Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1397 in total

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  1. Flenady V, Wojcieszek AM, Fjeldheim I, Friberg IK, Nankabirwa V, Jani JV, et al.
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 2016 09 30;16(1):293.
    PMID: 27716088
    BACKGROUND: Electronic health registries - eRegistries - can systematically collect relevant information at the point of care for reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH). However, a suite of process and outcome indicators is needed for RMNCH to monitor care and to ensure comparability between settings. Here we report on the assessment of current global indicators and the development of a suite of indicators for the WHO Essential Interventions for use at various levels of health care systems nationally and globally.

    METHODS: Currently available indicators from both household and facility surveys were collated through publicly available global databases and respective survey instruments. We then developed a suite of potential indicators and associated data points for the 45 WHO Essential Interventions spanning preconception to newborn care. Four types of performance indicators were identified (where applicable): process (i.e. coverage) and outcome (i.e. impact) indicators for both screening and treatment/prevention. Indicators were evaluated by an international expert panel against the eRegistries indicator evaluation criteria and further refined based on feedback by the eRegistries technical team.

    RESULTS: Of the 45 WHO Essential Interventions, only 16 were addressed in any of the household survey data available. A set of 216 potential indicators was developed. These indicators were generally evaluated favourably by the panel, but difficulties in data ascertainment, including for outcome measures of cause-specific morbidity and mortality, were frequently reported as barriers to the feasibility of indicators. Indicators were refined based on feedback, culminating in the final list of 193 total unique indicators: 93 for preconception and antenatal care; 53 for childbirth and postpartum care; and 47 for newborn and small and ill baby care.

    CONCLUSIONS: Large gaps exist in the availability of information currently collected to support the implementation of the WHO Essential Interventions. The development of this suite of indicators can be used to support the implementation of eRegistries and other data platforms, to ensure that data are utilised to support evidence-based practice, facilitate measurement and accountability, and improve maternal and child health outcomes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  2. Lee WS, Yap SF, Looi LM
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2007 Sep;43(9):636-9.
    PMID: 17688648
    We conducted a prospective study to determine the role of alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1AT) deficiency in the pathogenesis of neonatal cholestasis and other childhood liver diseases in a multi-ethnic Southeast Asian population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  3. Tishuk EA
    PMID: 14661406
    The medical-and-demographic processes as a starting point for the planning of means and resources for the short- and average-term future are forecasted in the paper on the basis of long-term peculiarities of the natural-science data and with respect for the social-and-economic crisis now underway in the country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  4. Koroleva GA, Lukashev AN, Khudiakova LV, Mustafina AN, Lashkevich VA
    Vopr. Virusol., 2010 Nov-Dec;55(6):4-10.
    PMID: 21381332
    Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) is a causative agent of large outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in Europe (Bulgaria, 1975; Hungary, 1978) and South-East Asia (Malaysia, 1977; Taiwan, 1998; Singapore, 2000-2007; People's Republic of China, 2007-2009). HFMD afflicted children less than 10 years of age and resulted in recovery within 3-7 days. In a small percentage of infants (aged 6 months to 3 years), HFMD was accompanied by acute neurological complications, such as serous meningitis, poliomyelitis-like syndrome (extremity pareses and muscle paralyses); brain stem encephalitis (myoclonic jerks, tremor, lethargy, swallowing and speech disorders, cardiopulmonary failure, pulmonary edema, shock, coma, death). X-ray study revealed pulmonary hemorrhages and edema. Mortality rates were as high as 82-94% in severe cases. Incapacitating motor, respiratory, and psychoemotional disorders persisted in some surviving children. Pathomorphologically, patients with central nervous system disease and cardiopulmonary failure were found to have acute inflammation of the grey matter of the brain stem (medulla oblongata, pons) and spinal cord. Inflammatory changes in the lung and myocardial tissues were negligible or absent. Fatal pulmonary edema was neurogenic in origin and resulted from damage to the respiratory and vasomotor centers of the brain stem.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  5. Iqbal QM
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1977 Mar;31(3):252-5.
    PMID: 904523
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  6. Goh AY, Lum LC, Chan PW, Bakar F, Chong BO
    Arch. Dis. Child., 1999 May;80(5):424-8.
    PMID: 10208946
    OBJECTIVES: To compare the modes of death and factors leading to withdrawal or limitation of life support in a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in a developing country.

    METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all children (< 12 years) dying in the PICU from January 1995 to December 1995 and January 1997 to June 1998 (n = 148).

    RESULTS: The main mode of death was by limitation of treatment in 68 of 148 patients, failure of active treatment including cardiopulmonary resuscitation in 61, brain death in 12, and withdrawal of life support with removal of endotracheal tube in seven. There was no significant variation in the proportion of limitation of treatment, failure of active treatment, and brain death between the two periods; however, there was an increase in withdrawal of life support from 0% in 1995 to 8% in 1997-98. Justification for limitation was based predominantly on expectation of imminent death (71 of 75). Ethnic variability was noted among the 14 of 21 patients who refused withdrawal. Discussions for care restrictions were initiated almost exclusively by paediatricians (70 of 75). Diagnostic uncertainty (36% v 4.6%) and presentation as an acute illness were associated with the use of active treatment.

    CONCLUSIONS: Limitation of treatment is the most common mode of death in a developing country's PICU and active withdrawal is still not widely practised. Paediatricians in developing countries are becoming more proactive in managing death and dying but have to consider sociocultural and religious factors when making such decisions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  7. Muhiudeen H
    Family Practitioner, 1983;6:58-59.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  8. Ng SY, Chong SY
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2014 Dec;69(6):252-6.
    PMID: 25934954 MyJurnal
    Study site: Hospital Teluk Intan, Perak, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  9. Shamsuddin K, Marmuji LZ
    Singapore Med J, 2010 Oct;51(10):800-5.
    PMID: 21103816
    Several strategies have been developed to reduce hepatitis B infections. These include antenatal screening, universal immunisation of newborns and immunoglobulin therapy for babies who are at risk. Antenatal screening for hepatitis B is not routinely performed, but all newborns in Malaysia are immunised against hepatitis B. We assessed the prevalence of hepatitis B and the factors associated with it among antenatal mothers in Ipoh. This information is useful in decision-making for future hepatitis B screening programmes for antenatal mothers, allowing for immunoglobulin therapies for newborns if their mother's hepatitis B virus (HBV) status is known.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn/immunology
  10. Sivarao S, Vidyadaran MK, Jammal AB, Zainab S, Goh YM, Ramesh KN
    Placenta, 2002 10 4;23(8-9):691-6.
    PMID: 12361688
    This study was conducted to determine the effect of ethnicity on maternal, placental and neonatal parameters. Maternal, placental, and the newborn parameters were corrected for gestational age. The male:female sex ratio was 1:1.03. One hundred and forty-four freshly delivered placentae from 55 Malaysian, 51 Chinese, and 38 Indian normal healthy patients were collected and standard stereological methods used to estimate the placental parameters. Pearson's correlation, Spearman's correlation and 1-way ANOVA were used to test significance of differences. Placental surface area, placental weight and placental volume of Indians were lower than Malays (P< 0.05). Placental weight correlated significantly with neonatal length (r=0.527), birthweight (r=0.665), head circumference (r=0.371) and booking weight (r=0.193) while placental volume correlated with neonatal length (r=0.588), birthweight (r=0.688), head circumference (r=0.384), parity (r=0.202) and booking weight (r=0.219) at P< 0.05. Indian babies weight and length were less than Chinese and Malay babies (P< 0.05) while booking weight of Indian mothers was less than those of Chinese mothers (P< 0.05). Even after being corrected for booking weight, placental parameters of Indian patients were still significantly less than Malays and Chinese (P< 0.05).
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  11. Yen WC, Shariff ZM, Adznam SN, Sulaiman N, Siew CY
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2018 7 27;27(4):886-892.
    PMID: 30045435 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.072017.02
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Information on the growth status of indigenous children is useful for developing intervention strategies, but the data are limited. This study determined the prevalence of undernutrition among under-five indigenous children (Orang Asli) and tracked the growth status of Orang Asli children aged 0-3 years.

    METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This study had two phases: a cross-sectional growth study of under-five Orang Asli children (N=304; Phase 1) and a 2-year prospective cohort growth study of Orang Asli children aged 0-3 years (N=214; Phase 2) in the Temerloh district of Pahang, Malaysia. Weight-for-age, length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and body mass index-for-age were determined.

    RESULTS: The prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, wasting, and thinness in under-five Orang Asli children (Phase 1) were 64%, 49%, 14%, and 12%, respectively. In the cohort of 214 children (Phase 2), weight-for-age was initially documented and maintained closely at -1.50 standard deviations (SD) in the first 6 months, but it declined to approximately -2.00 SD at 15 months and remained close to -2.00 SD thereafter. Length/height-for-age declined rapidly to approximately -2.50 SD at 18 months and fluctuated between -2.30 and -2.50 SD thereafter. Weight-for-length/height increased sharply to -0.40 SD at 2-3 months, declined gradually to less than -1.00 SD at 12 months, and plateaued between -1.00 and -1.30 SD thereafter.

    CONCLUSIONS: Undernutrition is prevalent among Orang Asli children, with length rather than weight faltering being more pronounced in the first 2 years of life. Identifying the causes of early growth retardation in this population is required to inform future preventive strategies.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  12. Idris N, Arsyad A
    Malays Fam Physician, 2012;7(2-3):46-50.
    PMID: 25606257 MyJurnal
    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a well-known cause of megaloblastic anaemia and pancytopenia. However, the incidence in pregnancy is rarely reported. We present a case of a 32-year old multigravid woman who was diagnosed with megaloblastic anaemia since 22 weeks gestation and progressed to develop severe pancytopenia at 30 weeks gestation. She was also diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency related to dietary and sociocultural habits. Folate and iron levels were normal throughout pregnancy. Treatment with parenteral cyano-cobalamin resulted in sustained improvement of haematological parameters. The pregnancy was carried to term and the baby was born weighing 2,050gm but otherwise well at birth and had normal developmental milestones thereafter. This case illustrates the clinical presentation of maternal vitamin B12 deficiency and demonstrates the importance of detecting and treating maternal vitamin B12 deficiency during pregnancy in at-risk patients. Failure to diagnose and institute treatment carries significant risks to both mother and child. Oral vitamin B12 supplementation should be considered for patients who are strict vegetarians or consume very little animal products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  13. Chan PW, Goh AY, Chua KB, Kharullah NS, Hooi PS
    J Paediatr Child Health, 1999 Jun;35(3):287-90.
    PMID: 10404452
    OBJECTIVE: To study the viral aetiology of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in young Malaysian children.

    METHODOLOGY: A retrospective review was performed of LRTI patients aged less than 24 months who were admitted to the University Malaya Medical Centre between 1982 and 1997. Respiratory viruses in their nasopharyngeal secretion were identified by indirect immunofluorescence, viral culture, or both.

    RESULTS: A total of 5691 children were included in the study. The mean age was 8.6 +/- 6.6 months and the M:F ratio was 1.6:1. The most common diagnosis was pneumonia (52%) followed by bronchiolitis (45%) and croup (2%). Positive viral isolation rate was 22.0%. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was the commonest virus isolated (84%), followed by parainfluenza virus (8%), influenza virus (6%) and adenovirus (2%). Patients with positive virus isolation were younger (7.8 +/- 6.2 vs 8.7 +/- 6.7 months, P = 0.0001) and were more likely to have bronchiolitis.

