In present study, a new composition of glass-ceramic was synthesized based on the Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass system. Heat treatment of glass powder was carried out in 2 stages: 600 °C as the nucleation temperature and different temperature on crystallization at 850, 950 and 1000 °C. The glass-ceramic heat-treated at 950 °C was selected as bioactive filler in commercial PMMA bone cement; (PALACOS® LV) due to its ability to form 2 high crystallization phases in comparison with 850 and 1000 °C. The results of this newly glass-ceramic filled PMMA bone cement at 0-16 wt% of filler loading were compared with those of hydroxyapatite (HA). The effect of different filler loading on the setting properties was evaluated. The peak temperature during the polymerization of bone cement decreased when the liquid to powder (L/P) ratio was reduced. The setting time, however, did not show any trend when filler loading was increased. In contrast, dough time was observed to decrease with increased filler loading. Apatite morphology was observed on the surface of the glass-ceramic and selected cement after bioactivity test.
In the current practice, the clinical use of conventional skin substitutes such as autogenous skin grafts have shown several problems, mainly with respect to limited sources and donor site morbidity. In order to overcome these limitations, the use of smart synthetic biomaterials is tremendously diffusing as skin substitutes. Indeed, engineered skin grafts or analogues frequently play an important role in the treatment of chronic skin wounds, by supporting the regeneration of newly formed tissue, and at the same time preventing infections during the long-term treatment. In this context, natural proteins such as collagen-natively present in the skin tissue-embedded in synthetic polymers (i.e., PCL) allow the development of micro-structured matrices able to mimic the functions and to structure of the surrounding extracellular matrix. Moreover, the encapsulation of drugs, such as gentamicin sulfate, also improves the bioactivity of nanofibers, due to the efficient loading and a controlled drug release towards the site of interest. Herein, we have done a preliminary investigation on the capability of gentamicin sulfate, loaded into collagen-added nanofibers, for the controlled release in local infection treatments. Experimental studies have demonstrated that collagen added fibers can be efficaciously used to administrate gentamicin for 72 h without any toxic in vitro response, thus emerging as a valid candidate for the therapeutic treatment of infected wounds.
Biocompatibility of two variants of accelerated Portland cement (APC) were investigated in vitro by observing the cytomorphology of SaOS-2 osteosarcoma cells in the presence of test materials and the effect of these materials on the expression of markers of bone remodelling. Glass ionomer cement (GIC), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and unmodified Portland cement (RC) were used for comparison. A direct contact assay was undertaken in four samples of each test material, collected at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Cell morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scored. Culture media were collected for cytokine quantification using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). On SEM evaluation, healthy SaOS-2 cells were found adhering onto the surfaces of APC variant, RC and MTA. In contrast, rounded and dying cells were observed on GIC. Using ELISA, levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-18 and OC were significantly higher in APC variants compared with controls and GIC (p<0.01), but these levels of cytokines were not statistically significant compared with MTA. The results of this study provide evidence that both APC variants are non-toxic and may have potential to promote bone healing. Further development of APC is indicated to produce a viable dental restorative material and possibly a material for orthopaedic
Edible duck feet gelatin (DFG)-based biocomposites with different glycerol (GLY) contents (15%, 25%, and 35% of dried DFG) were prepared. Physicochemical, mechanical, barrier, and heat seal properties of DFG films were characterized and compared as an alternative to bovine gelatin film. Increasing glycerol from 15 to 35% decreased the TS and YM and EB and HS increased, in value of 42.54-7.27 and 1240-157.10MPa and 22.82-50.33% and 42.06-347.15N/m respectively. The water vapor permeability (WVP) and oxygen permeability (OP) of films were increased from 4.78 to 5.6×10-11gm-1Pa-1s-1 and from 3.97 to 33.99cm3mμ/m2 d kPa respectively. GAB model estimations showed monolayer water content of films increased with the increase of plasticizer content. Moisture sorption isotherm modelling exhibited a type II BET classification. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed shifted peak at approximately 1024cm-1, which was related to glycerol. The results show that the properties of DFG film are suitable for use as an alternative material to bovine gelatin film.
