Eight caaes of this condition are described, the patients being four Ceylonese, three Indians, and one Chinese, all males except one. Symptoms consisted of breathlessness and cough, sputum being sometimes purulent and occasionally blood-stained. Six of the patients complained of loss of weight, and in one, a Ceylonese schoolboy, this was the only presenting symptom. The authors found the most troublesome complaint to be a paroxysmal cough which was always worst at night. On clinical examination rhonchi were heard scattered throughout both lung fields in five cases, the lungs being clear in the other three. X-ray examination showed characteristic mottling of both lungs in four cases and of one lung in one case; another showed increased vascular markings, while in two the lungs were clear. Sputum was examined for tubercle bacilli and mites but none were found. The technique used for searching for mites is not described. A marked eosinophilia was found in all cases, the highest count recorded being 33, 264 eosinophils per cmm.Treatment consisted of arsenic, given in the form of neoarsphenamine, six injections of 0.3 gm. in six cases, and stovarsol 4 grains t.d.s. for seven and ten days respectively in the other two. Four of the patients were cured, three were improved, while one was showing a favourable response although treatment had not been completed.The author emphasizes the importance of performing repeated blood counts in order to avoid missing this condition. Out of the eight cases which he describes, one had been wrongly diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis and three as bronchial asthma. One of the latter had an initial eosinophil count of 4, 092 which rose to 17, 700 three weeks later. H. T. H. Wilson
Fibraurin, chasmanthin, and palmarin were isolated from the stems of FIBRAUREA CHLOROLEUCA, Fam. Menispermaceae. The structure of the minor constituent, palmarin, was determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis.
A single wall single image x-ray radiographic technique was adopted to investigate thickness variation of steel specimens caused by uniform corrosion. The ability of the 100 kV-160 kV x-rays to produce a meaningful film density for steel was also investigated. The thickness contour maps of corroded steel plates were found matching with the x-ray film density contour maps of the plates. The results confirm that x-ray radiography can be used to detect the thickness reduction of steel caused by uniform corrosion.
Bagi mengesan perubahan ketebalan keluli akibat kakisan seragam maka radiografi sinar-x teknik imej tunggal dinding tunggal telah digunakan. Kemampuan sinar-x 100 kV-160 kV menghasilkan ketumpatan filem yang sesuai untuk keluli telah juga dikaji. Peta kontur ketebalan bagi spesimen kepingan keluli yang telah mengalami kakisan seragam didapati sepadan dengan peta kontur ketumpatan filem radiografi sinar-x bagi spesimen tersebut. Kajian ini menunjukkan radiografi sinar-x boleh digunakan bagi mengesan penipisan keluli akibat kakisan seragam.
A pilot study on 250 foreign workers was undertaken during a 7-month period beginning December 1996. The sample of subjects mainly males (88.8%) was selected on a non-probability basis from two sources i.e. from University of Malaya (72.8%) and PEREMBA group (27.2%). The study was a clinic-based and a face-to-face interview was carried out to elicit information on social, demographic, environmental, medical and recent illness using a structured questionnaire. Physical examinations were also performed on the same day of the interview. Subjects were also required to give their stool, venous blood, and urine specimens for microbiological, parasitological and clinical laboratory investigations. Chest X-Rays was done on ail subjects. The other investigators had already reported findings on the various specific areas of the study. In this part of the report attempt was made to relate the infectious diseases to some of the socio-environtnental variables on the 112 Indonesian, 133 Bangladeshi workers. Some aspects of health seeking behaviour of these foreign workers were also presented. Most of the Indonesian workers (84%) were from Jawa Timua and Jambi, Sumatra, while majority of the Bangladeshis (67.7%) were from two neighboring administrative districts of Dhaka and Chittagong. Majorities of the Indonesians (50.0%) were working in service industry, while 53.5% Bangladeshis were in the manufacturing. One-fifth of the workers lived in squatter areas, and nearly half of them were working for the service industry. About 70% of the workers had at least one infection. The proportion was slightly higher among the Indonesians (72.3%) compared to the Bangladeshis (67.7%). It is of interest to point out that 40.0% had multiple infections. Thirteen had five or more infections (details for the two of the 13 cases are presented as case studies). However, the findings did not indicate any association between sanitation and infections. Risk for transmission was developed based on the number of infections in the person. The Indonesian workers carried a higher risk of transmitting the diseases (33.9%) compared to 19.5% among the Bangladeshi workers. Those working in the construction industry were at a higher risk of transmitting the diseases compared to other industries. Slightly more than half of the workers experienced some form of minor illness or injury during the two-week period preceding the interview. Majority sought private care (43.1%), while 42.3% either self-medicate or did nothing al all. Nearly two-thirds paid out of their own pocket. Among the employers, construction sector made negligible contribution (2.9%) to the payment. It is interesting to find that 41.0% of the workers took some form of health suppletnents, and majority (48.4%) got it from the phartnacy or traditional sources. Nearly all (88.5%) paid on their own for the health supplements. The findings from this pilot project need to be interpreted with solne caution. However, it appears that the foreign workers carry sizeable anlount of health problems. If these are not addressed quickly it may eudanger the health of a nation, while we readily acknowledge their contribution towards our national development.
