Wang K 1 , Goldenberg A 2 , Dorison CA 3 , Miller JK 4 , Uusberg A 5 , Lerner JS 6 Show all authors , Gross JJ 7 , Agesin BB 8 , Bernardo M 9 , Campos O 10 , Eudave L 11 , Grzech K 12 , Ozery DH 13 , Jackson EA 14 , Garcia EOL 15 , Drexler SM 16 , Jurković AP 17 , Rana K 18 , Wilson JP 19 , Antoniadi M 20 , Desai K 21 , Gialitaki Z 22 , Kushnir E 23 , Nadif K 24 , Bravo ON 25 , Nauman R 26 , Oosterlinck M 27 , Pantazi M 28 , Pilecka N 29 , Szabelska A 30 , van Steenkiste IMM 31 , Filip K 32 , Bozdoc AI 33 , Marcu GM 33 , Agadullina E 34 , Adamkovič M 35 , Roczniewska M 36 , Reyna C 37 , Kassianos AP 38 , Westerlund M 39 , Ahlgren L 40 , Pöntinen S 40 , Adetula GA 41 , Dursun P 42 , Arinze AI 43 , Arinze NC 43 , Ogbonnaya CE 43 , Ndukaihe ILG 43 , Dalgar I 44 , Akkas H 45 , Macapagal PM 46 , Lewis S 47 , Metin-Orta I 48 , Foroni F 49 , Willis M 50 , Santos AC 51 , Mokady A 52 , Reggev N 53 , Kurfali MA 54 , Vasilev MR 55 , Nock NL 56 , Parzuchowski M 57 , Espinoza Barría MF 58 , Vranka M 59 , Kohlová MB 60 , Ropovik I 61 , Harutyunyan M 62 , Wang C 63 , Yao E 64 , Becker M 65 , Manunta E 65 , Kaminski G 65 , Marko D 66 , Evans K 67 , Lewis DMG 67 , Findor A 68 , Landry AT 69 , Aruta JJB 70 , Ortiz MS 71 , Vally Z 72 , Pronizius E 73 , Voracek M 73 , Lamm C 73 , Grinberg M 74 , Li R 75 , Valentova JV 76 , Mioni G 77 , Cellini N 77 , Chen SC 78 , Zickfeld J 79 , Moon K 80 , Azab H 81 , Levy N 82 , Karababa A 83 , Beaudry JL 84 , Boucher L 85 , Collins WM 86 , Todsen AL 87 , van Schie K 88 , Vintr J 89 , Bavolar J 90 , Kaliska L 91 , Križanić V 92 , Samojlenko L 93 , Pourafshari R 94 , Geiger SJ 95 , Beitner J 96 , Warmelink L 97 , Ross RM 98 , Stephen ID 98 , Hostler TJ 99 , Azouaghe S 100 , McCarthy R 101 , Szala A 102 , Grano C 103 , Solorzano CS 103 , Anjum G 104 , Jimenez-Leal W 105 , Bradford M 105 , Pérez LC 105 , Cruz Vásquez JE 105 , Galindo-Caballero OJ 105 , Vargas-Nieto JC 105 , Kácha O 106 , Arvanitis A 107 , Xiao Q 108 , Cárcamo R 109 , Zorjan S 110 , Tajchman Z 111 , Vilares I 111 , Pavlacic JM 112 , Kunst JR 113 , Tamnes CK 113 , von Bastian CC 114 , Atari M 115 , Sharifian M 116 , Hricova M 90 , Kačmár P 90 , Schrötter J 90 , Rahal RM 117 , Cohen N 118 , FatahModarres S 119 , Zrimsek M 120 , Zakharov I 121 , Koehn MA 122 , Esteban-Serna C 123 , Calin-Jageman RJ 124 , Krafnick AJ 124 , Štrukelj E 125 , Isager PM 126 , Urban J 60 , Silva JR 127 , Martončik M 128 , Očovaj SB 129 , Šakan D 129 , Kuzminska AO 130 , Djordjevic JM 131 , Almeida IAT 132 , Ferreira A 132 , Lazarevic LB 133 , Manley H 134 , Ricaurte DZ 135 , Monteiro RP 136 , Etabari Z 137 , Musser E 138 , Dunleavy D 139 , Chou W 140 , Godbersen H 141 , Ruiz-Fernández S 141 , Reeck C 142 , Batres C 143 , Kirgizova K 144 , Muminov A 145 , Azevedo F 146 , Alvarez DS 147 , Butt MM 148 , Lee JM 149 , Chen Z 150 , Verbruggen F 150 , Ziano I 151 , Tümer M 152 , Charyate ACA 153 , Dubrov D 34 , Tejada Rivera MDCMC 154 , Aberson C 155 , Pálfi B 156 , Maldonado MA 157 , Hubena B 59 , Sacakli A 158 , Ceary CD 14 , Richard KL 14 , Singer G 159 , Perillo JT 160 , Ballantyne T 161 , Cyrus-Lai W 162 , Fedotov M 163 , Du H 164 , Wielgus M 165 , Pit IL 166 , Hruška M 167 , Sousa D 168 , Aczel B 169 , Szaszi B 169 , Adamus S 32 , Barzykowski K 32 , Micheli L 170 , Schmidt ND 171 , Zsido AN 172 , Paruzel-Czachura M 173 , Bialek M 174 , Kowal M 174 , Sorokowska A 174 , Misiak M 174 , Mola D 175 , Ortiz MV 175 , Correa PS 175 , Belaus A 175 , Muchembled F 176 , Ribeiro RR 177 , Arriaga P 177 , Oliveira R 177 , Vaughn LA 178 , Szwed P 179 , Kossowska M 180 , Czarnek G 181 , Kielińska J 181 , Antazo B 182 , Betlehem R 183 , Stieger S 184 , Nilsonne G 185 , Simonovic N 186 , Taber J 186 , Gourdon-Kanhukamwe A 187 , Domurat A 188 , Ihaya K 189 , Yamada Y 190 , Urooj A 191 , Gill T 192 , Čadek M 193 , Bylinina L 194 , Messerschmidt J 195 , Kurfalı M 196 , Adetula A 197 , Baklanova E 198 , Albayrak-Aydemir N 199 , Kappes HB 200 , Gjoneska B 201 , House T 202 , Jones MV 99 , Berkessel JB 203 , Chopik WJ 204 , Çoksan S 205 , Seehuus M 206 , Khaoudi A 207 , Bokkour A 207 , El Arabi KA 207 , Djamai I 207 , Iyer A 208 , Parashar N 208 , Adiguzel A 209 , Kocalar HE 209 , Bundt C 210 , Norton JO 211 , Papadatou-Pastou M 212 , De la Rosa-Gomez A 213 , Ankushev V 34 , Bogatyreva N 34 , Grigoryev D 34 , Ivanov A 34 , Prusova I 34 , Romanova M 34 , Sarieva I 34 , Terskova M 214 , Hristova E 215 , Kadreva VH 215 , Janak A 216 , Schei V 217 , Sverdrup TE 217 , Askelund AD 218 , Pineda LMS 219 , Krupić D 220 , Levitan CA 221 , Johannes N 28 , Ouherrou N 222 , Say N 223 , Sinkolova S 224 , Janjić K 224 , Stojanovska M 224 , Stojanovska D 224 , Khosla M 225 , Thomas AG 226 , Kung FYH 227 , Bijlstra G 228 , Mosannenzadeh F 229 , Balci BB 230 , Reips UD 231 , Baskin E 232 , Ishkhanyan B 233 , Czamanski-Cohen J 234 , Dixson BJW 235 , Moreau D 236 , Sutherland CAM 237 , Chuan-Peng H 238 , Noone C 239 , Flowe H 240 , Anne M 241 , Janssen SMJ 242 , Topor M 243 , Majeed NM 244 , Kunisato Y 245 , Yu K 246 , Daches S 247 , Hartanto A 244 , Vdovic M 248 , Anton-Boicuk L 249 , Forbes PAG 249 , Kamburidis J 250 , Marinova E 250 , Nedelcheva-Datsova M 250 , Rachev NR 250 , Stoyanova A 250 , Schmidt K 251 , Suchow JW 252 , Koptjevskaja-Tamm M 253 , Jernsäther T 254 , Olofsson JK 254 , Bialobrzeska O 255 , Marszalek M 256 , Tatachari S 257 , Afhami R 258 , Law W 259 , Antfolk J 260 , Žuro B 261 , Van Doren N 262 , Soto JA 262 , Searston R 263 , Miranda J 264 , Damnjanović K 265 , Yeung SK 266 , Krupić D 267 , Hoyer K 268 , Jaeger B 268 , Ren D 269 , Pfuhl G 270 , Klevjer K 270 , Corral-Frías NS 271 , Frias-Armenta M 271 , Lucas MY 272 , Torres AO 154 , Toro M 273 , Delgado LGJ 274 , Vega D 275 , Solas SÁ 276 , Vilar R 277 , Massoni S 278 , Frizzo T 278 , Bran A 279 , Vaidis DC 279 , Vieira L 280 , Paris B 281 , Capizzi M 282 , Coelho GLH 283 , Greenburgh A 284 , Whitt CM 285 , Tullett AM 286 , Du X 287 , Volz L 287 , Bosma MJ 288 , Karaarslan C 289 , Sarıoğuz E 290 , Allred TB 291 , Korbmacher M 292 , Colloff MF 293 , Lima TJS 294 , Ribeiro MFF 295 , Verharen JPH 296 , Karekla M 297 , Karashiali C 38 , Sunami N 298 , Jaremka LM 298 , Storage D 299 , Habib S 300 , Studzinska A 301 , Hanel PHP 302 , Holford DL 302 , Sirota M 302 , Wolfe K 302 , Chiu F 303 , Theodoropoulou A 304 , Ahn ER 305 , Lin Y 306 , Westgate EC 305 , Brohmer H 307 , Hofer G 307 , Dujols O 197 , Vezirian K 197 , Feldman G 308 , Travaglino GA 309 , Ahmed A 310 , Li M 311 , Bosch J 312 , Torunsky N 313 , Bai H 314 , Manavalan M 313 , Song X 313 , Walczak RB 315 , Zdybek P 315 , Friedemann M 316 , Rosa AD 317 , Kozma L 172 , Alves SG 318 , Lins S 318 , Pinto IR 318 , Correia RC 319 , Babinčák P 320 , Banik G 321 , Rojas-Berscia LM 322 , Varella MAC 76 , Uttley J 323 , Beshears JE 324 , Thommesen KK 87 , Behzadnia B 325 , Geniole SN 326 , Silan MA 327 , Maturan PLG 328 , Vilsmeier JK 329 , Tran US 330 , Izquierdo SM 331 , Mensink MC 332 , Sorokowski P 174 , Groyecka-Bernard A 333 , Radtke T 334 , Adoric VC 335 , Carpentier J 336 , Özdoğru AA 337 , Joy-Gaba JA 338 , Hedgebeth MV 338 , Ishii T 339 , Wichman AL 340 , Röer JP 341 , Ostermann T 341 , Davis WE 342 , Suter L 343 , Papachristopoulos K 344 , Zabel C 1 , Ebersole CR 345 , Chartier CR 346 , Mallik PR 347 , Urry HL 348 , Buchanan EM 349 , Coles NA 350 , Primbs MA 228 , Basnight-Brown DM 351 , IJzerman H 352 , Forscher PS 197 , Moshontz H 353

Affiliations 

  • 1 Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
  • 2 Harvard Business School, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
  • 3 Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA
  • 4 Department of Psychology, Willamette University, Salem, OR, USA. millerj@willamette.edu
  • 5 Institute of Psychology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
  • 6 Harvard Kennedy School and Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
  • 7 Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
  • 8 Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Nigeria
  • 9 Faculdade de Psicologia e Ciências da Educação, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal
  • 10 University of Deusto, Barakaldo, Spain
  • 11 University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
  • 12 University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
  • 13 California State University, Northridge, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  • 14 Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA, USA
  • 15 Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
  • 16 Department of Cognitive Psychology, Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
  • 17 Kindergarten Kustošija, Zagreb, Croatia
  • 18 GC University Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • 19 Montclair State University, Jersey City, NJ, USA
  • 20 European University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus
  • 21 Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Akron, PA, USA
  • 22 Leiden University, Culemborg, The Netherlands
  • 23 , Stockholm, Sweden
  • 24 , Poggio Imperiale, Italy
  • 25 , Barakaldo, Spain
  • 26 , Islamabad, Pakistan
  • 27 , Gent, Belgium
  • 28 Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
  • 29 , Warsaw, Poland
  • 30 Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Ireland
  • 31 Universiteit Leiden, Leiden, The Netherlands
  • 32 Institute of Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
  • 33 Department of Psychology, Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Sibiu, Romania