Chitin was successfully grafted with polystyrene by free radical mechanism using ammonium persulfate (APS) initiator. The reaction was carried out in aqueous medium. The effect of pH, chitin:monomer weight ratio, APS, reaction time and reaction temperature were investigated. The results showed that the optimum conditions for grafting of polystyrene were found as follows: pH 7, chitin:monomer weight ratio of 1:3, 0.4 g of APS, reaction temperature of 60 °C and reaction time 2 h. The graft copolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning electron microscopy (DSC). Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis carried out on the hydrolyzed graft copolymer showed that the Mn and Mw were 6.3395×10(4) g/mol and 1.69283×10(5) g/mol, respectively, with polydispersity index of 2.7.
Lack of suitable auto/allografts has been delaying surgical interventions for the treatment of numerous disorders and has also caused a serious threat to public health. Tissue engineering could be one of the best alternatives to solve this issue. However, deficiency of oxygen supply in the wounded and implanted engineered tissues, caused by circulatory problems and insufficient angiogenesis, has been a rate-limiting step in translation of tissue-engineered grafts. To address this issue, we designed oxygen-releasing electrospun composite scaffolds, based on a previously developed hybrid polymeric matrix composed of poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). By performing ball-milling, we were able to embed a large percent of calcium peroxide (CP) nanoparticles into the PGS/PCL nanofibers able to generate oxygen. The composite scaffold exhibited a smooth fiber structure, while providing sustainable oxygen release for several days to a week, and significantly improved cell metabolic activity due to alleviation of hypoxic environment around primary bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). Moreover, the composite scaffolds also showed good antibacterial performance. In conjunction to other improved features, such as degradation behavior, the developed scaffolds are promising biomaterials for various tissue-engineering and wound-healing applications.
Polyimide/SiO(2) composite films were prepared from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and poly(amic acid) (PAA) based on aromatic diamine (4-aminophenyl sulfone) (4-APS) and aromatic dianhydride (3,3,4,4-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride) (BTDA) via a sol-gel process in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP). The prepared polyimide/SiO(2) composite films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The FTIR results confirmed the synthesis of polyimide (4-APS/BTDA) and the formation of SiO(2) particles in the polyimide matrix. Meanwhile, the SEM images showed that the SiO(2) particles were well dispersed in the polyimide matrix. Thermal stability and kinetic parameters of the degradation processes for the prepared polyimide/SiO(2) composite films were investigated using TGA in N(2) atmosphere. The activation energy of the solid-state process was calculated using Flynn-Wall-Ozawa's method without the knowledge of the reaction mechanism. The results indicated that thermal stability and the values of the calculated activation energies increased with the increase of the TEOS loading and the activation energy also varied with the percentage of weight loss for all compositions.
Since its inception in 1919, the Journal of Dental Research has continually published high-quality articles that span the breadth of research topics relevant to dentistry, oral surgery, and medicine. As part of the journal's centennial celebration, we conducted an electronic search on Scopus to identify and analyze the top 100 most cited articles from 1919 to 2018. Since Scopus does not capture older citations, we conducted an additional analysis by Google Scholar to identify key articles published in the first 50 y of the journal. Based on Scopus, the articles were ranked in descending order per their citation counts. The citation counts of the 100 most cited articles varied from 262 to 1,503. The year in which the largest number of top 100 articles were published was 2004 (n = 6). Within the top 100, the majority of articles originated from the United States (n = 52). Research Reports-Biomaterials & Bioengineering was the most frequent category of cited articles (n = 35). There was no significant association between total citation count and time since publication (correlation coefficient = -0.051, P = 0.656). However, there was a significant negative association of citation density (correlation coefficient = -0.610, P < 0.01) with time since publication. Our analyses demonstrate the broad reach of the journal and the dynamics in citation patterns and research agenda over its 100-y history. There is considerable evidence of the high variance in research output, when measured via citations, across the globe. Moreover, it remains unclear how patients' priorities and dental health care needs are aligned with the perceived influence of single research pieces identified by our search. Our findings may help to inspire future research in tackling these inequalities and highlight the need for conceptualizing research priorities.
