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  1. Mustafa N, Kamarudin NA, Ismail AA, Khir AS, Ismail IS, Musa KI, et al.
    Diabetes Care, 2011 Jun;34(6):1362-4.
    PMID: 21498788 DOI: 10.2337/dc11-0005
    OBJECTIVE:
    To determine the prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes among rural and urban Malaysians.
    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:
    This cross-sectional survey was conducted among 3,879 Malaysian adults (1,335 men and 2,544 women). All subjects underwent the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
    RESULTS:
    The overall prevalence of prediabetes was 22.1% (30.2% in men and 69.8% in women). Isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were found in 3.4 and 16.1% of the study population, respectively, whereas 2.6% of the subjects had both IFG and IGT. Based on an OGTT, the prevalence of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 12.6% (31.0% in men and 69.0% in women). The prediabetic subjects also had an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    The large proportion of undiagnosed cases of prediabetes and diabetes reflects the lack of public awareness of the disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  2. Walewski J, Hellmann A, Siritanaratkul N, Ozsan GH, Ozcan M, Chuncharunee S, et al.
    Br. J. Haematol., 2018 11;183(3):400-410.
    PMID: 30168134 DOI: 10.1111/bjh.15539
    Some patients with relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are not considered suitable for stem cell transplant (SCT) and have a poor prognosis. This phase IV study (NCT01990534) evaluated brentuximab vedotin (1·8 mg/kg intravenously once every 3 weeks) in 60 patients (aged ≥18 years) with CD30-positive relapsed/refractory HL, a history of ≥1 prior systemic chemotherapy regimen, who were considered unsuitable for SCT/multi-agent chemotherapy. Primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR) per independent review facility (IRF). Secondary endpoints included duration of response (DOR), progression-free survival (PFS) per IRF, overall survival (OS), proportion proceeding to SCT and safety. The ORR was 50%, with 12% CR; 47% proceeded to SCT. Median DOR was 4·6 months and median duration of CR was 6·1 months. After a median follow-up of 6·9 and 16·6 months, median PFS and OS were 4·8 months (95% confidence interval, 3·0-5·3) and not reached, respectively; estimated OS rate was 86% at 12 months. Most common adverse events (≥10%) were peripheral neuropathy (35%), pyrexia (18%), diarrhoea and neutropenia (each 10%). Brentuximab vedotin showed notable activity with a safety profile consistent with known toxicities, and may act as a bridge to SCT, enabling high-risk patients who achieve suboptimal response to frontline/salvage chemotherapy/radiotherapy to receive potentially curative SCT.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  3. Yong HY, Mohd Shariff Z, Mohd Yusof BN, Rejali Z, Tee YYS, Bindels J, et al.
    PMID: 31590213 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16193735
    Poor diet quality in pregnancy could impact gestational weight gain (GWG) and consequently fetal growth and development. But today there is limited data available on gestational diet quality. This study investigated the association between diet quality in each pregnancy trimester and GWG in Malaysian women. Diet quality was assessed using the modified Healthy Eating Index for Malaysians (HEI). Total GWG was defined as the difference between measured weight at last prenatal visit and pre-pregnancy weight. About one-fourth of women (23.3%) had excessive total GWG. There were significant differences in the HEI component score across trimesters, except for fruits. Overall, overweight/obese women had lower total HEI score (51.49-55.40) during pregnancy compared to non-overweight/obese women (53.38-56.50). For non-overweight/obese women, higher total HEI scores in the second and third trimesters were significantly associated with lower risk of inadequate GWG (aOR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.95-0.99, p = 0.01) and higher risk of excessive GWG (aOR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.07, p = 0.03), respectively. Overweight/obese women with higher total HEI scores in the second (aOR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.07, p = 0.02) and third trimester (aOR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.08, p = 0.02) were significantly at higher risk for excessive GWG. Pregnant women had relatively low diet quality throughout pregnancy. Diet quality and GWG association differed according to pre-pregnancy BMI with excessive GWG more likely to be associated with higher total HEI scores in the third trimester.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  4. Bhoo-Pathy N, Peeters PH, Uiterwaal CS, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Bulgiba AM, Bech BH, et al.
    Breast Cancer Res., 2015 Jan 31;17:15.
    PMID: 25637171 DOI: 10.1186/s13058-015-0521-3
    INTRODUCTION: Specific coffee subtypes and tea may impact risk of pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer differently. We investigated the association between coffee (total, caffeinated, decaffeinated) and tea intake and risk of breast cancer.