  • 34 National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia
  • 35 Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, University of Presov, Presov, Slovakia
  • 36 Department of Psychology, SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Sopot, Poland
  • 37 Instituto de Investigaciones Psicológicas (IIPSI), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)-UNC, Córdoba, Argentina
  • 38 Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus
  • 39 Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland
  • 40 Faculty of Arts, Psychology and Theology, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland
  • 41 Department of Pure and Applied Psychology, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba, Nigeria
  • 42 Department of Psychology, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey
  • 43 Alex Ekwueme Federal University Ndufu-Alike, Ndufu-Alike, Nigeria
  • 44 Department of Psychology, Ankara Medipol University, Ankara, Turkey
  • 45 MIS Department, Ankara Science University, Ankara, Turkey
  • 46 School of Psychology, Arellano University, Manila, Philippines
  • 47 Ashland University, Ashland, OH, USA
  • 48 Department of Psychology, Atilim University, Ankara, Turkey
  • 49 Australian Catholic University, North Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 50 School of Behavioural and Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, North Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 51 Aventura Social and DESSH, Faculty of Human Kinetics, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
  • 52 Department of Psychology, Ben Gurion University, Beersheba, Israel
  • 53 Department of Psychology and Zlotowski Center for Neuroscience, Ben Gurion University, Beersheba, Israel
  • 54 Department of Political Science, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey
  • 55 Department of Psychology, Bournemouth University, Poole, UK
  • 56 Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA
  • 57 Center for Research on Cognition and Behavior, SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities in Sopot, Sopot, Poland
  • 58 Centre of Attachment and Emotional Regulation (CARE), Universidad del Desarrollo, Las Condes, Chile
  • 59 Charles University, Prague, Czechia
  • 60 Environment Center, Charles University, Prague, Czechia
  • 61 Institute for Research and Development of Education, Faculty of Education, Charles University, Prague, Czechia
  • 62 Institute of Economic Studies, Charles University, Prague, Czechia
  • 63 Chinese Center of Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing, China
  • 64 Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, CA, USA
  • 65 CLLE, Université de Toulouse, Toulouse, France
  • 66 Cognitive Science, Faculty of Education, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • 67 College of Science, Health, Engineering and Education, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  • 68 Faculty of Social and Economic Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia
  • 69 Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
  • 70 De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines
  • 71 Departamento de Psicología, Laboratorio de Estrés y Salud, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile
  • 72 Department of Clinical Psychology, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE
  • 73 Department of Cognition, Emotion and Methods in Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
  • 74 Department of Cognitive Science and Psychology, Research Center for Cognitive Science, New Bulgarian University, Sofia, Bulgaria
  • 75 Department of Experimental and Applied Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • 76 Department of Experimental Psychology, Institute of Psychology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 77 Department of General Psychology, University of Padua, Padua, Italy
  • 78 Department of Human Development and Psychology, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan
  • 79 Department of Management, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
  • 80 Department of Management, Kingston University London, Kingston, UK
  • 81 Department of Neurosurgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
  • 82 Department of Philosophy, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 83 Department of Psychological Counselling and Guidance, Faculty of Education, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Muğla, Turkey
  • 84 Department of Psychological Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 85 Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Nova Southeastern University, Pembroke Pines, FL, USA
  • 86 Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA
  • 87 School of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, UK