The development of hydrogel films as wound healing dressings is of a great interest owing to their biological tissue-like nature. Polyvinyl alcohol/polyethylene glycol (PVA/PEG) hydrogels loaded with asiaticoside, a standardized rich fraction of Centella asiatica, were successfully developed using the freeze-thaw method. Response surface methodology with Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to optimize the hydrogels. The hydrogels were characterized and optimized by gel fraction, swelling behavior, water vapor transmission rate and mechanical strength. The formulation with 8% PVA, 5% PEG 400 and five consecutive freeze-thaw cycles was selected as the optimized formulation and was further characterized by its drug release, rheological study, morphology, cytotoxicity and microbial studies. The optimized formulation showed more than 90% drug release at 12 hours. The rheological properties exhibited that the formulation has viscoelastic behavior and remains stable upon storage. Cell culture studies confirmed the biocompatible nature of the optimized hydrogel formulation. In the microbial limit tests, the optimized hydrogel showed no microbial growth. The developed optimized PVA/PEG hydrogel using freeze-thaw method was swellable, elastic, safe, and it can be considered as a promising new wound dressing formulation.
Hydroxyapatite (HA) used for bone replacement is one of the most active areas of ceramic biomaterials research currently. It has been used clinically for the last 20 years due to its excellent biocompatibility, osseoconduction and osseointegration. Many modifications have been done to develop a stronger, tougher and biocompatible ceramic biomaterial because pure HA is brittle. Researchers in Universiti Sains Malaysia had developed this value added HA that is stronger and less brittle compared to pure HA. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the genotoxic characteristic of the value added HA based material by using Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay (Ames test). The Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay of HA was performed on Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 and Escherichia coli strain WP2 uvrA using the preincubation method in the presence and absence of an exogenous metabolic activation system. All the bacterial tester strains treated with and without S9 Mix showed no increase of revertant colonies with increase in concentration of test substance for both the dose finding test and the main test. The number of revertant colonies was less than twice that of the solvent control for all the five bacterial strains and this was reproducible for both the dose finding test and the main test. The numbers of revertant colonies in the negative and positive controls were within the background data of our laboratory. In conclusion the results of the tests showed that the value added HA was considered to have no reverse mutagenic potential under the present test conditions.
Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA based sensors, especially as humidity and alpha particle sensors have become quite popular in recent times due to flexible and highly optimizable nature of this fundamental biomaterial. Application of DNA electronics allow for more sensitive, accurate and effective sensors to be developed and fabricated. In this work, we examined the effect of different humidity conditions on the capacitive and resistive response of Aluminum (Al)/DNA/Al Schottky barrier structure when bombarded by time-dependent dosages of alpha particles. Based on current-voltage profiles, which demonstrated rectifying behaviours, Schottky diode parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance was calculated. Results observed generally pointed towards a decrease in the resistance value from the pristine to the radiated structures. It was also demonstrated that under the effect of humidity, the capacitance of the DNA thin film increased from 0.05894 to 92.736 nF, with rising relative humidity level. We also observed the occurrence of the hypersensitivity phenomena after alpha irradiation between 2 to 4 min by observing a drop in the series resistance, crucial in the study of DNA damage and repair mechanisms. These observations may also suggest the exciting possibility of utilizing Al/DNA/Al Schottky diodes as potentially sensitive humidity sensors.
