The pooled effect size was then estimated by calculating the odds ratio (OR).

    RESULTS: A total of 23 records (comprising 26 studies) were included in the meta-analysis. The overall analysis found that circulating levels of leptin and adiponectin were not significantly associated with CRC risk (P > 0.05). Interestingly, subgroup analysis revealed that a higher level of adiponectin was significantly associated with an increased CRC risk among overweight individuals (OR = 1.16; 95 % CI: 1.02, 1.32), and a decreased CRC risk among normal weight individuals (OR = 0.76; 95 % CI: 0.62, 0.92). Besides, a higher level of adiponectin was also significantly associated with a decreased risk of CRC in men (OR = 0.76; 95 % CI: 0.59, 0.98).

    CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, circulating leptin level was not associated with CRC risk, but that of adiponectin was associated with CRC risk only in specific subgroups.

    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  3. Mohamed Fuad Z, Mahadzir H, Syed Zakaria SZ, Mohamed Ibrahim N
    Front Public Health, 2020;8:577940.
    PMID: 33282811 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.577940
    Background: Stroke is highly prevalent globally and is an important cause of cognitive impairment and dementia. Aims: We determined the frequency of post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) at 1, 3, and 6 months among patients with first clinical ischemic stroke compared to risk and age-matched controls. Methods: This study involved 32 cases and 32 controls, and was conducted over 6 months. Cases were inpatients aged >60 with first clinical ischemic stroke. Controls were age-matched subjects without prior stroke. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was performed in all patients at 1, 3, and 6 month post stroke. A MoCA score of <26 was used for mild PSCI and <22 for moderate PSCI (post stroke dementia). Results: Post-stroke dementia was detected in 12 patients (37.5%) at 1st month, in 13 (40.6%) at 3rd month and 15 (48.4%) at 6th months. Mild PSCI was present in 7 patients (21.6%) at 1 month, 16 patients (50%) at 3 months, and 15 patients (48%) at 6 months. The odds ratio (OR) for post-stroke dementia was 3.2 (95%CI 0.98-10.68; p = 0.05) at 1 month; 3.69(95% CI 1.13-12.11; p = 0.031) at 3 months, and 4.88 (95% CI 1.49-15.99; p = 0.009) at 6 months. Years of education was an independent predictor for dementia (OR 0.60; p = 0.046). The OR for post-stroke dementia at 6th month was 7.23 with education level adjusted (95%CI 1.46-35.86, p = 0.015). Conclusion: The frequency of PSCI was high as early as 1 month after stroke. Stroke alone conferred a 7.2 times risk for post-stroke dementia compared to controls.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  4. Ismail, A.K., Mohamad Ali, S., Che' Man, Z.
    Medicine & Health, 2016;11(1):29-37.
    Patients who self-discharge against medical advice (DAMA) are susceptible to life-threatening consequences. By understanding the factors associated with DAMA, healthcare centres can build strategies to assist patients to receive optimal medical care and prevent unfavourable outcome. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with DAMA from the Emergency Department (ED) of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). This was a prospective unmatched case control study conducted over a 4-month period. For every DAMA episode, two patients who were admitted on the same day were randomly selected as control. Following patient consent, data was collected using a standardized questionnaire. Patients were contacted by the investigator for information regarding hospitalization within two weeks of DAMA. Ninety three patients were recruited; 31 DAMA patients and 62 admitted patients. Payment method was significantly associated with DAMA (OR 3.17 95% CI 1.29-7.98; p=0.01). The likelihood of self-paying patients to take DAMA was three times higher than those who had a guarantor letter from their employer or insurance provider. Other factors which influence DAMA were family obligations (OR 4.08 95% CI 1.09-15.26; p = 0.03) and work problems (OR 3.83 95% CI 1.13-12.94; p=0.03). A total of 19.4% of DAMA patients left following symptomatic pain relief. A total of 80.6% DAMA patients were admitted to hospital within two weeks of the DAMA episode. Payment method significantly influences DAMA. Payment planning, social welfare services, non-governmental organization funds and the introduction of a national health policy scheme may aid hospital payment, alleviate financial limitation of patients and reduce DAMA episodes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  5. Tan DT, Siri JG, Gong Y, Ong B, Lim SC, MacGillivray BH, et al.
    Global Health, 2019 12 18;15(1):85.
    PMID: 31847865 DOI: 10.1186/s12992-019-0527-1
    BACKGROUND: Localisation is a pervasive challenge in achieving sustainable development. Contextual particularities may render generalized strategies to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) unfeasible, impractical, or ineffective. Furthermore, many localities are resource- and data-poor, limiting applicability of the global SDG indicator framework. Tools to enable local actors to make sense of complex problems, communicate this understanding, and act accordingly hold promise in their ability to improve results.