    METHODS: A total of 335,060 women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC) Study, completed a dietary questionnaire from 1992 to 2000, and were followed-up until 2010 for incidence of breast cancer. Hazard ratios (HR) of breast cancer by country-specific, as well as cohort-wide categories of beverage intake were estimated.

    RESULTS: During an average follow-up of 11 years, 1064 premenopausal, and 9134 postmenopausal breast cancers were diagnosed. Caffeinated coffee intake was associated with lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: adjusted HR=0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82 to 0.98, for high versus low consumption; Ptrend=0.029. While there was no significant effect modification by hormone receptor status (P=0.711), linear trend for lower risk of breast cancer with increasing caffeinated coffee intake was clearest for estrogen and progesterone receptor negative (ER-PR-), postmenopausal breast cancer (P=0.008). For every 100 ml increase in caffeinated coffee intake, the risk of ER-PR- breast cancer was lower by 4% (adjusted HR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.00). Non-consumers of decaffeinated coffee had lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer (adjusted HR=0.89; 95% CI: 0.80 to 0.99) compared to low consumers, without evidence of dose-response relationship (Ptrend=0.128). Exclusive decaffeinated coffee consumption was not related to postmenopausal breast cancer risk, compared to any decaffeinated-low caffeinated intake (adjusted HR=0.97; 95% CI: 0.82 to 1.14), or to no intake of any coffee (HR: 0.96; 95%: 0.82 to 1.14). Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee were not associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Tea intake was neither associated with pre- nor post-menopausal breast cancer.

    CONCLUSIONS: Higher caffeinated coffee intake may be associated with lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Decaffeinated coffee intake does not seem to be associated with breast cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  5. Emaus MJ, Peeters PH, Bakker MF, Overvad K, Tjønneland A, Olsen A, et al.
    Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2016 Jan;103(1):168-77.
    PMID: 26607934 DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.114.101436
    BACKGROUND: The recent literature indicates that a high vegetable intake and not a high fruit intake could be associated with decreased steroid hormone receptor-negative breast cancer risk.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the association between vegetable and fruit intake and steroid hormone receptor-defined breast cancer risk.

    DESIGN: A total of 335,054 female participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort were included in this study (mean ± SD age: 50.8 ± 9.8 y). Vegetable and fruit intake was measured by country-specific questionnaires filled out at recruitment between 1992 and 2000 with the use of standardized procedures. Cox proportional hazards models were stratified by age at recruitment and study center and were adjusted for breast cancer risk factors.

    RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 11.5 y (IQR: 10.1-12.3 y), 10,197 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed [3479 estrogen and progesterone receptor positive (ER+PR+); 1021 ER and PR negative (ER-PR-)]. Compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of vegetable intake was associated with a lower risk of overall breast cancer (HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.94). Although the inverse association was most apparent for ER-PR- breast cancer (ER-PR-: HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.96; P-trend = 0.03; ER+PR+: HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.05; P-trend = 0.14), the test for heterogeneity by hormone receptor status was not significant (P-heterogeneity = 0.09). Fruit intake was not significantly associated with total and hormone receptor-defined breast cancer risk.

    CONCLUSION: This study supports evidence that a high vegetable intake is associated with lower (mainly hormone receptor-negative) breast cancer risk.