This bibliometric study investigated the public trends in the fields of nanoparticles which is limited to drug delivery and magnetic nanoparticles' literature published from 1980 to October 2017. The data were collected from the Web of Science Core Collections, and a network analysis of research outputs was carried out to analyse the research trends in the nanoparticles literature. Nanoparticles and its applications are progressing in recent years. The results show that documents in the field of nanoparticles in chemistry and material science have improved in citation rate, as the authors were researching in multidisciplinary zones. Top-cited documents are mainly focusing on drug delivery, magnetic nanoparticles and iron oxide nanoparticles which are also the top research keywords in all papers published. Top-cited papers are mostly published in Biomaterials journal which so far has published 12% of top-cited articles. Although research areas such as contrast agents, quantum dots, and nanocrystals are not considered as the top-ranked keywords in all documents, these keywords received noticeable citations. The trends of publications on drug delivery and magnetic nanoparticles give a general view on future research and identify potential opportunities and challenges.
Ionic liquid (IL) surfactants have attracted great interest as promising substitutes for conventional surfactants owing to their exceptional and favorable physico-chemical properties. However, most IL surfactants are not eco-friendly and form unstable micelles, even when using a high concentration of the surfactant. In this study, we prepared a series of halogen-free and biocompatible choline-fatty-acid-based ILs with different chain lengths and degrees of saturation, and we then investigated their micellar properties in aqueous solutions. Characterization of the synthesized surface-active ILs (SAILs) was performed by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and elemental analysis. The surface-active properties of the SAILs were investigated by tensiometry, conductometry, and dynamic light scattering measurements. The critical micelle concentration of the SAILs was found to be 2-4 times lower than those of conventional surfactants. The thermodynamic properties of micellization (ΔG0m, ΔH0m, and ΔS0m) indicate that the micellization process of the SAILs is spontaneous, stable, and entropy-driven at room temperature. The cytotoxicity of the SAILs was evaluated using mammalian cell line NIH 3T3. Importantly, [Cho][Ole] shows lower toxicity than the analogous ILs with conventional surfactants. These results clearly suggest that these environmentally friendly SAILs can be used as a potential alternative to conventional ILs for various purposes, including biological applications.
Chemotherapeutic cytotoxic agents such as paclitaxel (PTX) are considered essential for the treatment of various cancers. However, PTX injection is associated with severe systemic side effects and high rates of patient noncompliance. Micelle formulations (MFs) are nano-drug delivery systems that offer a solution to these problems. Herein, we report an advantageous carrier for the transdermal delivery of PTX comprising a new MF that consists of two biocompatible surfactants: cholinium oleate ([Cho][Ole]), which is a surface-active ionic liquid (SAIL), and sorbitan monolaurate (Span-20). A solubility assessment confirmed that PTX was readily solubilized in the SAIL-based micelles via multipoint hydrogen bonding and cation-π and π-π interactions between PTX and SAIL[Cho][Ole]. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy revealed that in the presence of PTX, the MF formed spherical PTX-loaded micelles that were well-distributed in the range 8.7-25.3 nm. According to DLS, the sizes and size distributions of the micelle droplets did not change significantly over the entire storage period, attesting to their physical stability. In vitro transdermal assessments using a Franz diffusion cell revealed that the MF absorbed PTX 4 times more effectively than a Tween 80-based formulation and 6 times more effectively than an ethanol-based formulation. In vitro and in vivo skin irritation tests revealed that the new carrier had a negligible toxicity profile compared with a conventional ionic liquid-based carrier. Based on these findings, we believe that the SAIL[Cho][Ole]-based MF has potential as a biocompatible nanocarrier for the effective transdermal delivery of poorly soluble chemotherapeutics such as PTX.
