Displaying publications 81 - 100 of 1922 in total

  1. Kuldas S, Satyen L, Ismail HN, Hashim S
    Psychol Belg, 2014 Aug 08;54(4):350-373.
    PMID: 30479408 DOI: 10.5334/pb.aw
    The capacity limitation of working memory is a widely recognised determinant of human learning. A cognitive load exceeding the capacity hampers learning. Cognitive load can be controlled by tailoring an instructional design to levels of learner prior knowledge. However, such as design does not necessarily motivate to use the available capacity for better learning. The present review examines literatures on the effects of instructional design, motivation, emotional state, and expertise level on cognitive load and cognitive effort, which ultimately affect working memory performance and learning. This examination suggests further studies on the effects of motivation and negative emotional states on the use of working memory. Prospective findings would help better explain and predict individual differences in the use of working memory for cognitive learning and task performance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  2. Alammar A, Heshmeh O, Mounajjed R, Goodson M, Hamadah O
    J Esthet Restor Dent, 2018 11;30(6):523-531.
    PMID: 30412347 DOI: 10.1111/jerd.12433
    AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare conventional and modified lip repositioning surgical techniques used for management of gummy smile involving hyperactive lip elevator muscles.

    METHODS AND MATERIALS: A prospective study was conducted between April 2016 and May 2017. Twenty two adult patients aged 18-38 years with gummy smile ranging from 4 to 6 mm because of soft tissue disorders were included in the study. All patients were treated in the oral and maxillofacial department at Damascus University. The sample was divided into two groups of 11 patients. The first group was treated by the conventional standard technique, and the second group treated by a modified study technique. The amount of gingival display in full smile was evaluated in both groups following each intervention.

    RESULTS: Both groups exhibited a statistically significant reduction in the measurement of gummy smile at month 1 and 6 postoperatively (P  .05). The recent study showed a significant difference in gingival display between 3 and 6 months postoperatively in group 1, but no significant difference in group 2.

    CONCLUSION: This study showed that the modified technique utilized in treating gummy smile has less relapse after surgery, shows excellent cosmesis and compared to the conventional technique, greater sustainability.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The recent increase in demand for an esthetic smile has led to the development a modification of conventional lip repositioning for correcting gummy smile by myotomy of lip elevator muscles. This modified technique offers less relapse and greater stability post-operatively than the conventional technique.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  3. Jayapalan RR, Mun KS, Wong KT, Sia SF
    World Neurosurg X, 2019 Apr;2:100006.
    PMID: 31218281 DOI: 10.1016/j.wnsx.2018.100006
    Background: Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (World Health Organization grade I) is considered as a benign tumor with very low potential for progression. The potential for malignant transformation of this tumor is not known and has never been reported before in literature.

    Case Description: We report a 42-year-old man, diagnosed with rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle with a positive isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation, progressed to glioblastoma after 6 years from diagnosis. We discuss the clinical history, radiological findings, and histopathological characteristic with immunohistochemistry findings observed in this unique case.

    Conclusions: Despite being acceptable as benign, based on our observations in this case, there is a potential for malignant transformation of rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor. The role of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation leading to malignant transformation could not be established as our finding is novel and further prospective studies are required to prove this association.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  4. Kohli S, Sukumar AK, Zhen CT, Yew ASL, Gomez AA
    Dent Res J (Isfahan), 2019 09 05;16(5):289-297.
    PMID: 31543934
    Background: Even though there are diverse varieties of teaching methods to motivate and educate students, not many are used in dental institutions, where most rely only on traditional lectures. Hence, the objective of this study was to compare traditional lectures with newer teaching methods, specifically the flipped classroom and spaced learning method.

    Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study Students were randomized to one of the teaching methods, and their short-term (immediately after teaching) and long-term (i.e., 6 months later) knowledge retention was assessed through multiple choice questions, followed by students feedback which was obtained using Trierer Inventar zur Lehrevaluation questionnaire. P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

    Results: For short-term learning gains, spaced learning group (165.85) showed highest mean scores, followed by the traditional lecture group (163.70) and flipped classroom group (153.25). P value acquired through the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA was statistically significant (0.003). For long-term knowledge retention, traditional lecture group has highest mean scores (147.50), followed by spaced learning group (146.90) and flipped classroom group (145.05) with no significant difference (P = 0.657).