  • 88 Department of Psychology, Education and Child Studies, Erasmus School of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
  • 89 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, Charles University, Prague, Czechia
  • 90 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, Košice, Slovakia
  • 91 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education, Matej Bel University, Banská Bystrica, Slovakia
  • 92 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, J. J. Strossmayer University of Osijek, Osijek, Croatia
  • 93 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Information Technologies, University of Primorska, Koper, Slovenia
  • 94 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
  • 95 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • 96 Department of Psychology, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany
  • 97 Department of Psychology, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK
  • 98 Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 99 Department of Psychology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK
  • 100 Department of Psychology, Mohammed V University in Rabat, Rabat, Morocco
  • 101 Department of Psychology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL, USA
  • 102 Department of Psychology, Oakland University, Oakland County, MI, USA
  • 103 Department of Psychology, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy
  • 104 Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada
  • 105 Department of Psychology, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia
  • 106 Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
  • 107 Department of Psychology, University of Crete, Rethymno, Greece
  • 108 Department of Psychology, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 109 Department of Psychology, University of Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile
  • 110 Department of Psychology, University of Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia
  • 111 Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
  • 112 Department of Psychology, University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS, USA
  • 113 Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  • 114 Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
  • 115 Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  • 116 Department of Psychology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
  • 117 Department of Social Psychology, Tilburg University, Bonn, Germany
  • 118 Department of Special Education and The Edmond J. Safra Brain Research Center for the Study of Learning Disabilities, University of Haifa, Tel Aviv, Israel
  • 119 Department of Sport Management, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
  • 120 Department of Translation Studies, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • 121 Developmental Behavioral Genetics Laboratory, Psychological Institute of the Russian Academy of Education, Moscow, Russia
  • 122 Discipline of Psychology, Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra, Australia
  • 123 Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, University College London, London, UK
  • 124 Psychology Department, Dominican University, River Forest, IL, USA
  • 125 Dynamic and Clinical Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
  • 126 Department of Industrial Engineering and Innovation Sciences, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
  • 127 Facultad de Psicología, Universidad del Desarrollo, Concepción, Chile
  • 128 Faculty of Arts, University of Presov, Prešov, Slovakia
  • 129 Dr Lazar Vrkatic Faculty of Legal and Business Studies, Novi Sad, Serbia
  • 130 Faculty of Management, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
  • 131 Faculty of Media and Communication, Singidunum University, Belgrade, Serbia
  • 132 Faculty of Medicine FMUC, Institute of Nuclear Sciences Applied to Health ICNAS, Coimbra Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Translational Research CIBIT, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
  • 133 Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
  • 134 Faculty of Psychology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 135 Faculty of Psychology, Fundación Universitaria Konrad Lorenz, Bogotá, Colombia
  • 136 Department of Psychology, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Brazil
  • 137 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
  • 138 Center for Children and Families, Department of Psychology, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA
  • 139 Center for Translational Behavioral Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA
