Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 297 in total

  1. Bose A, Elyagoby A, Wong TW
    Int J Pharm, 2014 Jul 1;468(1-2):178-86.
    PMID: 24709212 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2014.04.006
    In situ coating of 5-fluorouracil pellets by ethylcellulose and pectin powder mixture (8:3 weight ratio) in capsule at simulated gastrointestinal media provides colon-specific drug release in vitro. This study probes into pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles of intra-capsular pellets coated in vivo in rats with reference to their site-specific drug release outcomes. The pellets were prepared by extrusion-spheronization technique. In vitro drug content, drug release, in vivo pharmacokinetics, local colonic drug content, tumor, aberrant crypt foci, systemic hematology and clinical chemistry profiles of coated and uncoated pellets were examined against unprocessed drug. In vivo pellet coating led to reduced drug bioavailability and enhanced drug accumulation at colon (179.13 μg 5-FU/g rat colon content vs 4.66 μg/g of conventional in vitro film-coated pellets at 15 mg/kg dose). The in vivo coated pellets reduced tumor number and size, through reforming tubular epithelium with basement membrane and restricting expression of cancer from adenoma to adenocarcinoma. Unlike uncoated pellets and unprocessed drug, the coated pellets eliminated aberrant crypt foci which represented a putative preneoplastic lesion in colon cancer. They did not inflict additional systemic toxicity. In vivo pellet coating to orally target 5-fluorouracil delivery at cancerous colon is a feasible therapeutic treatment approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  2. Jazayeri SD, Ideris A, Zakaria Z, Yeap SK, Omar AR
    PMID: 22512819 DOI: 10.1016/j.cimid.2012.03.007
    This study evaluates the immune responses of single avian influenza virus (AIV) HA DNA vaccine immunization using attenuated Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium as an oral vaccine carrier and intramuscular (IM) DNA injection. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicks immunized once by oral gavage with 10(9) Salmonella colony-forming units containing plasmid expression vector encoding the HA gene of A/Ck/Malaysia/5858/04 (H5N1) (pcDNA3.1.H5) did not show any clinical manifestations. Serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer samples collected from the IM immunized chickens were low compared to those immunized with S. typhimurium.pcDNA3.1.H5. The highest average antibody titers were detected on day 35 post immunization for both IM and S. typhimurium.pcDNA3.1.H5 immunized groups, at 4.0±2.8 and 51.2±7.5, respectively. S. typhimurium.pcDNA3.1.H5 also elicited both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of immunized chickens as early as day 14 after immunization, at 20.5±2.0 and 22.9±1.9%, respectively. Meanwhile, the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in chickens vaccinated intramuscularly were low at 5.9±0.9 and 8.5±1.3%, respectively. Immunization of chickens with S. typhimurium.pcDNA3.1.H5 enhanced IL-1β, IL-12β, IL-15 and IL-18 expressions in spleen although no significant differences were recorded in chickens vaccinated via IM and orally with S. typhimurium and S. typhimurium.pcDNA3.1. Hence, single oral administrations of the attenuated S. typhimurium containing pcDNA3.1.H5 showed antibody, T cell and Th1-like cytokine responses against AIV in chickens. Whether the T cell response induced by vaccination is virus-specific and whether vaccination protects against AIV infection requires further study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  3. Lakshmanan H, Raman J, Pandian A, Kuppamuthu K, Nanjian R, Sabaratam V, et al.
    Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 2016 Aug;79:25-34.
    PMID: 27177820 DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2016.05.010
    Senecio candicans DC. (Asteraceae) is used as a remedy for gastric ulcer and stomach pain in the Nilgiris, district, Tamil Nadu. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the sub-chronic toxicity of an aqueous extract of Senecio candicans (AESC) plant in Wistar albino rats. The study was conducted in consideration of the OECD 408 study design (Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents) and the extract was administered via gavage at doses of 250, 500 or 750 mg/kg body weight per day for 90-days. Hematological, biochemical parameters were determined on days 0, 30, 60 and 90 of administration. Animals were euthanized after 90 d treatment and its liver and kidney sections were taken for histological study. The results of sub-chronic study showed significant increase (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  4. Samuel AJ, Mohan S, Chellappan DK, Kalusalingam A, Ariamuthu S
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2012 May 7;141(1):396-402.
    PMID: 22421378 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.02.051
    The roots of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) is used for the treatment of jaundice in the folklore system of medicine in India. This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the roots of Hibiscus vitifolius against anti-tubercular drug induced hepatotoxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  5. Khalid MH, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Perimal EK, Akira A, Israf DA, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2011 Sep 1;137(1):345-51.