    Conclusion: Spaced learning methodology was better than the traditional lecture method and the flipped classroom concerning knowledge gains when measured immediately after the application of learning method. For long-term knowledge retention, both the flipped classroom and spaced learning teaching methods were comparable to the traditional lecture method.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  5. Siong FT, Kim TW, Kim SC, Lee ES, Jaffar MSA, Lee YS
    J Arthroplasty, 2020 02;35(2):380-387.
    PMID: 31587980 DOI: 10.1016/j.arth.2019.09.005
    BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to (1) describe our functional stepwise multiple needle puncturing (MNP) technique as the final step in medial ligament balancing during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and (2) evaluate whether this technique can provide sufficient medial release with safety.

    METHODS: A total of 137 patients with 212 consecutive knees who underwent TKAs with or without functional stepwise MNP of superficial medial collateral ligament was recruited in this prospective cohort. Eighty-one patients with 129 knees who performed serial stress radiographs were enrolled in the final assessment. Superficial medial collateral ligament was punctured selectively (anteriorly or posteriorly or both) and sequentially depending on the site and degree of tightness. Mediolateral stability was assessed using serial stress radiographs and comparison was performed between the MNP and the non-MNP groups at postoperative 6 months and 1 year. Clinical outcomes were also evaluated between 2 groups.

    RESULTS: Fifty-five TKAs required additional stepwise MNP (anterior needling 19, posterior needling 3, both anterior and posterior needling 33). Preoperative hip-knee-ankle angle and the difference in varus-valgus stress angle showed significant difference between the MNP and the non-MNP groups, respectively (P = .009, P = .037). However, there was no significant difference when comparing the varus-valgus stress angle between the MNP and the non-MNP groups during serial assessment. Clinical outcomes including range of motion also showed no significant differences between the 2 groups.

    CONCLUSION: Functional medial ligament balancing with stepwise MNP can provide sufficient medial release with safety in TKA with varus aligned knee without clinical deterioration or complication such as instability.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, Prospective cohort study.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  6. Archuleta S, Chia PY, Wei Y, Syed-Omar SF, Low JG, Oh HM, et al.
    Clin Infect Dis, 2020 07 11;71(2):383-389.
    PMID: 31626692 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciz850
    BACKGROUND: Platelet transfusion is common in dengue patients with thrombocytopenia. We previously showed in a randomized clinical trial that prophylactic platelet transfusion did not reduce clinical bleeding. In this study, we aimed to characterize the predictors and clinical outcomes of poor platelet recovery in transfused and nontransfused participants.

    METHODS: We analyzed patients from the Adult Dengue Platelet Study with laboratory-confirmed dengue with ≤20 000 platelets/μL and without persistent mild bleeding or any severe bleeding in a post hoc analysis. Poor platelet recovery was defined as a platelet count of ≤20 000/μL on Day 2. We recruited 372 participants from 5 acute care hospitals located in Singapore and Malaysia between 29 April 2010 and 9 December 2014. Of these, 188 were randomly assigned to the transfusion group and 184 to the control group.

    RESULTS: Of 360 patients, 158 had poor platelet recovery. Age, white cell count, and day of illness at study enrollment were significant predictors of poor platelet recovery after adjustment for baseline characteristics and platelet transfusion. Patients with poor platelet recovery had longer hospitalizations but no significant difference in other clinical outcomes, regardless of transfusion. We found a significant interaction between platelet recovery and transfusion; patients with poor platelet recovery were more likely to bleed if given a prophylactic platelet transfusion (odds ratio 2.34, 95% confidence interval 1.18-4.63).