  • 140 Department of Psychology, Fo Guang University, Yilan County, Taiwan
  • 141 FOM University of Applied Sciences, Hildesheim, Germany
  • 142 Fox School of Business, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
  • 143 Department of Psychology, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA, USA
  • 144 , Florence, Italy
  • 145 , Samarkand, Uzbekistan
  • 146 Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany
  • 147 Fundación Universitaria Konrad Lorenz, Bogotá, Colombia
  • 148 GC University, Lahore, Pakistan
  • 149 Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA
  • 150 Department of Experimental Psychology, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium
  • 151 Grenoble Ecole de Management, Grenoble, France
  • 152 Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
  • 153 Higher College of Education and Training, Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra, Morocco
  • 154 Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile
  • 155 Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA, USA
  • 156 Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, UK
  • 157 , Puebla, Mexico
  • 158 , Ankara, Turkey
  • 159 Department of Psychology, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Saint Michael, PA, USA
  • 160 Department of Psychology, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA, USA
  • 161 Indiana University Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA, USA
  • 162 INSEAD, Singapore, Singapore
  • 163 Institute for Linguistic Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia
  • 164 Institute of Advanced Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences, Beijing Normal University at Zhuhai, Guangzhou, China
  • 165 Institute of Applied Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland
  • 166 Institute of Cognitive and Evolutionary Anthropology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
  • 167 Institute of European Studies and International Relations, Faculty of Social and Economic Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia
  • 168 Institute of Nuclear Sciences Applied to Health ICNAS, Coimbra Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Translational Research CIBIT, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
  • 169 Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary
  • 170 Institute of Psychology, Leibniz University Hannover, Hannover, Germany
  • 171 Institute of Psychology, University of Hildesheim, Hildesheim, Germany
  • 172 Institute of Psychology, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary
  • 173 Institute of Psychology, University of Silesia in Katowice, Katowice, Poland
  • 174 Institute of Psychology, University of Wroclaw, Wrocław, Poland
  • 175 Instituto de Investigaciones Psicológicas (IIPsi), Universidad Nacional de Córdoba-Conicet, Córdoba, Argentina
  • 176 Instituto Tecnológico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Hermosillo, Mexico
  • 177 CIS-IUL, Iscte-Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
  • 178 Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY, USA
  • 179 Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland
  • 180 Department of Philosophy, Institute of Psychology, Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Kraków, Poland
  • 181 Instytute of Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Czestochowa, Poland
  • 182 Department of Psychology, Jose Rizal University, Pasig City, Philippines
  • 183 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Osijek, Croatia
  • 184 Department of Psychology and Psychodynamics, Karl Landsteiner University of Health Sciences, Krems an der Donau, Austria
  • 185 Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden
  • 186 Department of Psychological Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, OH, USA
  • 187 Institute for Globally Distributed Open Research and Education (IGDORE), Kingston University, London, UK
  • 188 Centre for Economic Psychology and Decision Sciences, Kozminski University, Warsaw, Poland
  • 189 Admission Center, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 190 Faculty of Arts and Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 191 La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 192 Lazaridis School of Business and Economics, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
  • 193 Carnegie School of Sport, Leeds Beckett University, London, UK
  • 194 Leiden University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
  • 195 Institute of Psychology, Leipzig University, Heidelberg, Germany
  • 196 Linguistics Department, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 197 LIP/PC2S, Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France