Absorbed dose to water was measured with ionisation chambers NE 2561 (#267), NE 2581 (#334), NE 2571 (#1028), using the IAEA standard water phantom. The ionisation chamber was inserted in the water phantom at a reference depth dependent on the type of the radiation quality used. Three radiation qualities were used namely 1.25 MeV gamma ray, 6 MV x-rays and 10 MV x-rays. The values of the absorbed dose to water were determined by the N(K)- and N(X)- based methods, i.e with the use of IAEA, HPA, NACP, AAPM, NCRP and ICRU protocols. The aim of this study was to make an intercomparison of the results, by taking the IAEA protocol as a standard. The largest deviation contributed by any of these protocols was recorded for each quality. It was found that AAPM, NCRP and ICRU protocols contributed 0.94% for 1.25 MeV gamma ray, NACP contributed 2.12% for the 6 MV x-rays, and NACP contributed 2.35% for 10 MV x-rays. Since the acceptable limit of deviation set by the IAEA for this absorbed dose work is ± 3%, it is clear that the overall deviations obtained were all satisfactory.
Twenty-two (42 per cent) out of 52 patients admitted with severe bronchiolitis to our Paediatric Intensive Care Unit required ventilation. Risk factors associated with ventilation included a younger mean age, female sex, low birthweight, failure to thrive and the presence of an underlying illness. Ventilated patients were also more likely to have a higher respiratory distress assessment index (RDAI) score, pneumonic infiltration on chest X-ray, lower serum sodium and a positive respiratory syncytial virus isolation in the tracheal secretion.
This study aims to determine the relationship between calcium intake and lifestyle factors with bone health status among 56 postmenopausal women in the Evergreen Senior Citizens Club, Petaling Jaya. Purposive sampling technique was used for sample selection. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur proximal and lumbar L2-L4 was measured based on the Dual Energy X-ray Absorptionmetry (DEXA) technique at KVOTC Clinic, Subang Jaya. The interview sessions were conducted using a questionnaire followed by anthropometric measurements. The results revealed that the average age of the respondents was 64.0 years old. The average weight and height of the respondents were 53.68 kg and 1.55 meters, respectively. Overall, the average body mass index (BMI) of the respondents was quite satisfactory (22.4 kg/mÂ²) with only 17.9% of them categorized as overweight (>25 kg/mÂ²). The average total calcium intake was 807.31 mg and about 76.2% was contributed by food intake. About 83.9% of the respondents met the recommended calcium intake according to the Malaysian RDA. The average BMD of the lumbar, neck, wards and trochanter was 9.983 Â± 0.178 g/cmÂ², 0.745 Â± 0.126 g/cmÂ², 0.604 Â± 0.150 g/cmÂ² and 0.674 Â± 0.127 g/cmÂ², respectively. About 32.1% of the respondents were categorized as osteoporotic at the femoral wards, while 10.7% respectively was at the lumbar L2-L4 and femoral neck. Half of the respondents had osteopenia at the femoral neck (53.6%) and wards (50.0%) and at the lumbar L2-L4 (53.6%). Pearson correlation test showed significant negative correlations between age and BMD in the neck (r = -0.419, p
One of the non-destructive methods used for the identification and verification of metals is by the energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. EDXRF analysis provides several important advantages such as simultaneous determination of the elements present, enable to analyse a very wide concentration range, fast analysis with no tedious sample preparation. The paper shows how this technique is developed and applied in the identification and verification of different grades of stainless steels. Comparison of the results obtained from this analysis with certified reference standards show very small differences between them.
X-ray mammography has been the backbone of early detection of breast cancer. Several large scale systematic studies have shown that judicious use of X-ray mammography can indeed save life. However, though reasonably sensitive, X-ray mammography lacks in specificity leading to many unnecessary biopsies. Scintimammography is a relatively new imaging method to demonstrate cancer tissue in the breast. A radiopharmaceutical agent (Tc-99m Sestamibi) is administered intravenously and images of the breast are taken under a Gamma Camera. There is no need for any manipulation like compression of the breast as required to be done during mammography. The radiopharmaceutical accumulates in the breast in the presence of cancer tissue which can easily be seen in the images. The affinity of the cancer tissue to this radiopharmaceutical is up to 9 times in comparison to normal breast tissue. Several multi centric studies with blinded image interpretation have established the sensitivity and specificity of scintimammography to be above 85 and 90 % respectively as compared to 89 and 14 % respectively for X-ray mammography. The positive and negative predictive values of scintimamography are 70 and 83 % as against 49 and 57 % respectively for X-ray mammography. With the increasing availability of Nuclear Medicine facilities it is expected that more and more patients will benefi with the use of this new imaging modality .
