Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 686 in total

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  1. Khatoon H, Abdulmalek E
    Molecules, 2021 Feb 18;26(4).
    PMID: 33670436 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26041055
    Quinoxalines, a class of N-heterocyclic compounds, are important biological agents, and a significant amount of research activity has been directed towards this class. They have several prominent pharmacological effects like antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, and antimicrobial. Quinoxaline derivatives have diverse therapeutic uses and have become the crucial component in drugs used to treat cancerous cells, AIDS, plant viruses, schizophrenia, certifying them a great future in medicinal chemistry. Due to the current pandemic situation caused by SARS-COVID 19, it has become essential to synthesize drugs to combat deadly pathogens (bacteria, fungi, viruses) for now and near future. Since quinoxalines is an essential moiety to treat infectious diseases, numerous synthetic routes have been developed by researchers, with a prime focus on green chemistry and cost-effective methods. This review paper highlights the various synthetic routes to prepare quinoxaline and its derivatives, covering the literature for the last two decades. A total of 31 schemes have been explained using the green chemistry approach, cost-effective methods, and quinoxaline derivatives' therapeutic uses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics*
  2. Nair HK
    J Wound Care, 2021 Dec 01;30(Sup12):S3-S4.
    PMID: 34882007 DOI: 10.12968/jowc.2021.30.Sup12.S3
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics*
  3. Vijayan SP, Pandarathodiyil AK
    J Contemp Dent Pract, 2021 Apr 01;22(4):325-326.
    PMID: 34266997
    In March 2020, the world that we know irrevocably changed forever. It feels like "Groundhog Day" all over again, and it seems that the nightmare is here to stay. It all began on the January 8, 2020, when China grimly announced that coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by the "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2)1 but it was not until March 2020 that the situation swiftly careened out of control and is unequivocally posing the greatest challenge to humanity worldwide since the end of the Second World War. While the scientific community heroically galvanized itself and raced against time to provide viable solutions to this formidable foe in the form of vaccines, the worldwide dental fraternity has had to grapple with an extraordinary situation evolving in real-time and ensure that we responded robustly to this daunting health emergency that has spared no corner of our beloved planet. Initially, COVID-19 ensured cessation of all non-urgent dental care in most parts of the world but with increasingly significant inputs about the nature of the pathogen from the scientific community, the dental community has been able to cobble together a workable plan in reconfiguring and restructuring the dental practice in consonance with the situation at hand. It is fiendishly arduous to estimate the massive impact on the dental profession, but it is safe to assume it to be substantial.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics*
  4. Zarei M, Rahimi K, Hassanzadeh K, Abdi M, Hosseini V, Fathi A, et al.
    Environ Res, 2021 10;201:111555.
    PMID: 34197816 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111555
    Several factors ranging from environmental risks to the genetics of the virus and that of the hosts, affect the spread of COVID-19. The impact of physicochemical variables on virus vitality and spread should be taken into account in experimental and clinical studies. Another avenue to explore is the effect of diet and its interaction with the immune system on SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality rate. Past year have witnessed extensive studies on virus and pathophysiology of the COVID-19 disease and the cellular mechanisms of virus spreading. However, our knowledge has not reached a level where we plan an efficient therapeutic approach to prevent the virus entry to the cells or decreasing the spreading and morbidity in severe cases of disease. The risk of infection directly correlates with the control of virus spreading via droplets and aerosol transmission, as well as patient immune system response. A key goal in virus restriction and transmission rate is to understand the physicochemical structure of aerosol and droplet formation, and the parameters that affect the droplet-borne and airborne in different environmental conditions. The lifetime of droplets on different surfaces is described based on the contact angle. Hereby, we recommend regular use of high-quality face masks in high temperature and low humidity conditions. However, in humid and cold weather conditions, wearing gloves and frequently hand washing, gain a higher priority. Additionally, social distancing rules should be respected in all aforementioned conditions. We will also discuss different routes of SARS-CoV-2 entry into the cells and how multiple genetic factors play a role in the spread of the virus. Given the role of environmental and nutritional factors, we discuss and recommend some strategies to prevent the disease and protect the population against COVID-19. Since an effective vaccine can prevent the transmission of communicable diseases and abolish pandemics, we added a brief review of candidate SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics*
  5. Tan YL, Ng EHB, Diong NC
    Med J Malaysia, 2021 11;76(6):906-908.