    CONCLUSIONS: Dengue patients with thrombocytopenia who were older or presented earlier and with lower white cell counts were more likely to have poor platelet recovery. In patients with poor platelet recovery, platelet transfusion does not improve outcomes and may actually increase the risk of bleeding. The mechanisms of poor platelet recovery need to be determined.


    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  7. Ya'u A, Saad N, Mas'ud A
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Mar;28(11):13570-13580.
    PMID: 33188515 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-11608-z
    Growing environmental deterioration has caused many countries to tighten their environmental regulations across the globe. Recent studies show that most developed countries enforced stricter environmental regulations creating a pollution haven to developing countries such as Nigeria. Studies show the non-availability of an environmental regulation compliance scale in the energy sectors. The aim of this paper is to validate the effects of environmental regulation compliance scale for oil and gas companies' operations in the Nigerian oil and gas industry. Hence, an adapted questionnaire comprising 11 items was administered to 300 local and multinational oil and gas companies in Nigeria. All the items were subjected to evaluations and validations by eight expert reviewers with cognate experience in oil and gas activities. Evaluation of the reliability and validity of the measures of the environmental regulation scale was performed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using SPSS version 25 and PLS-SEM version 3.8. The results provide evidence that the environmental regulation compliance scale has met the reliability and validity criteria. Consequently, policymakers, practitioners, and researchers can adapt this scale to assess the effects of environmental regulation compliance by companies in different jurisdictions across the globe. This study undoubtedly builds the existing literature and contributes to the subject area; by implication, the validated scale will assist host oil and gas countries with stringent environmental regulations to come up with policies in such a way as to ensure not chasing away the current investors or discouraging prospective ones from investing in their countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  8. Kamarudin KA, Ismail M
    Movement Health & Exercise, 2019;8(1):45-56.
    The purpose of this study is to look at the effects of music during physical activities towards the mood of primary school children. The results of this study show a result that found a positive mood effect during physical education activities by incorporating music elements in teaching and teaching sessions. The study was conducted for two weeks. A week-long three Physical Education subject sessions per session take about 30 minutes. This study was conducted on primary school pupils in Seremban which involves
    three (n = 3) schools, focusing on schools in rural areas only encompassing one hundred and eighty (n = 180) ie 90 pupils men and 90 girls. All nine-year study subjects were broken down into three groups ie control groups A, B, and C. The study was experimental. Group A follows the Three Year syllabus syllabus provided by the Curriculum Development Division of the Ministry of Education, which is applicable in primary schools in Malaysia. Group B runs free games that are not tied to curriculum syllabus and Group C similar
    to group A also follow the same syllabus of the Year Three syllabus but during the lesson the pupils are played with the background of music in each learning session. The findings show that the C group absorbed by the music element shows the tendency of a better and positive mood compared to other groups. The results of this study also attract the children to participate in the Physical Education class more actively and give positive impact to the individual in terms of the development of their gross motor and is a fun subject and lead to the formation of a balanced, physical, emotional, spiritual, and intellectuality.
    Keywords: Mood, music, physical education, gross motor
    Study site: Three primary schools (SK Mantin, SK Labu Batu 10, dan SK Desa Cempaka), Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  9. Badrasawi M, Shahar S, Sagap I
    Malays J Med Sci, 2015 12 31;22(4):6-16.
    PMID: 26715903 MyJurnal
    The management of Enterocutaneous fistula (ECF) is challenging. It remains associated with morbidity and mortality, despite advancements in medical and surgical therapies. Early nutritional support using parenteral, enteral or fystuloclysis routs is essential to reverse catabolism and replace nutrients, fluid and electrolyte losses. This study aims to review the current literature on the management of ECF. Fistulae classifications have an impact on the calories and protein requirements. Early nutritional support with parenteral, enteral nutrition or fistuloclysis played a significant role in the management outcome. Published literature on the nutritional management of ECF is mostly retrospective and lacks experimental design. Prospective studies do not investigate nutritional assessment or management experimentally. Individualising the nutritional management protocol was recommended due to the absence of management guidelines for ECF patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  10. Tabben M, Eirale C, Singh G, Al-Kuwari A, Ekstrand J, Chalabi H, et al.
    Br J Sports Med, 2021 Jan 05.
    PMID: 33402346 DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2020-102945
    BACKGROUND: While football injury and illness epidemiology surveillance at professional club level in Europe is available, epidemiological data from other continents are lacking.