This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted to assess patient's satisfaction by evaluating the waiting time experienced by 27 (54%) inpatients and 23 (46%) outpatients who sought treatment at a private hospital in Selangor from 15th of May 2006 until 3rd of]une 2006. Majority of the patients (78%) were in the range between Z 1 - 40 years old and well»educated. Almost half (48%) were in the human resources employment category, 20% were in administration and marketing and 10% were professionals. Majority of them earned from RM1000-1999 (34%) and RMZ000-3999 (32%). Almost all of them (96%) agreed that the medical care that they had been receiving in the hospital was just about perfect. 98% agreed that the doctors treated them in a very friendly and courteous manner and 96% rated the care given by nurses as g0od/ excellent. 88% to 92% said that their communication with the doctors, nurses and other staff were good/ excellent. 80% waited less than 15 minutes at the registration counter, 52% waited less than 15 minutes to see the doctor and 44% waited less than 15 minutes at other places such as pharmacy and x-ray. Overall, 94% rated the level of services in the hospital as good/ excellent, Almost all (90%) would like to recommend the hospital to their friends and relatives. Our study demonstrated that the majority of the patients were satisfied with the doctors, nurses and environment of the private hospital. The average waiting time of patient before being attended to by a doctor was less than 30 minutes.
Study site: Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM)
Sodium silicate was used to synthesize silica fine particles at room temperature using non-ionic surfactant of triethanolamine (TEA), dissolution salt and precipitating agent. The experiments were conducted by different composition of precursor material, nonionic surfactant and dissolution salt concentrations through the sol-gel process. Various particle sizes in the range 100-300nm were synthesized. The particle size of silica powders were analyzed via Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), and Fourier Transformation Infrared (FTIR). The result has demonstrated that the particle size can be controlled by changing the ratio of non-ionic surfactant and dissolution salt or the sodium silicate concentration.
Quality radiographs of diagnostic value are important in root canal treatment. The dentist who has knowledge and skills in the use of radiographs for diagnostic purposes has a professional responsibility to ensure that the radiographs are obtained with minimum risk of radiation dose to and for the benefit of the patient. This article reviews the effectiveness of radiography techniques required for successful root canal treatment with the patient’s interest in mind. Awareness of effectual radiographic techniques, their constraints and applicable techniques for improvements are discussed. It seeks to reduce potentially harmful ionising radiation dose to patients and optimise the use of X-rays to produce diagnostic radiographs during root canal treatment.
Texture evolution of NiO formed during oxidation of polycrystalline single oriented (100) Ni-Cr was investigated. This foil was also termed rolling assisted biaxially textured substrate (RABiTS). X-ray diffractograms of oxidized Ni-Cr RABiTS foil showed the existence of mostly (200) NiO indicating (100)-type NiO formed exclusively on (100) singly oriented Ni-Cr grains. Epitaxial relationship between the two layers is observed. However the dual-in-plane texture was recorded.
The in-plane texture was assessed by conducting phi scan and plotting series of pole figures measured at (111) NiO peak. The mechanism of the oxides formation was proposed to take into account the formation of (100)-type NiO. Cross section morphology of the oxidised foils reveals two oxidation layers; fast growing external layer consisting of the (100)-type NiO and an internal layer consisted of mostly Cr2O3 and maybe NiCr2O4. The thickness of NiO was ~ 10Pm. Cr2O3 formed as needle-like oxides embedded in a matrix of Ni foil. Inward diffusion of oxygen is believed to have caused this to happen. The external NiO layer was consisted of duplex microstructure characterised by columnar layer growing vertical on the surface of the metal and a few micron thick of equiaxed NiO. Delamination of the outer NiO layer often occurred at the columnarequiaxed interface which could be cured by CeO2 deposition on the foil prior to the oxidation process. CeO2 was deposited by conversion immersion using Ce(NO3)3.6H2O solution. (200) NiO formed on this coated sample as well.