    PMID: 34806681
    Subspecialty surgical training is an integral part of continuous professional development. It represents a unique opportunity for surgeons to enhance and develop specific advanced skills in their sub-disciplines. Hence, hands-on training in an international training centre abroad allows one to bring home new technical and management skills in the expansion of Malaysian surgical services to raise to be on par with the international standards. The unexpected onset of the COVID-19 pandemic brought in previously unknown hindrances to the training both locally and abroad but our success in engagement with international centres despite the pandemic restrictions serves as a valuable experience towards maintaining international networking for future collaborations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics*
  6. Shahcheraghi SH, Ayatollahi J, Aljabali AA, Shastri MD, Shukla SD, Chellappan DK, et al.
    Ther Deliv, 2021 03;12(3):235-244.
    PMID: 33624533 DOI: 10.4155/tde-2020-0129
    The COVID-19 pandemic continues to endanger world health and the economy. The causative SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has a unique replication system. The end point of the COVID-19 pandemic is either herd immunity or widespread availability of an effective vaccine. Multiple candidate vaccines - peptide, virus-like particle, viral vectors (replicating and nonreplicating), nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), live attenuated virus, recombinant designed proteins and inactivated virus - are presently under various stages of expansion, and a small number of vaccine candidates have progressed into clinical phases. At the time of writing, three major pharmaceutical companies, namely Pfizer and Moderna, have their vaccines under mass production and administered to the public. This review aims to investigate the most critical vaccines developed for COVID-19 to date.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  7. Kow CS, Hasan SS
    Cleve Clin J Med, 2020 11 23;87(12):715.
    PMID: 33229384 DOI: 10.3949/ccjm.87c.12005
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics*
  8. Rahman MK, Gazi MAI, Bhuiyan MA, Rahaman MA
    PLoS One, 2021;16(9):e0256486.
    PMID: 34469468 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0256486
    This study aims to explore the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on tourists' travel risk and management perceptions. Driven on the effect of the pandemic, we investigate tourists' travel risk and management perceptions and its effect on society using a sample of 716 respondents. The data was collected through social media platforms using a representative sampling method and analyzed applying the PLS-SEM tool. The findings reveal that Covid-19 pandemic has greatly affected travel risk and management perceptions. Travel risk and management perception had a significant association with risk management, service delivery, transportation patterns, distribution channels, avoidance of overpopulated destinations, and hygiene and safety. The results also identified the mediating effect of travel risk and management perceptions. The finding of this study contributes to tourism crises and provides future research insights in the travel and tourism sector and response to change tourists' travel risk and management perceptions in the post-covid recovery period.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics*
  9. Dharmaraj S, Ashokkumar V, Hariharan S, Manibharathi A, Show PL, Chong CT, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2021 Jun;272:129601.
    PMID: 33497928 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129601
    Recently, the COVID-19 disease spread has emerged as a worldwide pandemic and cause severe threats to humanity. The World Health Organisation (WHO) releases guidelines to help the countries to reduce the spread of this virus to the public, like wearing masks, hand hygiene, social distancing, shutting down all types of public transports, etc. These conditions led to a worldwide economic fall drastically, and on the other hand, indirect environmental benefits like global air quality improvement and decreased water pollution are also pictured. Currently, use of face masks is part of a comprehensive package of the prevention and control measures that can limit the spread of COVID-19 since there is no clinically proven drugs or vaccine available for COVID-19. Mostly, face masks are made of petroleum-based non-renewable polymers that are non-biodegradable, hazardous to the environment and create health issues. This study demonstrates the extensive use of the face mask and how it affects human health and the marine ecosystem. It has become a great challenge for the government sectors to impose strict regulations for the proper disposal of the masks as medical waste by the public. Neglecting the seriousness of this issue may lead to the release of large tonnes of micro-plastics to the landfill as well as to the marine environment where mostly end-up and thereby affecting their fauna and flora population vastly. Besides, this study highlights the COVID-19 spread, its evolutionary importance, taxonomy, genomic structure, transmission to humans, prevention, and treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics*
  10. Szczuka Z, Abraham C, Baban A, Brooks S, Cipolletta S, Danso E, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2021 10 05;21(1):1791.