    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  6. Gao H, Salim A, Lee J, Tai ES, van Dam RM
    Int J Obes (Lond), 2012 Aug;36(8):1086-93.
    PMID: 21946705 DOI: 10.1038/ijo.2011.185
    Diabetes in Asia constitutes approximately half of the global burden. Although insulin resistance and incidence of type 2 diabetes differ substantially between ethnic groups within Asia, the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. We evaluated to what extent body fatness, adiponectin levels and inflammation mediate the relationship between ethnicity and insulin resistance in an Asian setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  7. Whitton C, Rebello SA, Lee J, Tai ES, van Dam RM
    J. Nutr., 2018 04 01;148(4):616-623.
    PMID: 29659965 DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy016
    Background: Healthful dietary patterns are associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors in Western populations. However, a consistent healthful dietary pattern across major Asian ethnic groups has yet to be identified.

    Objective: We aimed to identify a posteriori dietary patterns for Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnic groups in an urban Asian setting, compare these with a priori dietary patterns, and ascertain associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors including hypertension, obesity, and abnormal blood lipid concentrations.

    Methods: We used cross-sectional data from 8433 Singapore residents (aged 21-94 y) from the Multi-Ethnic Cohort study of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity. Food consumption was assessed using a validated 169-item food-frequency questionnaire. With the use of 28 food groups, dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis, and their association with cardiovascular disease risk factors was assessed using multiple linear regression. Associations between derived patterns and a priori patterns (aHEI-2010-Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010, aMED-alternate Mediterranean Diet, and DASH-Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) were assessed, and the magnitude of associations with risk factors compared.

    Results: We identified a "healthy" dietary pattern, similar across ethnic groups, and characterized by high intakes of whole grains, fruit, dairy, vegetables, and unsaturated cooking oil and low intakes of Western fast foods, sugar-sweetened beverages, poultry, processed meat, and flavored rice. This "healthy" pattern was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) (-0.26 per 1 SD of the pattern score; 95% CI: -0.36, -0.16), waist circumference (-0.57 cm; 95% CI: -0.82, -0.32), total cholesterol (-0.070 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.091, -0.048), LDL cholesterol (-0.054 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.074, -0.035), and fasting triglycerides (-0.22 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.04, -0.004) and directly associated with HDL cholesterol (0.013 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.006, 0.021). Generally, "healthy" pattern associations were at least as strong as a priori pattern associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    Conclusion: A healthful dietary pattern that correlated well with a priori patterns and was associated with lower BMI, serum LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and fasting triglyceride concentrations was identified across 3 major Asian ethnic groups.

    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  8. Maiwall R, Sarin SK, Kumar S, Jain P, Kumar G, Bhadoria AS, et al.
    Liver Int., 2017 Oct;37(10):1497-1507.
    PMID: 28393476 DOI: 10.1111/liv.13443
    BACKGROUND AND AIM: There is limited data on predictors of acute kidney injury in acute on chronic liver failure. We developed a PIRO model (Predisposition, Injury, Response, Organ failure) for predicting acute kidney injury in a multicentric cohort of acute on chronic liver failure patients.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of 2360 patients from APASL-ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) was analysed. Multivariate logistic regression model (PIRO score) was developed from a derivation cohort (n=1363) which was validated in another prospective multicentric cohort of acute on chronic liver failure patients (n=997).

    RESULTS: Factors significant for P component were serum creatinine[(≥2 mg/dL)OR 4.52, 95% CI (3.67-5.30)], bilirubin [(<12 mg/dL,OR 1) vs (12-30 mg/dL,OR 1.45, 95% 1.1-2.63) vs (≥30 mg/dL,OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2)], serum potassium [(<3 mmol/LOR-1) vs (3-4.9 mmol/L,OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.05-1.97) vs (≥5 mmol/L,OR 4.34, 95% CI 1.67-11.3)] and blood urea (OR 3.73, 95% CI 2.5-5.5); for I component nephrotoxic medications (OR-9.86, 95% CI 3.2-30.8); for R component,Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome,(OR-2.14, 95% CI 1.4-3.3); for O component, Circulatory failure (OR-3.5, 95% CI 2.2-5.5). The PIRO score predicted acute kidney injury with C-index of 0.95 and 0.96 in the derivation and validation cohort. The increasing PIRO score was also associated with mortality (Prisk of developing acute kidney injury. It reliably predicts mortality in these patients, underscoring the prognostic significance of acute kidney injury in patients with acute on chronic liver failure.