    AIM: Systems approaches can help characterise local causal systems, identify useful leverage points, and foster participation needed to localise and catalyse development action. Critically, such efforts must be deeply rooted in place, involving local actors in mapping decision-processes and causation within local physical, social and policy environments. Given that each place has a unique geographical or spatial extent and therein lies its unique characters and problems, we term these activities "placially explicit." We describe and reflect on a process used to develop placially explicit, systems-based (PESB) case studies on issues that intersect with and impact urban health and wellbeing, addressing the perspectives of various actors to produce place-based models and insights that are useful for SDG localisation.

    METHODS: Seven case studies were co-produced by one or more Partners with place-based knowledge of the case study issue and a Systems Thinker. In each case, joint delineation of an appropriate framing was followed by iterative dialogue cycles to uncover key contextual factors, with attention to institutional and societal structures and paradigms and the motivations and constraints of other actors. Casual loop diagrams (CLDs) were iteratively developed to capture complex narratives in a simple visual way.

    RESULTS: Case study development facilitated transfer of local knowledge and development of systems thinking capacity. Partners reported new insights, including a shifting of problem frames and corresponding solution spaces to higher systems levels. Such changes led partners to re-evaluate their roles and goals, and thence to new actions and strategies. CLD-based narratives also proved useful in ongoing communications.

    CONCLUSION: Co-production of PESB case studies are a useful component of transdisciplinary toolsets for local SDG implementation, building the capacity of local actors to explore complex problems, identify new solutions and indicators, and understand the systemic linkages inherent in SDG actions across sectors and scales.