    PURPOSE: Investigating injury and illness epidemiology in professional Asian football.

    STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive prospective study.

    METHODS: Professional teams from the Asian Football Confederation (AFC) league were followed prospectively for three consecutive AFC seasons (2017 through 2019, 13 teams per season, 322 team months). Time-loss injuries and illnesses in addition to individual match and training exposure were recorded using standardised digital tools in accordance with international consensus procedures.

    RESULTS: In total, 232 665 hours of exposure (88.6% training and 11.4% matches) and 1159 injuries were recorded; 496 (42.8%) occurred during matches, 610 (52.6%) during training; 32 (2.8%) were reported as 'not applicable' and for 21 injuries (1.8%) information was missing. Injury incidence was significantly greater during match play (19.2±8.6 injuries per 1000 hours) than training (2.8±1.4, p<0.0001), resulting in a low overall incidence of 5.1±2.2.The injury burden for match injuries was greater than from training injuries (456±336 days per 1000 hours vs 54±34 days, p<0.0001). The two specific injuries causing the greatest burden were complete ACL ruptures (0.14 injuries (95% CI 0.9 to 0.19) and 29.8 days lost (29.1 to 30.5) per 1000 hours) and hamstring strains (0.86 injuries (0.74 to 0.99) and 17.5 days (17.0 to 18.1) lost per 1000 hours).Reinjuries constituted 9.9% of all injuries. Index injuries caused 22.6±40.8 days of absence compared with 25.1±39 for reinjuries (p=0.62). The 175 illnesses recorded resulted in 1.4±2.9 days of time loss per team per month.

    CONCLUSION: Professional Asian football is characterised by an overall injury incidence similar to that reported from Europe, but with a high rate of ACL ruptures and hamstring injury, warranting further investigations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  11. Shekarchi B, Panahi A, Raeissadat SA, Maleki N, Nayebabbas S, Farhadi P
    Malays Orthop J, 2020 Jul;14(2):94-100.
    PMID: 32983383 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.2007.018
    Introduction: Meniscus injuries are the most frequent problem of the knee. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the Thessaly test and comparing it with those of McMurray and Joint-line tenderness tests for diagnosing meniscal tears.Materials and methods: This study was designed as a prospective observational one done in an outpatient clinic at a university hospital. 106 patients with knee pain and 82 age-matched control were included during study period (from February 2014 to January 2015). Each patient was clinically examined with McMurray, Thessaly, and joint line tenderness tests. Then, the findings were matched by MRI and arthroscopic findings. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were calculated as main outcomes.

    Results: Based on MRI, Thessaly was the most sensitive for medial meniscus tears (56.2%), while McMurray and joint-line tenderness were more specific (89.1% and 88.0%, respectively). For lateral meniscus tears, McMurray was the most sensitive (56.2%) and all were specific (McMurray 89.6%, Thessaly 88.4%, joint-line tenderness 90.2%). With arthroscopy, Thessaly was the most sensitive for medial meniscus (76.6%), while McMurray and joint-line tenderness were more specific (81.0%, and 81.0%). Agreement with arthroscopy was the highest with McMurray (for medial meniscus kappa=0.40, p<0.001, and for lateral meniscus kappa=0.38, p=0.002).

