METHODS: MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 cells were treated with several concentrations of FKA. The apoptotic analysis was done through the MTT assay, BrdU assay, Annexin V analysis, cell cycle analysis, JC-1 mitochondrial dye, AO/PI dual staining, caspase 8/9 fluorometric assay, quantitative real time PCR and western blot. For the metastatic assays, the in vitro scratch assay, trans-well migration/invasion assay, HUVEC tube formation assay, ex vivo rat aortic ring assay, quantitative real time PCR and western blot were employed.
RESULTS: We have investigated the effects of FKA on the apoptotic and metastatic process in two breast cancer cell lines. FKA induces apoptosis in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 in a dose dependent manner through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Additionally, FKA selectively induces a G2/M arrest in the cell cycle machinery of MDA-MB231 and G1 arrest in MCF-7. This suggests that FKA's anti-cancer activity is dependent on the p53 status. Moreover, FKA also halted the migration and invasion process in MDA-MB231. The similar effects can be seen in the inhibition of the angiogenesis process as well.
CONCLUSIONS: FKA managed to induce apoptosis and inhibit the metastatic process in two breast cancer cell lines, in vitro. Overall, FKA may serve as a promising candidate in the search of a new anti-cancer drug especially in halting the metastatic process but further in vivo evidence is needed.
MAIN METHODS: A curcumin derivative (Z)-3-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (DK1) was synthesized and its cytotoxicity was tested on breast cancer cell MCF-7 and normal cell MCF-10A using MTT assay. Meanwhile, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis on MCF-7 cell were evaluated using flow cytometry. Regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis related genes expression was investigated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blot and caspases activity analyses. Activation of oxidative stress on MCF-7 were evaluated by measuring ROS and GSH levels.
KEY FINDINGS: DK1 was found to possess selective cytotoxicity on breast cancer MCF-7 cell than normal MCF-10A cell. Flow cytometry cell cycle and AnnexinV/PI analyses reported that DK1 effectively arrested MCF-7 at G2/M phase and induced apoptosis after 72 h of incubation than curcumin. Upregulation of p53, p21 and downregulation of PLK-1 subsequently promote phosphorylation of CDC2 which were found contributed to the arrest of G2/M phase. Moreover, increased of reactive oxygen species and reduced of antioxidant glutathione level correlate with apoptosis observed with raised of cytochrome c and active caspase 9.
SIGNIFICANCE: DK1 was found to be more effective in inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis against MCF-7 cell with much higher selectivity index of MCF-10A/MCF-7 than curcumin, which might be contributed by the overexpression of p53 protein.