    PMID: 21664960 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.05.043
    Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith, a wild edible ginger species or locally known as "lempoyang", commonly used in the Malays traditional medicine as an appetizer or to treat stomachache, toothache, muscle sprain and as a cure for swelling sores and cuts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  6. Gorain B, Choudhury H, Tekade RK, Karan S, Jaisankar P, Pal TK
    Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 2016 Dec;82:20-31.
    PMID: 27815174 DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2016.10.020
    Poor aqueous solubility and unfavourable de-esterification of olmesartan medoxomil (a selective angiotensin II receptor blocker), results in low oral bioavailability of less than 26%. Improvement of oral bioavailability with prolonged pharmacodynamics activity of olmesartan in Wistar rats had been approached by nanoemulsification strategy in our previous article [Colloid Surface B, 115, 2014: 286]. In continuation to that work, we herewith report the biodistribution behaviour and 28-day repeated dose sub-chronic toxicity of olmesartan medoxomil nanoemulsion in Wistar rats following oral administration. The levels of olmesartan in collected biological samples were estimated using our validated LC-MS/MS technique. Our biodistribution study showed significantly higher brain concentrations of olmesartan (0.290 ± 0.089 μg/mL, 0.333 ± 0.071 μg/mL and 0.217 ± 0.062 μg/mL at 0.5, 2.0 and 8.0 h post dosing, respectively) when administered orally as nanoemulsion formulation as compared to the aqueous suspension. In addition, the olmesartan nanoemulsion was found to be safe and non-toxic, as it neither produced any lethality nor remarkable haematological, biochemical and structural adverse effects as observed during the 28-days sub-chronic toxicity studies in experimental Wistar rats. It is herewith envisaged that the developed nanoemulsion formulation approach for the delivery of olmesartan medoxomil via oral route can further be explored in memory dysfunction and brain ischemia, for better brain penetration and improved clinical application in stroke patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  7. Garcia S, Bhatt DL, Gallagher M, Jneid H, Kaufman J, Palevsky PM, et al.
    JACC Cardiovasc Interv, 2018 11 26;11(22):2254-2261.
    PMID: 30466822 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcin.2018.07.044
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare intravenous (IV) sodium bicarbonate with IV sodium chloride and oral acetylcysteine with placebo for the prevention of contrast-associated acute kidney injury (CAAKI) and intermediate-term adverse outcomes.

    BACKGROUND: Data are conflicting on the optimal strategy to reduce CAAKI and related complications after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

    METHODS: The PRESERVE (Prevention of Serious Adverse Events Following Angiography) trial used a 2 × 2 factorial design to randomize 5,177 patients with stage III or IV chronic kidney disease undergoing angiography to IV 1.26% sodium bicarbonate or IV 0.9% sodium chloride and 5 days of oral acetylcysteine or placebo. A subgroup analysis was conducted of the efficacy of these interventions in patients who underwent PCI during the study angiographic examination. The primary endpoint was a composite of death, need for dialysis, or persistent kidney impairment at 90 days; CAAKI was a secondary endpoint.

    RESULTS: A total of 1,161 PRESERVE patients (mean age 69 ± 8 years) underwent PCI. The median estimated glomerular filtration rate was 50.7 ml/min/1.73 m2 (interquartile range: 41.7 to 60.1 ml/min/1.73 m2), and 952 patients (82%) had diabetes mellitus. The primary endpoint occurred in 15 of 568 patients (2.6%) in the IV sodium bicarbonate group and 24 of 593 patients (4.0%) in the IV sodium chloride group (odds ratio: 0.64; 95% confidence interval: 0.33 to 1.24; p for interaction = 0.41) and in 23 of 598 patients (3.8%) in the acetylcysteine group and 16 of 563 patients (2.8%) in the placebo group (odds ratio: 1.37; 95% confidence interval: 0.71 to 2.62; p for interaction = 0.29). There were no significant between-group differences in the rates of CAAKI.

    CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with CKD undergoing PCI, there was no benefit of IV sodium bicarbonate over IV sodium chloride or of acetylcysteine over placebo for the prevention of CAAKI or intermediate-term adverse outcomes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  8. Dianita R, Jantan I, Amran AZ, Jalil J
    Molecules, 2015 Mar 16;20(3):4746-63.