    Conclusion: The Thessaly can be used to screen for medial meniscus tears. McMurray and joint-line tenderness should be used for suspected medial meniscus tears. For lateral meniscus, McMurray is appropriate for screening and all the tests are useful in clinic.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  12. Abdullah J, Abdullah MR
    Malays J Med Sci, 2003 Jan;10(1):74-7.
    PMID: 23365504 MyJurnal
    There is no report in the English literature on the criteria for neuroablation or neuroaugmentation for the treatment of Parkinson's disease in a developing country like Malaysia. A prospective study of patients with Parkinson's disease from the north-eastern peninsular Malaysia was done to assess their suitability of surgery. Age, race, duration of illness and dementia were considered important factors towards the success of such surgical procedures. A mathematical model is suggested for future cases deemed to be suitable for neuroaugmentative or ablative surgery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  13. Tun M, Shuaib IL, Muhamad M, Mat Sain AH, Ressang AS
    Malays J Med Sci, 2004 Jan;11(1):75-80.
    PMID: 22977363
    The incidence of deep vein thrombosis is believed to be rare in Asians. During recent years, a few reports have appeared with high incidence in orthopaedic patients comparable to Western studies. This study was carried out to find out the incidence of post-operative deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after major surgical procedures in general surgical patients in an Asian population. In a prospective study of 45 consecutive Asian patients after major general surgery, colour-flow duplex scan of the legs as an initial screening was done twice within two weeks. Mean age of the patients was 54 years 5 months and 87% of patients were included in the moderate and high risk group for deep vein thrombosis. Ascending venography was used to confirm deep vein thrombosis on patients with equivocal or positive results from colour flow duplex scan. One patient showed positive evidence of post-operative deep vein thrombosis on colour flow duplex scan which was further confirmed by ascending venography; giving an incidence of 2.2%. The incidence of post-operative deep vein thrombosis in general surgical patients is lower than the Western studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  14. Haron N, Rajendran S, Kallarakkal TG, Zain RB, Ramanathan A, Abraham MT, et al.
    Oral Dis, 2021 Apr 29.
    PMID: 33914993 DOI: 10.1111/odi.13892
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of MeMoSA®, a mobile phone application to review images of oral lesions in identifying oral cancers and oral potentially malignant disorders requiring referral.

    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A prospective study of 355 participants, including 280 with oral lesions/variants was conducted. Adults aged ≥18 treated at tertiary referral centres were included. Images of the oral cavity were taken using MeMoSA®. The identification of the presence of lesion/variant and referral decision made using MeMoSA® were compared to clinical oral examination, using kappa statistics for intra-rater agreement. Sensitivity, specificity, concordance and F1 score were computed. Images were reviewed by an off-site specialist and inter-rater agreement was evaluated. Images from sequential clinical visits were compared to evaluate observable changes in the lesions.

    RESULTS: Kappa values comparing MeMoSA® with clinical oral examination in detecting a lesion and referral decision was 0.604 and 0.892, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity for referral decision were 94.0% and 95.5%. Concordance and F1 score were 94.9% and 93.3%, respectively. Inter-rater agreement for a referral decision was 0.825. Progression or regression of lesions were systematically documented using MeMoSA®.