    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  9. Liu JJ, Sum CF, Tavintharan S, Yeoh LY, Ng XW, Moh AM, et al.
    Atherosclerosis, 2014 Oct;236(2):286-91.
    PMID: 25112799 DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.07.017
    OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among the young population has become a serious concern globally, presumably due to the rising trend of obesity. Compared to other forms of diabetes, young-onset T2DM experiences more cardiovascular events and other vascular complications although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Increased arterial stiffness is a hallmark of vasculopathy. We aim to study the clinical and metabolic determinants of arterial stiffness in a cohort of multi-ethnic Asians with young-onset T2DM.
    METHODS: 179 subjects with T2DM onset age below 30 years old were selected in this cross sectional study. Arterial stiffness was assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV).
    RESULTS: PWV was correlated with age, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, alanine aminotransferase, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) and eGFR in bivariate correlation analysis. However, PWV was only significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, urinary ACR and eGFR after adjustment for age. Overweight individuals with young-onset T2DM had significantly higher PWV levels compared to their lean counterparts (7.3 ± 2.4 m/s vs 6.4 ± 2.3 m/s, p = 0.072 and p < 0.0001 without and with adjustment for age, respectively). Multivariable regression models revealed that age, BMI, eGFR and usage of insulin were independently associated with PWV. These 4 variables explained 35.5% variance in PWV levels.
    CONCLUSION: Age, BMI, renal function and insulin usage are the main determinants of PWV levels in Asians with young-onset T2DM. Notably, obesity is a modifiable determinant of arterial stiffness independent of high blood pressure, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in this population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  10. Gijsberts CM, Groenewegen KA, Hoefer IE, Eijkemans MJ, Asselbergs FW, Anderson TJ, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(7):e0132321.
    PMID: 26134404 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132321
    BACKGROUND: Clinical manifestations and outcomes of atherosclerotic disease differ between ethnic groups. In addition, the prevalence of risk factors is substantially different. Primary prevention programs are based on data derived from almost exclusively White people. We investigated how race/ethnic differences modify the associations of established risk factors with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events.

    METHODS: We used data from an ongoing individual participant meta-analysis involving 17 population-based cohorts worldwide. We selected 60,211 participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline with available data on ethnicity (White, Black, Asian or Hispanic). We generated a multivariable linear regression model containing risk factors and ethnicity predicting mean common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and a multivariable Cox regression model predicting myocardial infarction or stroke. For each risk factor we assessed how the association with the preclinical and clinical measures of cardiovascular atherosclerotic disease was affected by ethnicity.

    RESULTS: Ethnicity appeared to significantly modify the associations between risk factors and CIMT and cardiovascular events. The association between age and CIMT was weaker in Blacks and Hispanics. Systolic blood pressure associated more strongly with CIMT in Asians. HDL cholesterol and smoking associated less with CIMT in Blacks. Furthermore, the association of age and total cholesterol levels with the occurrence of cardiovascular events differed between Blacks and Whites.

    CONCLUSION: The magnitude of associations between risk factors and the presence of atherosclerotic disease differs between race/ethnic groups. These subtle, yet significant differences provide insight in the etiology of cardiovascular disease among race/ethnic groups. These insights aid the race/ethnic-specific implementation of primary prevention.