    PMID: 25786162 DOI: 10.3390/molecules20034746
    The study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of the standardized aqueous and 80% ethanol extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. The extracts were administered to Wistar rats orally for 28 days with three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight) prior to ISO (85 mg/kg)-induced MI in two doses on day 29 and 30. The sera and hearts were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis after the rats were sacrificed 48 h after the first induction. The main components of the extracts, gallic acid, alkylresorcinols and flavonoids were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts by using a validated reversed phase HPLC method. The extracts showed significant protective effects as pretreated rats showed a significant dose-dependent decrease (p < 0.05) in cardiac enzyme activities, i.e., cardiac troponin I (cTnI), creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), when compared with ISO-control rats. There were significant rises (p < 0.05) in the activity of oxidase enzymes, i.e., glutathione peroxide (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of the pretreated rats, when compared with ISO-control group. Histopathological examination showed an improvement in membrane cell integrity in pre-treated rats compared to untreated rats. The major components of LPva extracts can be used as their biomarkers and contributed to the cardioprotective effects against ISO-induced MI rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  9. Fernando HA, Chandramouli C, Rosli D, Lam YL, Yong ST, Yaw HP, et al.
    Nutrients, 2014 Nov;6(11):4856-71.
    PMID: 25375630 DOI: 10.3390/nu6114856
    Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) ameliorates many components of the metabolic syndrome, but its potential therapeutic use is marred by edema caused by inhibition of renal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2). We assessed whether 100 mg/kg per day GA administered orally could promote metabolic benefits without causing edema in rats fed on a high-sucrose diet. Groups of eight male rats were fed on one of three diets for 28 days: normal diet, a high-sucrose diet, or a high-sucrose diet supplemented with GA. Rats were then culled and renal 11β-HSD2 activity, as well as serum sodium, potassium, angiotensin II and leptin levels were determined. Histological analyses were performed to assess changes in adipocyte size in visceral and subcutaneous depots, as well as hepatic and renal tissue morphology. This dosing paradigm of GA attenuated the increases in serum leptin levels and visceral, but not subcutaneous adipocyte size caused by the high-sucrose diet. Although GA decreased renal 11β-HSD2 activity, it did not affect serum electrolyte or angiotensin II levels, indicating no onset of edema. Furthermore, there were no apparent morphological changes in the liver or kidney, indicating no toxicity. In conclusion, it is possible to reap metabolic benefits of GA without edema using the current dosage and treatment time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  10. Shah MD, Gnanaraj C, Haque AT, Iqbal M
    Pharm Biol, 2015 Jan;53(1):31-9.
    PMID: 25243876 DOI: 10.3109/13880209.2014.909502
    Nephrolepis biserrata L. (Nephrolepidaceae) has been used in folk medicine for protection against different diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  11. Kumar BS, Saraswathi R, Kumar KV, Jha SK, Venkates DP, Dhanaraj SA
    Drug Deliv, 2014 May;21(3):173-84.
    PMID: 24102185 DOI: 10.3109/10717544.2013.840690
    Novel LNCs (lipid nanocrystals) were developed with an aim to improve the solubility, stability and targeting efficiency of the model drug glibenclamide (GLB). PEG 20000, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin were used as polymer, surfactant and complexing agent, respectively. GLB nanocrystals (NCs) were prepared by precipitation process and complexed using hot and cold melt technique. The LNCs were evaluated by drug loading, saturation solubility (SL), optical clarity, in vitro dissolution, solid state characterization, in vivo and stability analysis. LNCs exhibited a threefold increase in SL and a higher dissolution rate than GLB. The percentage dissolution efficiency was found to decrease with increase in PEG 20000. The average particle size was in the range of 155-842 nm and zeta potential values tend to increase after complexation. X-ray powder diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry results proved the crystallinity prevailed in the samples. Spherical shaped particles (<1000 nm) with a lipid coat on the surface were observed in scanning electron microscopy analysis. Fourier transform infrared results proved the absence of interaction between drug and polymer and stability study findings proved that LNCs were stable. In vivo study findings showed a decrease in drug concentration to pancreas in male Wistar rats. It can be concluded that LNCs are could offer enhanced solubility, dissolution rate and stability for poorly water soluble drugs. The targeting efficiency of LNCs was decreased and further membrane permeability studies ought to be carried out.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  12. Jamaluddin EJ, Gafor AH, Yean LC, Cader R, Mohd R, Kong NC, et al.
    Clin. Exp. Nephrol., 2014 Jun;18(3):507-14.
    PMID: 23903802 DOI: 10.1007/s10157-013-0844-2
    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is common in end-stage renal disease. Our primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of oral paricalcitol versus oral calcitriol on serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and mineral bone parameters in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients with SHPT. The secondary objective was to analyze highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and peritoneal membrane function in both groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  13. Lee SS, Enchang FK, Tan NH, Fung SY, Pailoor J
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2013 May 2;147(1):157-63.