    CONCLUSION: Referral decisions made through MeMoSA® is highly comparable to clinical examination demonstrating it is a reliable telemedicine tool to facilitate the identification of high-risk lesions for early management.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  15. Mohd Tarmizi Mohamad Mahyedin, Afifah Hassan, Abdul Rahim Hussein
    The fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is frequently prescribed either for therapeutic or prophylactic transfusion. The international normalised ratio (INR) value of 1.50 and above is frequently reported to be a transfusion trigger for FFP prior to interventional procedure. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic FFP transfusion in normalising the INR and to determine the post-transfusion outcomes. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study involved 81 patients who received prophylactic FFP transfusion over a period of three months. All demographic, clinical data and outcomes of FFP transfusion were captured and filled in the research proforma. Results: The proportion of patients achieved posttransfusion INR below 1.51 was 30.30% (n=27). The majority of patients underwent the interventional procedures with posttransfusion INR > 1.50 (n=52) without experiencing any bleeding episodes. Overall, FFP transfusion resulted in significant median INR difference from 1.89 (IQR, 0.53) to 1.60 (IQR, 0.25); p< 0.001. The greater median INR difference was observed in group with pretransfusion INR > 2.00 and who received FFP doses between 10.00 to 20.00 ml kg-1 (p < 0.001). The INR difference showed the significant, positive correlation with pretransfusion INR values (rs= 0.83, p < 0.001) and FFP doses (rs= 0.72, p< 0.001). Conclusions: The interventional procedures were safely carried out despite abnormal posttransfusion INR. The prophylactic FFP transfusions could be avoided in patients with mild coagulopathy (INR 1.50 - 2.00) prior interventional procedures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  16. Ahmed Ii JB, Pradhan B, Mansor S, Yusoff ZM, Ekpo SA
    Sensors (Basel), 2019 May 07;19(9).
    PMID: 31067734 DOI: 10.3390/s19092107
    In some parts of tropical Africa, termite mound locations are traditionally used to site groundwater structures mainly in the form of hand-dug wells with high success rates. However, the scientific rationale behind the use of mounds as prospective sites for locating groundwater structures has not been thoroughly investigated. In this paper, locations and structural features of termite mounds were mapped with the aim of determining the aquifer potential beneath termite mounds and comparing the same with adjacent areas, 10 m away. Soil and species sampling, field surveys and laboratory analyses to obtain data on physical, hydraulic and geo-electrical parameters from termite mounds and adjacent control areas followed. The physical and hydraulic measurements demonstrated relatively higher infiltration rates and lower soil water content on mound soils compared with the surrounding areas. To assess the aquifer potential, vertical electrical soundings were conducted on 28 termite mounds sites and adjacent control areas. Three (3) important parameters were assessed to compute potential weights for each Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) point: Depth to bedrock, aquifer layer resistivity and fresh/fractured bedrock resistivity. These weights were then compared between those of termite mound sites and those from control areas. The result revealed that about 43% of mound sites have greater aquifer potential compared to the surrounding areas, whereas 28.5% of mounds have equal and lower potentials compared with the surrounding areas. The study concludes that termite mounds locations are suitable spots for groundwater prospecting owing to the deeper regolith layer beneath them which suggests that termites either have the ability to locate places with a deeper weathering horizon or are themselves agents of biological weathering. Further studies to check how representative our study area is of other areas with similar termite activities are recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  17. Elliza, R., Nadia, M.N., Azlina, M., Yeoh, C.N., Maryam, B., Hanita, O.
    Perioperative intravenous (IV) dexamethasone is administered prophylactically for post operative nausea and vomiting. However, its glucocorticoid property which raises blood glucose is of concern, especially among diabetic patients. The surgical stress response also contributes to increased perioperative blood glucose. Prior studies showed higher glucose levels with dexamethasone 8 mg compared to 4 mg, hence we studied the effect of the lower dose amongst diabetic patients. This prospective, single blinded, randomised study recruited forty-six type 2 diabetes mellitus patients planned for surgery under general anaesthesia. They received IV dexamethasone 4 mg or saline (placebo) after induction of anaesthesia. Capillary blood glucose levels were recorded preoperatively, and subsequently at recovery (T0), and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 (T6, T12, T18, T24) hours post-operatively. Median glucose levels were higher at 9.0 [10.5-7.7] mmol/l in the dexamethasone group, versus 7.4 [9.2-5.9] mmol/l in the placebo group at T0, p = 0.022. Similarly at T6, the dexamethasone group recorded higher glucose levels of 11.2 [15.0-9.3] mmol/l, versus 7.7 [9.0-6.2] mmol/l in the placebo group, p = 0.001. This corresponded to a significant difference between the groups, in the change of glucose levels from baseline values, p = 0.042. Subsequent readings at T12, T18, and T24 were comparable between the groups. In conclusion, IV dexamethasone 4 mg in type 2 diabetic patients, resulted in higher glucose levels immediately postoperative and 6 hours later. The change in blood glucose from baseline levels was significant between the groups at 6 hours postoperatively. Glucose levels however remained within acceptable range of approved guidelines in both groups at all recorded intervals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  18. Sri Harjanto, Latifa N. Noviana, Mia Diniati, Stefanno W. Yunior, Nasruddin
    Sains Malaysiana, 2015;44:747-752.
    Coal-based activated carbon materials is a prospective materials for hydrogen storage application. The present work
    aimed to study the effect of post treatments including mechanical milling process and pelletization and simulating
    experimentally the conditions of pelletization of fine particles of activated coal. Post treatment of activated coal consist
    of 2 steps mechanical milling process in planetary ball mill followed by pelletization. First step of mechanical milling
    process gave particle size reduction and second step was undertaken to maintain activity of activated coal. Second step
    of mechanochemical process were done in dry (ACP-A) and wet condition (ACP-B) with the ratio of sample: KOH was
    1:1 and performed for 1 h. Then they will be formed into pellets with the addition of binder which contained fructose,
    glucose and oligo. Some examinations such as PSA, BET, SEM and XRD were performed to determine the characteristics of
    activated carbon materials including hydrogen adsorption capacity testing. Particle size reduction of activated carbon
    reached 98.9% after planetary ball milling. The raw material of activated carbon (AC) has hydrogen adsorption as much
    as from 0.30 and 0.25 wt. % from -5 and 25o
    C measurements, respectively. As predicted the adsorption of hydrogen gas
    of pelletized activated carbon from bituminous coal decreased due to post treatment process about 47% for ACP-A and
    60% for ACP-B at 4000 Bar.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  19. Jamil K, Walker T, Onikul E, Munns CF, Little DG
    J Child Orthop, 2019 Feb 01;13(1):82-88.
    PMID: 30838080 DOI: 10.1302/1863-2548.13.180136
    Purpose: Perthes' disease (PD) results from loss of blood supply to the hip and can progress to femoral head deformity. MRI in the early course of the disease can provide data on the initial extent of infarct. Vascularity of the femoral head is assessed by gadolinium-enhanced MRI (contrast MRI), which may be improved by the digital subtraction technique (subtraction MRI). We hypothesized that gadolinium-enhanced MRI without subtraction was comparable with subtraction MRI in depicting the femoral head perfusion.

