METHODS: This study compares the effects of spray drying, freeze drying, drum drying, vacuum oven drying, and convection oven drying on the physicochemical properties of Bintangor orange powder, including vitamin C and total carotenoid content. The physicochemical properties analyzed for the powders were color analysis, moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, degree of caking, wettability, flowability, water solubility index, and bulk density.
RESULTS: Our results showed that freeze dried and convection oven dried powders retained their color so that the powder was the same as the original puree. All powders used in this showed an acceptable moisture content level, with a range of 2.11–2.31%. Spray dried and drum dried powders had the lowest value of moisture content and water activity. Moreover, spray dried powders showed the lowest value in hygroscopicity and bulk density and took the shortest time to wet the powder. The highest solubility and flowability properties were 12.99%, 0.39 g/mL, 18.39 s, 96.08%, and 19.17°, respectively. However, the freeze drying method retained the highest value for both nutritional pigments of vitamin C and total carotenoid content, 18.31 mg/g and 91.32 μg/g, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Freeze drying is the most suitable drying method with favorable powder properties compared to spray drying, drum drying, vacuum oven drying and convection oven drying.