    PMID: 23458920 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.02.027
    Lignosus rhinocerus (Tiger Milk mushroom) is distributed in South China, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and Papua New Guinea. In Malaysia, it is the most popular medicinal mushroom used by the indigenous communities to relieve fever, cough, asthma, cancer, food poisoning and as a general tonic. In China, this mushroom is an expensive traditional medicine used to treat liver cancer, chronic hepatitis and gastric ulcers. The sclerotium of the mushroom is the part with medicinal value. This rare mushroom has recently been successfully cultivated making it possible to be fully exploited for its medicinal and functional benefits. The present study was carried out to evaluate the chronic toxicity of the sclerotial powder of Lignosus rhinocerus cultivar (termed TM02), its anti-fertility and teratogenic effects as well as genotoxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  14. Shamsabadi FT, Khoddami A, Fard SG, Abdullah R, Othman HH, Mohamed S
    Nutr Cancer, 2013;65(2):255-62.
    PMID: 23441613 DOI: 10.1080/01635581.2013.756528
    The tropical edible red seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii L.) is rich in nutrients and polyphenolic compounds that may suppress cancer through its antioxidant and antiproliferative properties. The study reports on rat mammary tumor suppression and tissue antioxidant status modulation by E. cottonii ethanol extract (ECE). The effect of orally administered ECE (100 mg/kg body-weight) was compared with that of tamoxifen (10 mg/kg body-weight). Rat was induced to develop mammary tumor with subcutaneous injection of LA-7 cells (6 × 10(6) cells/rat). The ECE was more effective than tamoxifen in suppressing tumor growth (27%), improving tissues (plasma, liver, and kidney) malondialdehyde concentrations, superoxide dismutase activity and erythrocyte glutathione concentrations (P < 0.05). Unlike tamoxifen, the ECE displayed little toxicity to the liver and kidneys. The ECE exhibited strong anticancer effect with enzyme modulating properties, suggesting its potential as a suppressing agent for mammary gland tumor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  15. Agarwal R, Iezhitsa I, Awaludin NA, Ahmad Fisol NF, Bakar NS, Agarwal P, et al.
    Exp. Eye Res., 2013 May;110:35-43.
    PMID: 23428743 DOI: 10.1016/j.exer.2013.02.011
    Cataract, a leading cause of blindness, is characterized by lenticular opacities resulting from denaturation of lens proteins due to activation of calcium-dependent enzyme, calpain. Magnesium (Mg(2+)) plays an important role not only in maintaining a low lenticular calcium (Ca(2+)) and sodium concentration but also in preserving the lens redox status. Taurine has also been shown to reduce lenticular oxidative stress. Present study evaluated the anticataract effects of magnesium taurate in vivo and in vitro. Among the five groups of 9 Sprague Dawley rats each, two groups received 30% galactose diet with topical (GDMT) or oral treatment (GDMO) with magnesium taurate. Two groups received 30% galactose diet with topical (GDT) or oral vehicle (GDO). Remaining 1 group received normal diet (ND). Weekly slit lamp examination was done during 21 days experimental period and then all rats were sacrificed; Ca/Mg ratio and antioxidant parameters including reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were measured in the isolated lenses using ELISA. In the in vitro study, 2 groups of 10 normal rat lenses were incubated in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) with galactose while 1 similar group was incubated in DMEM without galactose. In one of the groups, galactose containing medium was supplemented with magnesium taurate. After 48 h of incubation, lenses were photographed and Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio and antioxidant parameters were measured as for in vivo study. The in vivo study, at the end of experimental period, demonstrated delay in the development of cataract with a mean opacity index of 0.53 ± 0.04 and 0.51 ± 0.03 in GDMO (p < 0.05 versus GDO) and GDMT (p < 0.01 versus GDT) respectively. Histopathological grading showed a lower mean value in treated groups, however, the differences from corresponding controls were not significant. Lenticular Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio with a mean value of 1.20 ± 0.26 and 1.05 ± 0.26 in GDMO and GDMT was significantly lower than corresponding controls (p < 0.05) and in GDMT no significant difference was observed from ND. Lenticular GSH and catalase activities were significantly lower and SOD activity was significantly higher in all galactose fed groups. However, in GDMT, GSH and catalase were significantly higher than corresponding control with mean values of 0.96 ± 0.30 μmol/gm lens weight and 56.98 ± 9.86 μmol/g lens protein respectively (p < 0.05 for GSH and p < 0.01 for catalase). SOD activity with mean values of 13.05 ± 6.35 and 13.27 ± 7.61 units/mg lens protein in GDMO and GDMT respectively was significantly lower compared to corresponding controls (p < 0.05) signifying lesser upregulation of SOD due to lesser oxidative stress in treated groups. In the in vitro study, lenses incubated in magnesium taurate containing medium showed less opacity and a lower mean Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio of 1.64 ± 0.03, which was not significantly different from lenses incubated in DMEM without galactose. Lens GSH and catalase activities were restored to normal in lenses incubated in magnesium taurate containing medium. Both in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that treatment with magnesium taurate delays the onset and progression of cataract in galactose fed rats by restoring the lens Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio and lens redox status.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  16. Ong LM, Narayanan P, Goh HK, Manocha AB, Ghazali A, Omar M, et al.