    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  11. Ekker MS, Boot EM, Singhal AB, Tan KS, Debette S, Tuladhar AM, et al.
    Lancet Neurol, 2018 09;17(9):790-801.
    PMID: 30129475 DOI: 10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30233-3
    Epidemiological evidence suggests that the incidence of ischaemic stroke in young adults (18-50 years) has increased substantially. These patients have a long life expectancy after stroke, and the costs of long-term care pose huge challenges to health-care systems. Although the current recommendations for treatment of young and old (>50 years) patients with stroke are similar, the optimal management of young adult patients with stroke is unknown. They are usually not included in trials, and specific subanalyses limited to young adult patients with stroke are usually not done, owing to lower incidence of stroke and lower prevalence of vascular risk factors in young adults. Progress has been made in identifying patients with a considerable risk of stroke occurrence, such as those with patent foramen ovale. Future prevention studies might result in a decrease in the incidence of stroke and its sequelae in young adults. The development of guidelines specifically devoted to the management of stroke in young adults will be an important step in achieving this aim.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  12. Thavagnanam S, Cheong SY, Chinna K, Nathan AM, de Bruyne JA
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2018 May;54(5):530-534.
    PMID: 29168911 DOI: 10.1111/jpc.13789
    AIM: Adenotonsillectomy is performed in children with recurrent tonsillitis or obstructive sleep apnoea. Children at risk of post-operative respiratory complications are recommended to be monitored in paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). The aim of the study is to review the risk factors for post-operative complications and admissions to PICU.

    METHODS: A review of medical records of children who underwent adenotonsillectomy between January 2011 and December 2014 was performed. Association between demographic variables and post-operative complications were examined using chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests.

    RESULTS: A total of 214 children were identified, and of these, 19 (8.8%) experienced post-operative complications. Six children (2.8%) had respiratory complications: hypoxaemia in four and laryngospasm requiring reintubation in a further two. Both of the latter patients were extubated upon arrival to PICU and required no escalation of therapy. A total of 13 (6.1%) children had non-respiratory complications: 8 (3.7%) had infection and 5 (2.3%) had haemorrhage. A total of 26 (12.1%) children were electively admitted to PICU and mean stay was 19.5 (SD ± 13) h. No association between demographic characteristics, comorbid conditions or polysomnographic parameters and post-operative complications were noted. A total of 194 (90.7%) children stayed only one night in hospital (median 1 day, range 1-5 days).

    CONCLUSION: The previously identified risk factors and criteria for PICU admission need revision, and new recommendations are necessary.