    PMID: 34610808 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-021-11822-5
    BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected people's engagement in health behaviors, especially those that protect individuals from SARS-CoV-2 transmission, such as handwashing/sanitizing. This study investigated whether adherence to the World Health Organization's (WHO) handwashing guidelines (the outcome variable) was associated with the trajectory of the COVID-19 pandemic, as measured by the following 6 indicators: (i) the number of new cases of COVID-19 morbidity/mortality (a country-level mean calculated for the 14 days prior to data collection), (ii) total cases of COVID-19 morbidity/mortality accumulated since the onset of the pandemic, and (iii) changes in recent cases of COVID-19 morbidity/mortality (a difference between country-level COVID-19 morbidity/mortality in the previous 14 days compared to cases recorded 14-28 days earlier).

    METHODS: The observational study (#NCT04367337) enrolled 6064 adults residing in Australia, Canada, China, France, Gambia, Germany, Israel, Italy, Malaysia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, and Switzerland. Data on handwashing adherence across 8 situations (indicated in the WHO guidelines) were collected via an online survey (March-July 2020). Individual-level handwashing data were matched with the date- and country-specific values of the 6 indices of the trajectory of COVID-19 pandemic, obtained from the WHO daily reports.

    RESULTS: Multilevel regression models indicated a negative association between both accumulation of the total cases of COVID-19 morbidity (B = -.041, SE = .013, p = .013) and mortality (B = -.036, SE = .014 p = .002) and handwashing. Higher levels of total COVID-related morbidity and mortality were related to lower handwashing adherence. However, increases in recent cases of COVID-19 morbidity (B = .014, SE = .007, p = .035) and mortality (B = .022, SE = .009, p = .015) were associated with higher levels of handwashing adherence. Analyses controlled for participants' COVID-19-related situation (their exposure to information about handwashing, being a healthcare professional), sociodemographic characteristics (gender, age, marital status), and country-level variables (strictness of containment and health policies, human development index). The models explained 14-20% of the variance in handwashing adherence.

    CONCLUSIONS: To better explain levels of protective behaviors such as handwashing, future research should account for indicators of the trajectory of the COVID-19 pandemic.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.Gov, # NCT04367337.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics*
  11. Sachs JD, Karim SSA, Aknin L, Allen J, Brosbøl K, Colombo F, et al.
    Lancet, 2022 10 08;400(10359):1224-1280.
    PMID: 36115368 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(22)01585-9
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics/prevention & control
  12. Mat Daud AA
    Technol Forecast Soc Change, 2021 Jun;167:120674.