    Methods: In all, 34 patients (34 hips) with unilateral PD had gadolinium-enhanced MRI as part of a prospectively randomized study. Nine patients had three MRIs, 15 had two and ten had a single MRI. Measurement of perfusion of the femoral head (MRI perfusion index) was obtained using digital image analysis on all the MRIs, including both before and after subtraction. A paired sample t-test was performed to compare the measurements.

    Results: The mean age of the patients was 8.9 years (sd 1.6). At the time of diagnosis, the subtraction MRI did not elicit a statistically significant difference in MRI perfusion index measurements when compared with the contrast MRI (p = 0.19). The same findings were found when including all patients at various stages of the disease (p = 0.30). Qualitatively, although some subtraction MRI images showed superior delineation of epiphysis, there are no significant differences throughout the whole series.

    Conclusion: Although the current literature supports the increasing role of the subtraction MRI for PD management, our study proposed that the contrast MRI without subtraction technique appears adequate in assessing femoral head perfusion.

    Level of Evidence: Level I - Diagnostic study.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  20. Chua WT
    Family Practitioner, 1985;8(2):57-62.
    One hundred and twenty-four women from a semi-urban area who came for consultation for unplanned pregnancy during an eight month period are analysed. It is found that women with a high risk of unplanned pregnancy are mostly housewives, aged between 20 and 34, who have given birth to one or three children, the last of whom is usually below one or two years old. They belong to the lower socio-economic class and are lowly-educated. Most of them have not completed their families. Although most of them have either used or heard of contraceptives begore, the majority were not using any contraceptive at the time of consultation or were using an ineffective method. Their reasons for non-use or default are identified, many of which are related to the pill. Proper motivation of would-be contraceptive receptors and regular follow-up of acceptors by general practitioners or Family Planning Clinic Staff who are knwoledgable in all available methods of contraception are offered as a solutionto the problem of high rate of defaulting and consequent high rate of unplanned pregnancies.
    Study site: private general practice clinic, Perak, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
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