    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  6. Lim AH, Ab Rahman N, Ong SM, Paraja J, Rashid R, Parmar IS, et al.
    Vaccine, 2022 Sep 16;40(39):5675-5682.
    PMID: 36030123 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2022.08.032
    There is a notable lack of vaccine effectiveness studies using test-negative case-controlled approach in low- and middle-income countries which have different logistic, demographic and socio-economic conditions from high-income countries. We aimed to estimate the effectiveness of BNT162b2 vaccine against COVID-19 infection over time, intensive care unit admission, severe or critical disease and death due to COVID-19. This study was conducted in the resident population of Labuan aged ≥18 years who had been tested for SARS-CoV-2 by Reverse-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction between 1 March 2021 and 31 October 2021. We used a test-negative case-control design where 2644 pairs of cases and controls were matched by age, sex, testing date, nationality and testing reason. Analysis was stratified by age group to estimate age effect (<60 years and ≥60 years). Of 22217 individuals tested by Reverse-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, 5100 were positive for SARS-CoV-2 and aged 18 years and above. Overall vaccine effectiveness ≥ 14 days after the second dose was 65.2% (95% CI: 59.8-69.9%) against COVID-19 infection, 92.5% (95% CI: 72.3-98.8%) against intensive care unit admission, and 96.5% (95% CI: 82.3-99.8%) against COVID-19 deaths. Among infected individuals, vaccine effectiveness was 79.2% (95% CI: 42.3-94.1%) in preventing severe or critical disease due to COVID-19. Vaccine effectiveness for ≥60 years was 72.3% (95% CI: 53.4-83.9%) in fully vaccinated individuals, higher than 64.8% (95% CI: 49.3-59.1%) for those <60 years. Two doses of BNT162b2 were highly effective against COVID-19 infection, severe or critical disease, intensive care unit admission and death due to COVID-19. This study addresses a gap in literature on BNT162b2 vaccine effectiveness in low- and middle-income populations and demonstrates the feasibility of such a study design in a resource limited setting while supporting evidence of waning immunity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  7. Mohd-Ali B, Liew LY, Tai HJ, Wong YY
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Mar;66(1):53-5.
    PMID: 23765144 MyJurnal
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate tears of newly diagnosed keratoconus patients attending the Optometry clinic in Malaysia and to compare this with tears of normal myopic subjects.
    METHODS: The ocular surface of newly diagnosed keratoconus patients were evaluated using tear break up time (TBUT) test, non invasive tear break up time test (NIBUT) and Schirmer test. Twenty keratoconus patients (40 eyes) and 40 normal subjects (80 eyes) participated in this study.
    RESULTS: Significantly lower TBUT and NIBUT values were found in keratoconus patients than normal control subjects (p<0.05). Mean TBUT and NIBUT for keratoconus patients were 3.99±1.69s and 7.03±3.48s and for normal subjects were 7.24±4.39s and 13.67±10.81s respectively. However, no significant difference was detected in Schirmer test values. Mean values of Schirmer tests I and II for keratoconus patients were 20.52±10.66mm and 10.71±10.43mm and for normals were 23.83±11.34mm and 13.27±8.28mm accordingly.
    CONCLUSION: It was concluded from this study that keratoconus patients have poor tear stability which need to be considered appropriately during management of the patients.
    Study site: Optometry clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  8. Zakaria WNA, Mohd Yunus N, Yaacob NM, Omar J, Wan Mohamed WMI, Sirajudeen KNS, et al.
    PMID: 33567588 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18041595
    (1) Background: Several studies have suggested that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene plays a role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) susceptibility. Nonetheless, the association between T2DM and VDR polymorphisms remains inconclusive. We determined the genotype of VDR rs1544410 (BsmI) and rs2228570 (FokI) polymorphisms among Malaysian patients with T2DM and their association with glycemic control factors (vitamin D levels, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate). (2) Methods: A total of 189 participants comprising 126 patients with T2DM (63 with good glycemic control and 63 with poor glycemic control) and 63 healthy controls were enrolled in this case-control study. All biochemical assays were measured using spectrophotometric analysis. VDR gene FokI and BsmI polymorphisms were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction and endonuclease digestion. (3) Results: Our findings revealed no significant differences in VDR FokI and BsmI genotypes between participants with T2DM and healthy controls. Moreover, no significant association was observed between both single nucleotide polymorphisms and glycemic control factors. Participants with poor glycemic control had significantly lower serum magnesium levels and significantly higher HOMA-IR compared to the other groups. (4) Conclusions: The present study revealed that VDR gene BsmI and FokI polymorphisms were not significantly associated with T2DM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  9. Alias H, Morthy SK, Zakaria SZS, Muda Z, Tamil AM
    BMC Pediatr, 2020 02 05;20(1):53.
    PMID: 32020861 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-020-1951-3
    BACKGROUND: Advances in the treatment of childhood brain tumors have significantly improved survival rates. With improved survival rates, long-term treatment-related toxicities have become important, and the resulting complications can affect patients' emotion and behavior. This study aimed to 1) evaluate behavioral outcomes among survivors of childhood brain tumors, 2) compare behavioral outcomes among survivors of childhood brain tumors with survivors of childhood leukemia and healthy children, and 3) determine any demographic, disease, and/or treatment-related factors that could affect the behavioral outcomes of survivors of childhood brain tumors.

    METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 1 year (June 1st, 2018-May 31st, 2019) in two tertiary referral centers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Thirty-eight survivors of childhood brain tumors aged 6 to 18 years old who had been off-treatment for at least 1 year and were in remission, 38 age- and gender-matched survivors of childhood leukemia who had been off-treatment for at least 1 year and were in remission, and 38 age- and gender-matched unrelated healthy children were recruited. The Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) parent report and Youth Self-Report (YSR) questionnaires were used to assess behavioral outcomes.

    RESULTS: Survivors of childhood brain tumors showed statistically significantly worse behavioral outcomes than healthy children for social problems and attention problems (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  10. Sajid MR, Muhammad N, Zakaria R, Shahbaz A, Bukhari SAC, Kadry S, et al.
    Interdiscip Sci, 2021 Jun;13(2):201-211.
    PMID: 33675528 DOI: 10.1007/s12539-021-00423-w
    BACKGROUND: In the broader healthcare domain, the prediction bears more value than an explanation considering the cost of delays in its services. There are various risk prediction models for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the literature for early risk assessment. However, the substantial increase in CVDs-related mortality is challenging global health systems, especially in developing countries. This situation allows researchers to improve CVDs prediction models using new features and risk computing methods. This study aims to assess nonclinical features that can be easily available in any healthcare systems, in predicting CVDs using advanced and flexible machine learning (ML) algorithms.

    METHODS: A gender-matched case-control study was conducted in the largest public sector cardiac hospital of Pakistan, and the data of 460 subjects were collected. The dataset comprised of eight nonclinical features. Four supervised ML algorithms were used to train and test the models to predict the CVDs status by considering traditional logistic regression (LR) as the baseline model. The models were validated through the train-test split (70:30) and tenfold cross-validation approaches.

    RESULTS: Random forest (RF), a nonlinear ML algorithm, performed better than other ML algorithms and LR. The area under the curve (AUC) of RF was 0.851 and 0.853 in the train-test split and tenfold cross-validation approach, respectively. The nonclinical features yielded an admissible accuracy (minimum 71%) through the LR and ML models, exhibiting its predictive capability in risk estimation.

    CONCLUSION: The satisfactory performance of nonclinical features reveals that these features and flexible computational methodologies can reinforce the existing risk prediction models for better healthcare services.

    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  11. Hamidin, A., Maniam, T.
    Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of life events among parasuicide patients
    with the prevalence of similar life events among age, sex and race matched patients with non-chronic
    medical illness. Methods: A hospital-based case-control study using convenience sampling method
    was conducted in Hospital Kuala Lumpur for a period of three and a half months. A total of 50 patients
    admitted consecutively after an episode of parasuicide and who fulfilled criteria for entry into the study
    agreed to participate. For each case one age-, sex- and race-matched control was selected from the list of patients who were admitted to the same hospital for non-chronic medical illness. Result: Statistical analysis showed that compared with medically ill patients, parasuicide patients had significantly higher prevalence of threatening life events six months (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  12. Aftab S, Ejaz I, Waqar U, Khan HI, Hanif A, Usman A, et al.
    Background: Pneumonia is defined as the inflammation of parenchyma of the lung. It is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood throughout the world. The incidence of pneumonia in children under the age of five years is 0.29 episodes per child-year, which equates 151.8 million cases annually in developing countries. Objective: To determine the risk factors for complicated pneumonia.

    Material and Methods: This case-control study conducted in Medical Unit III, The Children’s Hospital & Institute of Child Health Lahore. Out of total of 180 cases of pneumonia, 100 were labeled as complicated pneumonia (case) and 80 were labeled as uncomplicated pneumonia (control). Complicated pneumonia included pneumonia with associated complications. Detail history was taken in both groups and recorded on predesigned proforma. Data was analyzed by SPSS 20. Quantitative risk factors like child age, maternal age and father age were analyzed by mean and standard deviation. However qualitative risk factors like method of feeding, malnutrition, immunization, anaemia, and non-vaccination were analyzed by applying chi-square test and finding odd ratios.