    Nephrology (Carlton), 2013 Mar;18(3):194-200.
    PMID: 23311404 DOI: 10.1111/nep.12029
    The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy and safety of oral paricalcitol with oral calcitriol for treating secondary hyperparathyroidism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  17. Norsidah KZ, Asmadi AY, Azizi A, Faizah O, Kamisah Y
    J. Physiol. Biochem., 2013 Sep;69(3):441-9.
    PMID: 23208529 DOI: 10.1007/s13105-012-0226-3
    Oxidative stress contributes to cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to study the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on plasma homocysteine and cardiac oxidative stress in rats fed with a high-methionine diet. Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into six groups. The first group was the control. Groups 2-6 were fed 1% methionine diet for 10 weeks. From week 6 onward, folate (8 mg/kg diet) or palm TRF (30, 60 and 150 mg/kg diet) was added into the diet of groups 3, 4, 5 and 6. The rats were then killed. Palm TRF at 150 mg/kg and folate supplementation prevented the increase in plasma total homocysteine (4.14 ± 0.33 and 4.30 ± 0.26 vs 5.49 ± 0.25 mmol/L, p < 0.05) induced by a high-methionine diet. The increased heart thiobarbituric acid reactive substance in rats fed with high-methionine diet was also prevented by the supplementations of palm TRF (60 and 150 mg/kg) and folate. The high-methionine group had a lower glutathione peroxidase activity (49 ± 3 vs 69 ± 4 pmol/mg protein/min) than the control group. This reduction was reversed by palm TRF at 60 and 150 mg/kg diet (p < 0.05), but not by folate. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were unaffected by both methionine and vitamin supplementations. In conclusion, palm TRF was comparable to folate in reducing high-methionine diet-induced hyperhomocysteinemia and oxidative stress in the rats' hearts. However, palm TRF was more effective than folate in preserving the heart glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  18. Tang SY, Sivakumar M, Ng AM, Shridharan P
    Int J Pharm, 2012 Jul 1;430(1-2):299-306.
    PMID: 22503988 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2012.03.055
    The present study investigated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of novel aspirin oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsion and water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) nano multiple emulsion formulations generated using ultrasound cavitation techniques. The anti-inflammatory activities of nanoemulsion and nano multiple emulsion were determined using the λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The analgesic activities of both nanoformulations were determined using acetic acid-induced writhing response and hot plate assay. For comparison, the effect of pretreatment with blank nanoemulsion and reference aspirin suspension were also studied for their anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. The results showed that oral administration of nanoemulsion and nano multiple emulsion containing aspirin (60 mg/kg) significantly reduced paw edema induced by λ-carrageenan injection. Both nanoformulations decreased the number of abdominal constriction in acetic acid-induced writhing model. Pretreatment with nanoformulations led to a significant increase in reaction time in hot plate assay. Nanoemulsion demonstrated an enhanced anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects compared to reference suspension while nano multiple emulsion exhibited a mild inhibitory effects in the three experimental animal model tests. The results obtained for nano multiple emulsion were relatively lower than reference. However, administration of blank nanoemulsion did not alter the nociceptive response significantly though it showed slight anti-inflammatory effect. These experimental studies suggest that nanoemulsion and nano multiple emulsion produced a pronounced anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in rats and may be candidates as new nanocarriers for pharmacological NSAIDs in the treatment of inflammatory disorders and alleviating pains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  19. Ellulu MS, Rahmat A, Patimah I, Khaza'ai H, Abed Y
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:3405-12.
    PMID: 26170625 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S83144
    Obesity is well associated as being an interfering factor in metabolic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes by increasing the secretion of proinflammatory markers from adipose tissue. Having healthy effects, vitamin C could work as an anti-inflammatory agent through its antioxidant capacity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  20. Lean QY, Eri RD, Fitton JH, Patel RP, Gueven N
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(6):e0128453.
    PMID: 26083103 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128453
    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy) and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF) was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF) or intraperitoneal administration (DPF). Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could therefore represent a novel nutraceutical option for the management of IBD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
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