The current study is proposing a design envelope for porous Ti-6Al-4V alloy femoral stems to survive under fatigue loads. Numerical computational analysis of these stems with a body-centered-cube (BCC) structure is conducted in ABAQUS. Femoral stems without shell and with various outer dense shell thicknesses (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2 mm) and inner cores (porosities of 90, 77, 63, 47, 30, and 18%) are analyzed. A design space (envelope) is derived by using stem stiffnesses close to that of the femur bone, maximum fatigue stresses of 0.3σys in the porous part, and endurance limits of the dense part of the stems. The Soderberg approach is successfully employed to compute the factor of safety Nf > 1.1. Fully porous stems without dense shells are concluded to fail under fatigue load. It is thus safe to use the porous stems with a shell thickness of 1.5 and 2 mm for all porosities (18-90%), 1 mm shell with 18 and 30% porosities, and 0.5 mm shell with 18% porosity. The reduction in stress shielding was achieved by 28%. Porous stems incorporated BCC structures with dense shells and beads were successfully printed.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.