  • 198 Institute of Asian and African Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
  • 199 London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK
  • 200 Department of Management, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK
  • 201 Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Skopje, North Macedonia
  • 202 Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 203 Mannheim Centre for European Social Research, University of Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany
  • 204 Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA
  • 205 Department of Psychology, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
  • 206 Department of Psychology, Middlebury College; Vermont Psychological Services, University of Vermont, Middlebury, VT, USA
  • 207 Mohammed V University in Rabat, Rabat, Morocco
  • 208 Sampurna Montfort College, Bangalore, India
  • 209 Department of Psychological Counseling and Guidance, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Muğla, Turkey
  • 210 Multimodal Imaging and Cognitive Control Lab, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  • 211 College of Science, Health, Engineering and Education, Murdoch University, Lesmurdie, Australia
  • 212 National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
  • 213 Faculty of Higher Studies "Iztacala", National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico
  • 214 Instytute of Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland
  • 215 Department of Cognitive Science and Psychology, New Bulgarian University, Sofia, Bulgaria
  • 216 Department of Applied Psychology, New York University, New York, NY, USA
  • 217 NHH Norwegian School of Economics, Department of Strategy and Management, Bergen, Norway
  • 218 Nic Waals Institute, Lovisenberg Diaconal Hospital, Oslo, Norway
  • 219 Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia
  • 220 Norvel-Psychological Centre for Counselling and Research, Osijek, Croatia
  • 221 Department of Cognitive Science, Occidental College, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  • 222 Paul Valery Montpellier University, Montpellier, France
  • 223 Prague University of Economics and Business, Prague, Czechia
  • 224 PSA Psihesko, Skopje, North Macedonia
  • 225 Psychology Department, DRC, University of Delhi, Delhi, India
  • 226 Psychology Department, Swansea University, Swansea, UK
  • 227 Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
  • 228 Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
  • 229 Behavioural Science Institute, Faculty of Social Sciences, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
  • 230 Department of Psychology, Samsun University, Samsun, Turkey
  • 231 Research Methods, Assessment, and iScience, Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz, Kreuzlingen, Switzerland
  • 232 Saint Joseph's University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
  • 233 School of Communication and Culture, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
  • 234 School of Creative Arts Therapies, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel
  • 235 School of Health and Behavioural Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 236 School of Psychology and Centre for Brain Research, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
  • 237 School of Psychology, King's College, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
  • 238 School of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China
  • 239 School of Psychology, National University of Ireland, Galway, Galway, Ireland
  • 240 School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
  • 241 School of Psychology, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Semenyih, Malaysia
  • 242 School of Psychology, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 243 School of Psychology, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK
  • 244 School of Social Sciences, Singapore Management University, Singapore, Singapore
  • 245 Department of Psychology, Senshu University, Tokyo, Japan
  • 246 Sewanee: The University of the South, Sewanee, TN, USA
  • 247 Department of Psychology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel
  • 248 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Media and Communications, Singidunum University, Belgrade, Serbia
  • 249 Social, Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience Unit, Department of Cognition, Emotion, and Methods in Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
  • 250 Department of General, Experimental, Developmental, and Health Psychology, Sofia University St Kliment Ohridski, Sofia, Bulgaria
  • 251 School of Psychological and Behavioral Sciences, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL, USA