Surgical site infection associated with surgical instruments has always been a factor in delaying post-operative recovery of patients. The evolution in surface modification of surgical instruments can be a potential choice to overcome the nosocomial infection mainly caused by bacterial populations such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. A study was, therefore, conducted characterising the morphology, hydrophobicity, adhesion strength, phase, Nano-hardness, surface chemistry, antimicrobial and biocompatibility of SS 316L steel deposited with a Nano-composite layer of Silver (Ag) and Tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) using physical vapour deposition magnetron sputtering. The adhesion strength of Ag/AgTa2O5 coating on SS 316L and treated at 250-850 °C of thermal treatment was evaluated using micro-scratch. The Ag/Ag-Ta2O5-400 °C was shown a 154% improvement in adhesion strength on SS 316L when compared with as-sputtered layer or Ag/Ag-Ta2O5-250, 550, 700 and 850 °C. The FESEM, XPS, and XRD indicated the segregation of Ag on the surface of SS 316L after the crystallization. Wettability and Nano-indentation tests demonstrated an increase in hydrophobicity (77.3 ± 0.3°) and Nano-hardness (1.12 ± 0.43 GPa) when compared with as-sputtered layer, after the 400 °C of thermal treatment. The antibacterial performance on Ag/Ag-Ta2O5-400 °C indicated a significant zone of inhibition to Staphylococcus aureus (A-axis: 16.33 ± 0.58 mm; B-axis: 25.67 ± 0.58 mm, p
In the present study, we report the properties of a mucoadhesive chitosan-pectinate nanoparticulate formulation able to retain its integrity in the milieu of the upper gastrointestinal tract and subsequently, mucoadhere and release curcumin in colon conditions. Using this system, we aimed to deliver curcumin to the colon for the possible management of colorectal cancer. The delivery system comprised of a chitosan-pectinate composite nanopolymeric with a z-average of 206.0 nm (±6.6 nm) and zeta potential of +32.8 mV (±0.5 mV) and encapsulation efficiency of 64%. The nanoparticles mucoadhesiveness was higher at alkaline pH compared to acidic pH. Furthermore, more than 80% release of curcumin was achieved in pectinase-enriched medium (pH 6.4) as opposed to negligible release in acidic and enzyme-restricted media at pH 6.8. SEM images of the nanoparticles after exposure to the various media indicate a retained matrix in acid media as opposed to a distorted/fragmented matrix in pectinase-enriched medium. The data strongly indicates that the system has the potential to be applied as a colon-targeted mucoadhesive curcumin delivery system for the possible treatment of colon cancer.
Rice starch is a promising biomaterial for thin film development in buccal drug delivery, but the plasticisation and antiplasticisation phenomena from both plasticisers and drugs on the performance of rice starch films are not well understood. This study aims to elucidate the competing effects of sorbitol (plasticiser) and drug (antiplasticiser) on the physicochemical characteristics of rice starch films containing low paracetamol content. Rice starch films were prepared with different sorbitol (10, 20 and 30% w/w) and paracetamol contents (0, 1 and 2% w/w) using the film casting method and were characterised especially for drug release, swelling and mechanical properties. Sorbitol showed a typical plasticising effect on the control rice starch films by increasing film flexibility and by reducing swelling behaviour. The presence of drugs, however, modified both the mechanical and swelling properties by exerting an antiplasticisation effect. This antiplasticisation action was found to be significant at a low sorbitol level or a high drug content. FTIR investigations supported the antiplasticisation action of paracetamol through the disturbance of sorbitol-starch interactions. Despite this difference, an immediate drug release was generally obtained. This study highlights the interplay between plasticiser and drug in influencing the mechanical and swelling characteristics of rice starch films at varying concentrations.
Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium.
Implants are widely used in the human body for the replacement of affected bones. Fatigue failure is one of the serious concerns for implants. Therefore, understanding of the underlying mechanism leading to fatigue failure is important for the longevity of biomaterial implants. In this paper, the fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth of titanium alloy biomaterial Ti-27Nb has been experimentally investigated. The Ti-27Nb material is tested for fatigue crack growth in different environmental conditions representing the ambient and in vitro environments for 504 hours and 816 hours, respectively. Fractography of the tested specimen is conducted using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results of the fatigue crack growth propagation of the ambient and in vitro samples are similar in the Paris crack growth region. However, in the threshold region, the crack growth rate is higher for the Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) treated specimen. The fracture surface morphology of in vitro samples shows brittle fracture as compared to ambient specimens with significant plasticity and striations marks. It is proposed that a similar investigation may be conducted with specimens treated in SBF for prolonged periods to further ascertain the findings of this study.