    Results: Most significant risk factors associated with complicated pneumonia included younger age, maternal and father education, rural area, malnutrition, anaemia, rickets, birth problems, admission during neonatal life due to pneumonia, bottle feeding, nonvaccination, referral and delayed in presentation (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  13. Hasanain Faisal Ghaz, Al-abed Ali Ahmed Al-abed, TibaNezar Hasan, Zaleha Md. Is, Mohammed A. AbdalQader, Saif Abdul-Majeed
    The association between nutrition and cancer in general had been a controversial issue between scientists in the last
    three decades, because some argued that there is a relationship and some nutrients can help in preventing cancer
    occurrence, although this has not been a consistent finding by other studies. Studies were identified through a
    systematic review of literature available on PubMed in between 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2013. We
    included all studies that assessed nutrition or diet with occurrence or mortality of breast cancer. Out of 42 articles,
    we included 8 articles in our screening and discussion. Among these 8 studies, there were 2 case-controls, 3 cohort
    and 3 randomized control trials (RCT) studies. Although most studies reported that nutrition isassociated with
    decreased risk, some reported the contrary,whereas others reported no relation. It was demonstrated a conflict
    between the included papers in regards of the association between nutrition and breast cancer. These finding needs
    to be re-evaluated in future studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  14. Nayan NA, Ab Hamid H, Suboh MZ, Abdullah N, Jaafar R, Mhd Yusof NA, et al.
    DOI: 10.3991/ijoe.v16i07.13569
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of deaths worldwide. In 2017, CVD contributed to 13,503 deaths in Malaysia. The current approaches for CVD prediction are usually invasive and costly. Machine learning (ML) techniques allow an accurate prediction by utilizing the complex interactions among relevant risk factors. This study presents a casecontrol study involving 60 participants from The Malaysian Cohort, which is a prospective population-based project. Five parameters, namely, the R–R interval and root mean square of successive differences extracted from electrocardiogram (ECG), systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and total cholesterol level, were statistically significant in predicting CVD. Six ML algorithms, namely, linear discriminant analysis, linear and quadratic support vector machines, decision tree, knearest neighbor, and artificial neural network (ANN), were evaluated to determine the most accurate classifier in predicting CVD risk. ANN, which achieved 90% specificity, 90% sensitivity, and 90% accuracy, demonstrated the highest prediction performance among the six algorithms. In summary, by utilizing ML techniques, ECG data can serve as a good parameter for CVD prediction among the Malaysian multiethnic population.
    Keywords—CVD, ECG, machine learning, The Malaysian Cohort, RMSSD
    Study name: The Malaysian Cohort (TMC) project
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  15. Chandrasekaran S, Ramli N, Ahmad MJ, Effendi I, Amir NN, Chow RC, et al.
    J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol, 2021 08;10(4):425-431.
    PMID: 32996803 DOI: 10.1089/jayao.2020.0064
    Purpose: Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) demonstrate features of premature aging in a multitude of organ systems. The aim of this pilot study is to determine the presence of premature ocular aging features in CCS, specifically childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors. Methods: This prospective case-control study was conducted over a period of 21 months, starting July 2015 till March 2017. A total of 59 childhood ALL survivors who attended the Paediatric Oncology Clinic of University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) and 48 age, race, and gender-matched controls went through a series of ocular examinations and tests. Inclusion criteria used to recruit survivors were age above 16 years, history of ALL in childhood, completion of treatment for ALL, and a remission period of at least 5 years. Patients with ocular disease and those who received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were excluded. The parameters measured were visual acuity, amplitude of accommodation, pupil cycle time (PCT), and tear break-up time (TBUT). Results: Survivors of childhood ALL demonstrated significant differences in amplitude of accommodation, PCT, and TBUT compared to age-matched controls. Survivors had a lower median (interquartile range [IQR]) amplitude of accommodation compared to controls (11.0 D [9.0-13.0] vs. 12.0 D [10.5-15]; p = 0.045). Survivors also showed a longer median (IQR) PCT in comparison to controls (931.00 mseconds (857.00-1063.00) vs. 875.50 mseconds (825.75-966.00); p = 0.024). In addition, median (IQR) TBUT was worse in survivors in comparison to the control group (9 seconds [6-13] vs. 11 seconds [10-15]; p = 0.001). Conclusion: Survivors of childhood ALL demonstrate premature ocular aging features compared to age-matched controls. Thus, survivors may benefit from having ocular examinations as part of their routine late-effects screening to detect age-related ocular morbidities early in its course.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  16. Andlauer TFM, Guzman-Parra J, Streit F, Strohmaier J, González MJ, Gil Flores S, et al.