    PMID: 33612869 DOI: 10.1016/j.techfore.2021.120674
    This short research note describes and summarizes several recent peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed studies on the concept of flattening-the-curve (FTC) in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This note also highlights contradictory findings of these studies in terms of the effect of FTC on the total number of infections (the final epidemic size), and poses a research problem for future studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  13. Lee KW, Yap SF, Ngeow YF, Lye MS
    PMID: 33808066 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18073554
    COVID-19 is a global health emergency. People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) have concerns about whether they have a higher risk of getting the infection and suffer worse COVID-19 outcomes. Findings from studies on these questions have largely been inconsistent. We aimed to determine the epidemiological characteristics, clinical signs and symptoms, blood parameters, and clinical outcomes among PLHIV who contracted COVID-19. Relevant studies were identified through Medline, Cinahl, and PubMed databases. A random-effects model was used in meta-analyses with a 95% confidence interval. Eighty-two studies were included in the systematic review and sixty-seven studies for the meta-analysis. The pooled incidence proportion of COVID-19 among PLHIV was 0.9% (95% CI 0.6%, 1.1%) based on the data from seven cohort studies. Overall, 28.4% were hospitalised, of whom, 2.5% was severe-critical cases and 3.5% needed intensive care. The overall mortality rate was 5.3%. Hypertension was the most commonly reported comorbidity (24.0%). Fever (71.1%) was the most common symptom. Chest imaging demonstrated a wide range of abnormal findings encompassing common changes such as ground glass opacities and consolidation as well as a spectrum of less common abnormalities. Laboratory testing of inflammation markers showed that C-reactive protein, ferritin, and interleukin-6 were frequently elevated, albeit to different extents. Clinical features as well as the results of chest imaging and laboratory testing were similar in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated and non-treated patients. PLHIV were not found to be at higher risk for adverse outcomes of COVID-19. Hence, in COVID-19 management, it appears that they can be treated the same way as HIV negative individuals. Nevertheless, as the pandemic situation is rapidly evolving, more evidence may be needed to arrive at definitive recommendations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  14. Chow LC, Puah SH, Tiong XT, Aloysious NS, Leong TS, Chew LP
    J R Coll Physicians Edinb, 2021 Sep;51(3):253-256.
    PMID: 34528613 DOI: 10.4997/JRCPE.2021.309
    Haemoglobin (Hb) Cheverly is a rare, low oxygen affinity haemoglobinopathy. It is a result of point mutation at the 45 codon of the beta globin genes that leads to substitution of phenylalanine by serine. It is characterised by spuriously low peripheral oxygen saturation with normal arterial oxygen saturation. We describe a family of three with Hb Cheverly in Sarawak General Hospital, Malaysia. It was discovered through incidental finding during hospital admission for unrelated complaints. Laboratory testing revealed abnormal haemoglobin detected at the C window of the high performance liquid chromatography. Subsequent DNA analysis detected replacement of thymidine by cytosine at the beta globin genes. Hb Cheverly may or may not have clinical significance as most of the patients live a normal life; however, it is crucial for us to make early diagnosis to prevent unnecessary extensive investigations for hypoxaemia detected via pulse oximetry, especially in the midst of COVID-19 pandemic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  15. Wahaj Z, Alam MM, Al-Amin AQ
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2022 Mar;29(11):16739-16748.
    PMID: 34989992 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-18402-5
    Pandemics leave their mark quickly. This is true for all pandemics, including COVID-19. Its multifarious presence has wreaked havoc on people's physical, economic, and social life since late 2019. Despite the need for social science to save lives, it is also critical to ensure future generations are protected. COVID-19 appeared as the world grappled with the epidemic of climate change. This study suggests policymakers and practitioners address climate change and COVID-19 together. This article offers a narrative review of both pandemics' impacts. Scopus and Web of Science were sought databases. The findings are reported analytically using important works of contemporary social theorists. The analysis focuses on three interconnected themes: technology advancements have harmed vulnerable people; pandemics have macro- and micro-dimensions; and structural disparities. To conclude, we believe that collaborative effort is the key to combating COVID-19 and climate change, while understanding the lessons learnt from the industrialised world. Finally, policymakers can decrease the impact of global catastrophes by addressing many socioeconomic concerns concurrently.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  16. Puthiaparampil T, Rahman MM, Shazrina AR, Nariman S, Lukas S, Chai CS, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2022 Nov;77(6):724-729.
