Hydrocortisone (HC), topical glucocorticoid along with hydroxytyrosol (HT), and anti-microbial- and anti-oxidant-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) were prepared in large scale and analyzed for their adverse effects on healthy human skin followed by repeated applications. Ten subjects were randomized to receive test (HC-HT CSNPs) and vehicle samples (aqueous (AQ) cream). They were applied on the arms for 28 days, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema intensity, and irritation score were measured. Blood samples were analyzed for blood hematology, blood biochemistry, and adrenal cortico-thyroid hormone (ACTH) levels. Skin biopsy was obtained to assess histopathological changes in the skin. HC-HT CSNP AQ cream was stored at 4, 25, and 45 °C for a period of 1 year, and its stability was assessed by monitoring their physical appearances, particle size, and pH. Spherical-shaped NPs were successfully upscaled using spinning-disc technology, with insignificant changes in particle size, zeta potential, and incorporation of drugs as compared to the well-established laboratory method. Particle size of HC-HT CSNPs was
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