  • 252 School of Business, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ, USA
  • 253 Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 254 Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 255 SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Warsaw, Poland
  • 256 SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Gdansk, Poland
  • 257 T A Pai Management Institute, Manipal, India
  • 258 Department of Art Studies, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
  • 259 Department of Psychology, The Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 260 The Faculty of Arts, Psychology and Theology, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland
  • 261 The Institute of Psychology; Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Osijek, Osijek, Croatia
  • 262 Department of Psychology, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, USA
  • 263 The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  • 264 Department of Psychology, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA
  • 265 Laboratory for Experimental Psychology, Institute of Philosophy, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, The University of Belgrade, Beograd-Stari Grad, Serbia
  • 266 The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 267 Faculty of Humanities and Social Science, The University of Osijek, Osijek, Croatia
  • 268 Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands
  • 269 Department of Social Psychology, Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands
  • 270 Department of Psychology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
  • 271 Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Mexico
  • 272 Department of Psychology, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Mexico
  • 273 Centro de Apego y Regulación Emocional, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile
  • 274 Programa de Psicología, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá, Colombia
  • 275 Universidad Latina de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
  • 276 Grupo de investigación en Biogeografía y Ecología Espacial (BioGeoE2), Universidad Regional Amazónica Ikiam, Tena, Ecuador
  • 277 Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 278 Université de Lorraine; CNRS, BETA, Université de Strasbourg, Nancy, France
  • 279 Université de Paris, Paris, France
  • 280 Université de Paris, Strasbourg, France
  • 281 Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France
  • 282 Université Paul Valéry Montpellier, Granada, Spain
  • 283 University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
  • 284 Department of Experimental Psychology, University College London, London, UK
  • 285 University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA
  • 286 Department of Psychology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA
  • 287 University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • 288 Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • 289 Department of Psychology, Institute of Social Sciences, University of Başkent, Ankara, Turkey
  • 290 Department of Psychology, Institute of Social Sciences, University of Başkent, Çankaya, Turkey
  • 291 Laboratory for Research of Individual Differences, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
  • 292 Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
  • 293 University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  • 294 Department of Social and Work Psychology, University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil
  • 295 Institute of Psychology, University of Brasilia, Uberaba, Brazil
  • 296 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
  • 297 University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus
  • 298 Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA
  • 299 Department of Psychology, University of Denver, Denver, CO, USA
  • 300 Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • 301 University of Economics and Human Sciences in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
  • 302 University of Essex, Colchester, UK
  • 303 Department of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex, Colchester, UK
  • 304 Department of Psychology, University of Essex, Colchester, UK
  • 305 Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA
  • 306 Department of Psychology, University of Florida, New York, NY, USA
  • 307 Institute of Psychology, University of Graz, Graz, Austria
  • 308 University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 309 School of Psychology, Keynes College, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK
  • 310 Department of Psychology, Global MINDS, University of Limerick, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • 311 University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA, USA
