• 1 Infectious Diseases Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
  • 2 Department of Pharmaceutics & Pharmaceutical Technology, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan
  • 3 School of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia
  • 4 Priority Research Centre for Healthy Lungs, School of Medicine & Public Health, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia
  • 5 Department of Life Sciences, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 6 Department of Biotechnology, School of Engineering & Technology, Sharda University, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • 7 Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences & National Health Laboratory Service, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa
  • 8 Department of Chemistry, School of Science, GITAM Deemed to be University, Hyderabad 502329, India
  • 9 Discipline of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia
  • 10 Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, India
  • 11 School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144411, Punjab, India
  • 12 Department of Medical Biotechnology, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia
  • 13 Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Química y de Farmacia, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins, Santiago 340, Región Metropolitana, Chile
  • 14 Department of Chemistry, University of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 248007, India
  • 15 School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, India
  • 16 Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
  • 17 School of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland, BT52 1SA, UK
Ther Deliv, 2021 03;12(3):235-244.
PMID: 33624533 DOI: 10.4155/tde-2020-0129


The COVID-19 pandemic continues to endanger world health and the economy. The causative SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has a unique replication system. The end point of the COVID-19 pandemic is either herd immunity or widespread availability of an effective vaccine. Multiple candidate vaccines - peptide, virus-like particle, viral vectors (replicating and nonreplicating), nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), live attenuated virus, recombinant designed proteins and inactivated virus - are presently under various stages of expansion, and a small number of vaccine candidates have progressed into clinical phases. At the time of writing, three major pharmaceutical companies, namely Pfizer and Moderna, have their vaccines under mass production and administered to the public. This review aims to investigate the most critical vaccines developed for COVID-19 to date.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.