    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  13. Nathan AM, Rani F, Lee RJ, Zaki R, Westerhout C, Sam IC, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(10):e111162.
    PMID: 25360811 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111162
    Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in low income countries. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors of life-threatening LRTIs in hospitalised children in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  14. Andiappan H, Nissapatorn V, Sawangjaroen N, Nyunt MH, Lau YL, Khaing SL, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2014;7:564.
    PMID: 25498432 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-014-0564-9
    Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, causes a disease called toxoplasmosis which can sometimes be acquired congenitally by a newborn from an infected mother. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection and its associated risks among 219 and 215 pregnant women from Malaysia and Myanmar, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  15. Abdul Rahman AR, Wang JG, Kwong GM, Morales DD, Sritara P, Sukmawan R, et al.
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2015;14(1):2.
    PMID: 25729324 DOI: 10.1186/s12930-015-0018-3
    BACKGROUND: Hypertension is one of the world's most common health conditions and is a leading risk factor for mortality. Although blood pressure can be modified, there is a large proportion of patients whose blood pressure remains uncontrolled. The aim of this study, termed Edvantage 360°, was to gain a deeper understanding of hypertension management in Asia from the perspective of patients and doctors, and to propose strategies to improve blood pressure control.
    METHODS: Conducted in Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand, Edvantage 360° was a mixed-methods observational study that used both qualitative and quantitative elements: qualitative interviews and focus groups with patients (N = 110), quantitative interviews with patients (N = 709), and qualitative interviews with doctors (N = 85).
    RESULTS: This study found that, although there is good understanding of the causes and consequences of hypertension among Asian patients, there is a lack of urgency to control blood pressure. Doctors and patients have different expectations of each other and a divergent view on what constitutes successful hypertension management. We also identified a fundamental gap between the beliefs of doctors and patients as to who should be most responsible for the patients' hypertension management. In addition, because patients find it difficult to comply with lifestyle modifications (often because of a decreased understanding of the changes required), adherence to medication regimens may be less of a limiting factor than doctors believe.
    CONCLUSIONS: Doctors may provide better care by aligning with their patients on a common understanding of successful hypertension management. Doctors may also find it helpful to provide a more personalized explanation of any needed lifestyle modifications. The willingness of the doctor to adjust their patient interaction style to form a 'doctor-patient team' is important. In addition, we recommend that doctors should not attribute ineffectiveness of the treatment plan to patient non-adherence to medications, but rather adjust the medication regimen as needed.
    KEYWORDS: Attitude to health; Hong Kong; Hypertension; Indonesia; Malaysia; Philippines; Qualitative research; South Korea; Taiwan; Thailand
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  16. Hassan Y, Al-Jabi SW, Aziz NA, Looi I, Zyoud SH
    Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2012 Apr;110(4):370-7.
    PMID: 22023326 DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2011.00825.x
    There has been recent interest in combining antiplatelets, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and statins in primary and secondary ischaemic stroke prevention. This observational study was performed to evaluate the impact of adding ACEIs and/or statins to antiplatelets on post-stroke in-hospital mortality. Ischaemic stroke patients attending a hospital in Malaysia over an 18-month period were evaluated. Patients were categorized according to their vital status at discharge. Data included demographic information, risk factors, clinical characteristics and previous medications with particular attention on antiplatelets, ACEIs and statins. In-hospital mortality was compared among patients who were not taking antiplatelets, ACEIs or statins before stroke onset versus those who were taking antiplatelets alone or in combination with either ACEIs, statins or both. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 15. Overall, 637 patients met the study inclusion criteria. After controlling for the effects of confounders, adding ACEIs or statins to antiplatelets significantly decreased the incidence of death after stroke attack by 68% (p = 0.036) and 81% (p = 0.010), respectively, compared to patients on antiplatelets alone or none of these medications. Additionally, the addition of both ACEIs and statins to antiplatelet medication resulted in the highest reduction (by 94%) of the occurrence of death after stroke attack (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that adding ACEIs and/or statins to antiplatelets for patients at risk of developing stroke, either as a primary or as a secondary preventive regimen, was associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of mortality after ischaemic stroke than antiplatelets alone. These results might help reduce the rate of ischaemic stroke morbidity and mortality by enhancing the application of specific therapeutic and management strategies for patients at a high risk of acute stroke.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  17. Hassan Y, Aziz NA, Al-Jabi SW, Looi I, Zyoud SH
    J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. Ther., 2010 Sep;15(3):274-81.
    PMID: 20624923 DOI: 10.1177/1074248410373751
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) have shown promising results in decreasing the incidence and the severity of ischemic stroke in populations at risk and in improving ischemic stroke outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  18. Hassan Y, Al-Jabi SW, Aziz NA, Looi I, Zyoud SH
    Fundam Clin Pharmacol, 2011 Jun;25(3):388-94.
    PMID: 20608996 DOI: 10.1111/j.1472-8206.2010.00846.x
    Statins can reduce the risk of stroke in at-risk populations and improve survival after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) among patients with previous statin use. This study aimed to investigate the impact of statin use before AIS onset on in-hospital mortality and identify the factors related to in-hospital mortality among patients with and without previous statin use. A retrospective cohort study of all patients with AIS attending hospital from June 1, 2008 to December 31, 2008. Data were collected from medical records including demographic information, diagnostic information, risk factors, previous statin use, and vital discharge status. Chi-square, Fisher's exact tests, student's t-test, and Mann-Whitney U test, whatever appropriate, were used to test the significance between the variables, and multiple logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with in-hospital mortality. Altogether, 386 patients with AIS were studied, of which 113 (29.3%) had a documented previous statin use. A total of 62 (16.1%) patients with AIS died in hospital. In-hospital mortality was significantly lower among previous statin users (P = 0.013). The presence of atrial fibrillation (AF) increased in-hospital mortality among patients with or without previous statin use. The independent predictors for in-hospital mortality among AIS patients without previous statin use were the presence of diabetes mellitus (P = 0.047), AF (P = 0.045), and renal impairment (P < 0.001). The prophylactic administration of statins significantly reduces post-AIS in-hospital mortality. Furthermore, the identification of predictors of in-hospital mortality might reduce death rates and enhance the application of specific therapeutic and management strategies to patients at a high risk of dying.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  19. Aliyu AB, Saleha AA, Jalila A, Zunita Z
    BMC Public Health, 2016 08 02;16:699.
    PMID: 27484086 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-3377-2
    BACKGROUND: The significant role of retail poultry meat as an important exposure pathway for the acquisition and transmission of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) into the human population warrants understanding concerning those operational practices associated with dissemination of ESBL-EC in poultry meat retailing. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, spatial distribution and potential risk factors associated with the dissemination of ESBL-EC in poultry meat retail at wet-markets in Selangor, Malaysia.

