• 1 Department of Civil Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Campus, Khairpur Mirs', Sindh, Pakistan.
  • 2 Jamilus Research Centre, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja, 86400, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia
  • 3 Department of Civil Engineering, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science and Technology, Nawabshah, Sindh, Pakistan
PMID: 33745050 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-13435-2


The production of cement contributes to 10% of global carbon dioxide (CO2) pollution and 74 to 81% towards the total CO2 pollution by concrete. In addition to that, its low strength-to-weight ratio, high density and thermal conductivity are among the few limitations of heavy weight concrete. Therefore, this study was carried out to provide a solution to these limitations by developing innovative eco-friendly lightweight foamed concrete (LFC) of 1800 kg/m3 density incorporating 20-25% palm oil fuel ash (POFA) and 5-15% eggshell powder (ESP) by weight of total binder as supplementary cementitious material (SCM). The influence of combined utilization of POFA and ESP on the fresh state properties of eco-friendly LFC was determined using the J-ring test. To determine the mechanical properties, a total of 48 cubes and 24 cylinders were prepared for compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity each. A total of 24 panels were prepared to determine the thermal properties in terms of surface temperature and thermal conductivity. Furthermore, to assess the environmental impact and eco-friendliness of the developed LFC, the embodied carbon and eco-strength efficiency was calculated. It was determined that the utilization of POFA and ESP reduced the workability slightly but enhanced the mechanical properties of LFC (17.05 to 22.60 MPa compressive strength and 1.43 to 2.61 MPa tensile strength), thus satisfies the ACI213R requirements for structural lightweight concrete and that it can be used for structural applications. Additionally, the thermal conductivity reduced ranging from 0.55 to 0.63 W/mK compared to 0.82 W/mK achieved by control sample. Furthermore, the developed LFC showed a 16.96 to 33.55% reduction in embodied carbon and exhibited higher eco-strength efficiency between 47.82 and 76.97%. Overall, the combined utilization of POFA and ESP as SCMs not only enhanced the thermo-mechanical performance, makes the sustainable LFC as structural lightweight concrete, but also has reduced the environmental impacts caused by the disposal of POFA and ESP in landfills as well as reducing the total CO2 emissions during the production of eco-friendly LFC.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.