    CONCLUSION: Young Malaysian children admitted with LRTI had a 22% viral isolation rate and RSV was the commonest virus isolated.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  14. Chye JK, Lim CT
    Singapore Med J, 1999 Sep;40(9):565-70.
    PMID: 10628243
    To determine the survival rates and risk factors associated with mortality in premature very low birth weight or VLBW (< or = 1500 grams) infants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  15. Chye JK, Lim CT, Ng KB, Lim JM, George R, Lam SK
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 1997 Dec;25(6):1374-7.
    PMID: 9431381
    Dengue, an important mosquito-borne flavivirus infection, is endemic in Southeast Asia. We describe two mothers who had acute dengue 4 and 8 days before the births of their infants. One mother had worsening of her proteinuric pregnancy-induced hypertension, liver dysfunction, and coagulopathy and required multiple transfusions of whole blood, platelets, and fresh frozen plasma. Her male infant was ill at birth, developed respiratory distress and a large uncontrollable left intracerebral hemorrhage, and died of multiorgan failure on day 6 of life. Dengue virus type 2 was isolated from the infant's blood, and IgM antibody specific to dengue virus was detected in the mother's blood. The second mother had a milder clinical course; she gave birth to a female infant who was thrombocytopenic at birth and had an uneventful hospitalization. Dengue virus type 2 was recovered from the mother's blood, and IgM antibody specific to dengue virus was detected in the infant's blood. This report highlights not only the apparently rare occurrence of vertical transmission of dengue virus in humans but also the potential risk of death for infected neonates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  16. Saththasivam P, Umadevan D, Ramli N, Voralu K, Naing NN, Ilias MI, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2009 Oct;50(10):1004-7.
    PMID: 19907892
    The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a difference in the pain indicators and effectiveness between venipuncture (VP) and heel prick (HP) for blood glucose monitoring in term neonates (recently, venipuncture was shown superior for the Guthrie test).
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  17. Wong FL, Boo NY, Ainoon O, Wang MK
    Malays J Pathol, 2009 Dec;31(2):99-104.
    PMID: 20514852 MyJurnal
    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of four variants of organic anion transporter polypeptide 2 (OATP2) gene, and their association with severe hyperbilirubinemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  18. Lee WS, Ng RT, Chan KW, Lau YL
    World J. Gastroenterol., 2016 Dec 28;22(48):10653-10662.
    PMID: 28082818 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i48.10653
    AIM: Infantile-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IO-IBD) with the onset of disease before 12 mo of age, is a different disease entity from childhood IBD. We aimed to describe the clinical features, outcome and role of mutation in interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-10 receptors (IL-10R) in Asian children with IO-IBD.

    METHODS: All cases of IO-IBD, defined as onset of disease before 12 mo of age, seen at University Malaya Medical Center, Malaysia were reviewed. We performed mutational analysis for IL10 and IL10R genes in patients with presenting clinical features of Crohn's disease (CD).

    RESULTS: Six [13%; CD = 3, ulcerative colitis (UC) = 2, IBD-unclassified (IBD-U) = 1] of the 48 children (CD = 25; UC = 23) with IBD have IO-IBD. At final review [median (range) duration of follow-up: 6.5 (3.0-20) years], three patients were in remission without immunosuppression [one each for post-colostomy (IBD-U), after standard immunosuppression (CD), and after total colectomy (UC)]. Three patients were on immunosuppression: one (UC) was in remission while two (both CD) had persistent disease. As compared with later-onset disease, IO-IBD were more likely to present with bloody diarrhea (100% vs 55%, P = 0.039) but were similar in terms of an associated autoimmune liver disease (0% vs 19%, P = 0.31), requiring biologics therapy (50% vs 36%, P = 0.40), surgery (50% vs 29%, P = 0.27), or achieving remission (50% vs 64%, P = 0.40). No mutations in either IL10 or IL10R in the three patients with CD and the only patient with IBD-U were identified.

    CONCLUSION: The clinical features of IO-IBD in this Asian cohort of children who were negative for IL-10 or IL-10R mutations were variable. As compared to childhood IBD with onset of disease after 12 mo of age, IO-IBD achieved remission at a similar rate.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  19. Fong CY, Harvey AS
    Dev Med Child Neurol, 2014 Nov;56(11):1093-9.
    PMID: 24861161 DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12496
    To evaluate the electroclinical features of epilepsy secondary to neonatal hypoglycaemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn; Infant, Newborn, Diseases*
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