    METHODS: Poultry meat (breast, wing, thigh, and keel) as well as the contact surfaces of weighing scales and cutting boards were sampled to detect ESBL-EC by using culture and disk combination methods and polymerase chain reaction assays. Besides, questionnaire was used to obtain data and information pertaining to those operational practices that may possibly explain the occurrence of ESBL-EC. The data were analysed using logistic regression analysis at 95 % CI.

    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of ESBL-EC was 48.8 % (95 % CI, 42 - 55 %). Among the risk factors that were explored, type of countertop, sanitation of the stall environment, source of cleaning water, and type of cutting board were found to be significantly associated with the presence of ESBL-EC.

    CONCLUSIONS: Thus, in order to prevent or reduce the presence of ESBL-EC and other contaminants at the retail-outlet, there is a need to design a process control system based on the current prevailing practices in order to reduce cross contamination, as well as to improve food safety and consumer health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  20. Nathavitharana RR, Bond P, Dramowski A, Kotze K, Lederer P, Oxley I, et al.
    Presse Med, 2017 Mar;46(2 Pt 2):e53-e62.
    PMID: 28256382 DOI: 10.1016/j.lpm.2017.01.014
    Healthcare workers (HCWs) play a central role in global tuberculosis (TB) elimination efforts but their contributions are undermined by occupational TB. HCWs have higher rates of latent and active TB than the general population due to persistent occupational TB exposure, particularly in settings where there is a high prevalence of undiagnosed TB in healthcare facilities and TB infection control (TB-IC) programmes are absent or poorly implemented. Occupational health programmes in high TB burden settings are often weak or non-existent and thus data that record the extent of the increased risk of occupational TB globally are scarce. HCWs represent a limited resource in high TB burden settings and occupational TB can lead to workforce attrition. Stigma plays a role in delayed diagnosis, poor treatment outcomes and impaired well-being in HCWs who develop TB. Ensuring the prioritization and implementation of TB-IC interventions and occupational health programmes, which include robust monitoring and evaluation, is critical to reduce nosocomial TB transmission to patients and HCWs. The provision of preventive therapy for HCWs with latent TB infection (LTBI) can also prevent progression to active TB. Unlike other patient groups, HCWs are in a unique position to serve as agents of change to raise awareness, advocate for necessary resource allocation and implement TB-IC interventions, with appropriate support from dedicated TB-IC officers at the facility and national TB programme level. Students and community health workers (CHWs) must be engaged and involved in these efforts. Nosocomial TB transmission is an urgent public health problem and adopting rights-based approaches can be helpful. However, these efforts cannot succeed without increased political will, supportive legal frameworks and financial investments to support HCWs in efforts to decrease TB transmission.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
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