METHODS: This was a Malaysian Community Salt Study (MyCoSS) sub-study, which was conducted from October 2017 to March 2018. Out of 798 participants in the MyCoSS study who completed 24-h urine collection, 768 of them have collected one-time spot urine the following morning. They were randomly assigned into two groups to form separate spot urine equations. The final spot urine equation was derived from the entire data set after confirming the stability of the equation by double cross-validation in both study groups. Newly derived spot urine equation was developed using the coefficients from the multiple linear regression test. A Bland-Altman plot was used to measure the mean bias and limits of agreement between estimated and measured 24-h urine sodium. The estimation of sodium intake using the new equation was compared with other established equations, namely Tanaka and INTERSALT.
RESULTS: The new equation showed the least mean bias between measured and predicted sodium, - 0.35 (- 72.26, 71.56) mg/day compared to Tanaka, 629.83 (532.19, 727.47) mg/day and INTERSALT, and 360.82 (284.34, 437.29) mg/day. Predicted sodium measured from the new equation showed greater correlation with measured sodium (r = 0.50) compared to Tanaka (r =0.24) and INTERSALT (r = 0.44), P < 0.05.
CONCLUSION: Our newly developed equation from spot urine can predict least mean bias of sodium intake among the Malaysian population when 24-h urine sodium collection is not feasible.