P-type transparent conductive oxide of copper aluminum oxide (CuAlO2) thin films were prepared by using sol-gel method with nitrate solutions as starting precursor. Copper nitrate and aluminum nitrate were selected as raw materials that provide the copper and aluminum source. The CuAlO2 thin films were deposited on pre-cleaned silicon substrate by spin-coating technique. To study of phase formation of CuAlO2, as prepared sample was dried and subjected to heat treatment at various temperatures. The heat-treated samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX). From XRD analysis result found that CuAlO2 phase was formed after annealing at 1100 o C for 4 hrs. EDX result of annealed sample at 1100 o C shows composition of Cu and Al that indicate the possibility of forming CuAlO2.
Tetragonal Y2O3 stabilized Zirconia (t-Y-ZrO2) powders were doped with Nb2O5 to seek a possibility if electronics doping would enhance the electronics conductivity of the insulating oxide. In this work Y2O3 was added as a stabilizer to produce tetragonal ZrO2 whereas Nb2O5 was added for the electronic doping. Several compositions of powders were prepared by thermal decomposition method and were post annealed at different temperatures. Precursor solutions were prepared from the mixture of zirconyl nitrate, yttrium nitrate and niobium tartarate as well as TEA (triethanolamine). The mixed solution were evaporated, pyrolysed and calcined to produce nanosized powders. The phase formation of the as-made powders was investigated by x-ray diffractometer. The additions of 7% Y2O3 were found to stabilize the tetragonal phase of zirconia.
The addition of Nb2O5 did not alter the stability of the tetragonal phase but it was found that the conductivity of the material has changed. The band gap as measured by the UV-Visible Spectrometer gave a value in the range of 2.97 to 5.01 eV. XRD was also used to deduce the crystallite size (by using Scherer’s equation) and transmission electron microcopy was used to view the particle sizes and shapes. The Nb doped t-Y-ZrO2 prepared in this work was to be nanosized crystal with size ranges from 7 nm to 15 nm.
Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to investigate the nanostructure of the microfibrils of cell wall in Acacia Mangium wood. Parameters, such as the fibre length (L), surface area of the single fibre (S), the correspondence distance from the center of the fibre to the center of its neighbor and the shape of the fibre were determined as a function to the distance from pith towards the bark. The results indicate that the fibre length ranged from 53.44 nm to 13.72 nm from pith to bark. Surface area of the single fibre varied from 0.65 nm 2 to 4.36 nm 2 , the highest being found at the end of bark region. The mean value of the correspondence distance is 13.95 nm. Surface structure analysis from scattering graph showed a rod shape of fibre in the pith region of Acacia Mangium wood. The use of SAXS technique and scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs gives the most reliable dimensions values.
Tin slag was collected from a slag dump in the Penang Island and was analysed for its elemental composition using microfocus XRF with a 300ȝm x-ray spot diameter. The tin slag sample was analysed direct without any sample treatment and analysis was conduct on four different spots. The result gives different elemental composition on these different spots. Among the elements analysed are Al2O3, SiO2, SnO2, CaO, TiO2, Nd2O3, MnO, Fe2O3, TaO, W2O3, As2O3, ThO2, U3O8, ZrO2 and Nb2O5. Elemental mapping was also done to show the distribution of these elements in the sample.
Radiology is important in the diagnostic assessment, treatment and monitoring progress of patients having dental and maxillofacial diseases. The central question in dental radiology is whether there is any risk with regard to low doses of radiation and what are the necessary protection needed to prevent any hazardous outcome with X-raying. With the emergence of the new millennium, major changes are happening in the field of science and technology. More efficient equipments are being discovered and more researches are being conducted to elicit better understanding of the radiation process and its effect on the human health. This article will review the latest guidelines for proper radiographic practice from the USA and Europe. It will address topics like the risks from dental radiography, selection criteria, protection for patients and staff, improvement to X-ray equipments, room dimensions and lead lining requirements. We have limited our research to intraoral, panoramic and cephalometric radiographs because these are the radiographs or images that are commonly taken in the general practice setting. (Copied from article).
Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the use of ultrasound in diagnosis of infection and tumour of long bones. Methodology: Patients referred from the orthopaedic unit with doubt regarding long bone clinical and/or radiological signs which could be tumour or infection were enrolled in this study. Analysis of ultrasound characteristics included presence of pericortical fluid over normal cortex well away from the primary lesion, wavy contour sign (fluid tracking in and out muscle planes), subperiosteal fluid and soft tissue mass displacing adjacent muscle planes. Results: Fourteen out of 15 patients with confirmed osteomyelitis were diagnosed by ultrasound examination. Ultrasound as a diagnostic tool has a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 100%. The most accurate indicator was pericortical fluid noted up to several centimetres from the long bone abnormality seen on plain x-rays. Conclusion: Ultrasound is a safe, fast, cost-effective imaging modality that can play an important role in diagnosis of osteomyelitis as it then serves as a tool for ultrasound guided aspiration.