    PMID: 36448391
    INTRODUCTION: Our faculty used one long case (LC) and three short cases for the clinical component of the final professional examinations. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the LC had to be replaced with scenario-based clinical examination (SBCE) due to the impracticability of using recently hospitalised patients. While keeping the short case component as usual, the LC had to be replaced with SBCE in 2020 for the first time at a short notice. To evaluate the positive and negative aspects of SBCE and LC to determine the feasibility of replacing LC with SBCE in future examinations.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared the LC scores of three previous years with those of the SBCE and studied the feedback of the three stakeholders: students, examiners, and simulated patients (SPs), regarding their experience with SBCE and the suitability of SBCE as an alternative for LC in future examinations.

    RESULTS: The SBCE scores were higher than those of the LC. Most of the examiners and students were not in favour of SBCE replacing LC, as such. The SPs were more positive about the proposition. The comments of the three stakeholders brought out the plus and minus points of LC and SBCE, which prompted our proposals to make SBCE more practical for future examinations.

    CONCLUSION: Having analysed the feedback of the stakeholders, and the positive and negative aspects of LC and SBCE, it was evident that SBCE needed improvements. We have proposed eight modifications to SBCE to make it a viable alternative for LC.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  17. Salvamani S, Tan HZ, Thang WJ, Ter HC, Wan MS, Gunasekaran B, et al.
    Br J Biomed Sci, 2020 Oct;77(4):168-184.
    PMID: 32942955 DOI: 10.1080/09674845.2020.1826136
    The COVID-19 disease is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which is highly infective within the human population. The virus is widely disseminated to almost every continent with over twenty-seven million infections and over ninety-thousand reported deaths attributed to COVID-19 disease. SARS-CoV-2 is a single stranded RNA virus, comprising three main viral proteins; membrane, spike and envelope. The clinical features of COVID-19 disease can be classified according to different degrees of severity, with some patients progressing to acute respiratory distress syndrome, which can be fatal. In addition, many infections are asymptomatic or only cause mild symptoms. As there is no specific treatment for COVID-19 there is considerable endeavour to raise a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, in addition to engineering neutralizing antibody interventions. In the absence of an effective vaccine, movement controls of varying stringencies have been imposed. Whilst enforced lockdown measures have been effective, they may be less effective against the current strain of SARS-CoV-2, the G614 clade. Conversely, other mutations of the virus, such as the Δ382 variant could reduce the clinical relevance of infection. The front runners in the race to develop an effective vaccine focus on the SARS-Co-V-2 Spike protein. However, vaccines that produce a T-cell response to a wider range of SARS-Co-V-2 viral proteins, may be more effective. Population based studies that determine the level of innate immunity to SARS-CoV-2, from prior exposure to the virus or to other coronaviruses, will have important implications for government imposed movement control and the strategic delivery of vaccination programmes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics*
  18. Chiang CY, Islam T, Xu C, Chinnayah T, Garfin AMC, Rahevar K, et al.
    Eur Respir J, 2020 10;56(4).
    PMID: 32978310 DOI: 10.1183/13993003.03054-2020
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics*
  19. Yigitcanlar T, Butler L, Windle E, Desouza KC, Mehmood R, Corchado JM
    Sensors (Basel), 2020 May 25;20(10).
    PMID: 32466175 DOI: 10.3390/s20102988
    In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) has started to manifest itself at an unprecedented pace. With highly sophisticated capabilities, AI has the potential to dramatically change our cities and societies. Despite its growing importance, the urban and social implications of AI are still an understudied area. In order to contribute to the ongoing efforts to address this research gap, this paper introduces the notion of an artificially intelligent city as the potential successor of the popular smart city brand-where the smartness of a city has come to be strongly associated with the use of viable technological solutions, including AI. The study explores whether building artificially intelligent cities can safeguard humanity from natural disasters, pandemics, and other catastrophes. All of the statements in this viewpoint are based on a thorough review of the current status of AI literature, research, developments, trends, and applications. This paper generates insights and identifies prospective research questions by charting the evolution of AI and the potential impacts of the systematic adoption of AI in cities and societies. The generated insights inform urban policymakers, managers, and planners on how to ensure the correct uptake of AI in our cities, and the identified critical questions offer scholars directions for prospective research and development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics*
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