    Mol Psychiatry, 2021 04;26(4):1286-1298.
    PMID: 31712721 DOI: 10.1038/s41380-019-0558-2
    Multiplex families with a high prevalence of a psychiatric disorder are often examined to identify rare genetic variants with large effect sizes. In the present study, we analysed whether the risk for bipolar disorder (BD) in BD multiplex families is influenced by common genetic variants. Furthermore, we investigated whether this risk is conferred mainly by BD-specific risk variants or by variants also associated with the susceptibility to schizophrenia or major depression. In total, 395 individuals from 33 Andalusian BD multiplex families (166 BD, 78 major depressive disorder, 151 unaffected) as well as 438 subjects from an independent, BD case/control cohort (161 unrelated BD, 277 unrelated controls) were analysed. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for BD, schizophrenia (SCZ), and major depression were calculated and compared between the cohorts. Both the familial BD cases and unaffected family members had higher PRS for all three psychiatric disorders than the independent controls, with BD and SCZ being significant after correction for multiple testing, suggesting a high baseline risk for several psychiatric disorders in the families. Moreover, familial BD cases showed significantly higher BD PRS than unaffected family members and unrelated BD cases. A plausible hypothesis is that, in multiplex families with a general increase in risk for psychiatric disease, BD development is attributable to a high burden of common variants that confer a specific risk for BD. The present analyses demonstrated that common genetic risk variants for psychiatric disorders are likely to contribute to the high incidence of affective psychiatric disorders in the multiplex families. However, the PRS explained only part of the observed phenotypic variance, and rare variants might have also contributed to disease development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  17. Muhamad Rosli SH, Lau MS, Khalid T, Maarof SK, Jeyabalan S, Sirdar Ali S, et al.
    PMID: 36947708 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2023.2183068
    3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE) are food contaminants commonly found in refined vegetable oils and fats, which have possible carcinogenic implications in humans. To investigate this clinically, we conducted an occurrence level analysis on eight categories of retail and cooked food commonly consumed in Malaysia. This was used to estimate the daily exposure level, through a questionnaire-based case-control study involving 77 subjects with renal cancer, with 80 matching controls. Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) was calculated using the multiple logistic regression model adjusted for confounding factors. A pooled estimate of total 3-MCPDE intake per day was compared between both groups, to assess exposure and disease outcome. Among the food categories analysed, vegetable fats and oils recorded the highest occurrence levels (mean: 1.91 ± 1.90 mg/kg), significantly more than all other food categories (p cases (median: 0.115 ± 0.137 mg/day/person) and controls (median: 0.105 ± 0.151 mg/day/person), with no association between high intake of 3-MCPDE and the development of renal cancer (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 0.5091-2.5553). Thus, there was insufficient clinical evidence to suggest that this contaminant contributes to the development of renal malignancies in humans through dietary consumption. Further research is necessary to support these findings, which could have significant public health ramifications for the improvement of dietary practices and food safety measures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  18. Medina AM, Rivera FP, Riveros M, Ochoa TJ, Pons MJ, Ruiz J
    Trop Biomed, 2023 Jun 01;40(2):183-187.
    PMID: 37650405 DOI: 10.47665/tb.40.2.009