  • 312 University of Milan-Bicocca, Milan, Italy
  • 313 Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN, USA
  • 314 University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Saint Paul, MN, USA
  • 315 Institute of Psychology, University of Opole, Opole, Poland
  • 316 University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
  • 317 Department of Philosophy, Sociology, Education and Applied Psychology, University of Padova, Zovencedo, Italy
  • 318 Center for Psychology, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
  • 319 Center for Psychology, University of Porto, Amarante, Portugal
  • 320 Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, University of Presov, Prešov, Slovakia
  • 321 Institute of Psychology, University of Presov, Prešov, Slovakia
  • 322 School of Languages and Cultures, University of Queensland, Lucia, Queensland, Australia
  • 323 School of Architecture, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
  • 324 University of Southern Indiana, Greenwood, IN, USA
  • 325 University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
  • 326 Department of Psychology, University of the Fraser Valley, Surrey, British Columbia, Canada
  • 327 University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines
  • 328 Department of Psychology, University of the Philippines Diliman, Metro Manila, Philippines
  • 329 Department of Cognition, Emotion, and Methods in Psychology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
  • 330 Department of Cognition, Emotion, and Methods in Psychology, School of Psychology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
  • 331 University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  • 332 Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Stout, White Bear Township, WI, USA
  • 333 Institute of Psychology, University of Wroclaw; Social and Legal Psychology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Wrocław, Poland
  • 334 Department of Psychology, University of Wuppertal, Witten, Germany
  • 335 Department of Psychology, University of Zadar, Zadar, Croatia
  • 336 Department of Organization and Human Resources, School of Management, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
  • 337 Department of Psychology, Üsküdar University, Istanbul, Turkey
  • 338 Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
  • 339 Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan
  • 340 Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY, USA
  • 341 Department of Psychology and Psychotherapy, Witten/Herdecke University, Witten, Germany
  • 342 Department of Psychology, Wittenberg University, Springfield, OH, USA
  • 343 School of Applied Psychology, ZHAW Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur, Switzerland
  • 344 Athens University of Economic and Business, Athens, Greece
  • 345 University of Virginia, Denver, CO, USA
  • 346 Department of Psychology, Ashland University, Ashland, OH, USA
  • 347 Department of Psychology, Ashland University, Medina, OH, USA
  • 348 Department of Psychology, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA
  • 349 Harrisburg University of Science and Technology, Bethlehem, PA, USA
  • 350 Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
  • 351 United States International University-Africa, Nairobi, Kenya
  • 352 Université Grenoble Alpes; Institut Universitaire de France, Grenoble, France
  • 353 Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA
Nat Hum Behav, 2021 08;5(8):1089-1110.
PMID: 34341554 DOI: 10.1038/s41562-021-01173-x

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that modifies how one thinks about a situation. Participants from 87 countries and regions (n = 21,644) were randomly assigned to one of two brief reappraisal interventions (reconstrual or repurposing) or one of two control conditions (active or passive). Results revealed that both reappraisal interventions (vesus both control conditions) consistently reduced negative emotions and increased positive emotions across different measures. Reconstrual and repurposing interventions had similar effects. Importantly, planned exploratory analyses indicated that reappraisal interventions did not reduce intentions to practice preventive health behaviours. The findings demonstrate the viability of creating scalable, low-cost interventions for use around the world. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: The stage 1 protocol for this Registered Report was accepted in principle on 12 May 2020. The protocol, as accepted by the journal, can be found at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.4878591.v1.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.