    This study analysed the mechanisms of quinolone resistance among enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in a periurban area of Lima, Peru. The susceptibility to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin, the role of Phe-Arg-b-Naphtylamyde inhibitable-(PAbN) efflux pumps, the presence of mutations in gyrA and parC as well as the presence of aac(6')Ib-cr, qepA, qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrVC and oqxAB were determined in 31 ETEC from previous case/control studies of children's diarrhoea. Discordances between disk diffusion, with all isolates showing intermediate or fully resistance to nalidixic acid, and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), with 7 isolates being below considered resistance breakpoint, were observed. Twenty-one isolates possessed gyrA mutations (19 S83L, 2 S83A). AAC(6') Ib-cr, QnrS, QnrB and QepA were found in 7, 6, 2 and 1 isolates respectively, with 3 isolates presenting 2 transferable mechanisms of quinolone resistance (TMQR) concomitantly. TMQR were more frequent among isolates with MIC to nalidixic acid ranging from 2 to 16 mg/L (p=0.03), while gyrA mutations were more frequent among isolates with nalidixic acid MIC >= 128 mg/L (p=0.0002). In summary, the mechanisms of quinolone resistance present in ETEC isolates in Peru have been described. Differences in the prevalence of underlying mechanisms associated with final MIC levels were observed. The results suggest two different evolutive strategies to survive in the presence of quinolones related to specific bacterial genetic background.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  19. Acharya UR, Faust O, Sree V, Swapna G, Martis RJ, Kadri NA, et al.
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2014;113(1):55-68.
    PMID: 24119391 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2013.08.017
    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the dangerous cardiac disease, often may lead to sudden cardiac death. It is difficult to diagnose CAD by manual inspection of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. To automate this detection task, in this study, we extracted the heart rate (HR) from the ECG signals and used them as base signal for further analysis. We then analyzed the HR signals of both normal and CAD subjects using (i) time domain, (ii) frequency domain and (iii) nonlinear techniques. The following are the nonlinear methods that were used in this work: Poincare plots, Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) parameters, Shannon entropy, Approximate Entropy (ApEn), Sample Entropy (SampEn), Higher Order Spectra (HOS) methods, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), Cumulants, and Correlation Dimension. As a result of the analysis, we present unique recurrence, Poincare and HOS plots for normal and CAD subjects. We have also observed significant variations in the range of these features with respect to normal and CAD classes, and have presented the same in this paper. We found that the RQA parameters were higher for CAD subjects indicating more rhythm. Since the activity of CAD subjects is less, similar signal patterns repeat more frequently compared to the normal subjects. The entropy based parameters, ApEn and SampEn, are lower for CAD subjects indicating lower entropy (less activity due to impairment) for CAD. Almost all HOS parameters showed higher values for the CAD group, indicating the presence of higher frequency content in the CAD signals. Thus, our study provides a deep insight into how such nonlinear features could be exploited to effectively and reliably detect the presence of CAD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
  20. Dipak S, Prepageran N, Haslinda S, Atiya A, Raman R
    PMID: 22319710 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-010-0067-8
    To assess if sensation of nasal mucosa affect the subjective sensation of nasal patency. This is a case control study with 50 patients, using 2% lignocaine as the active drug and normal saline as the placebo (2 groups of 25 patients each). Each subject had 2 ml of solution sprayed into the test nose. These subjects had no prior nasal symptoms, allergy or surgery. They were evaluated subjectively using Likert scale and objectively by acoustic rhinometry before and after lignocaine or normal saline. The patients in both normal saline and lignocaine groups demonstrated no significant change based upon Likert scale. The study also demonstrated the mean cross sectional area 1 (CSA1), mean cross sectional area 2 (CSA2), with mean Volume 1 and mean Volume 2, these results did not vary significantly in both groups with Acoustic Rhinometry. The analysis thus shows that the use of topical anesthetic spray on nasal mucosa produces no objective effect on nasal resistance or subjective sensation of altered nasal patency. Thus the study concludes that, tactile sensation of nasal mucosa does not play a role in the sensation of nasal obstruction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Case-Control Studies
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