Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 112 in total

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  1. Triassi AJ, Wheatley MS, Savka MA, Gan HM, Dobson RC, Hudson AO
    Front Microbiol, 2014;5:509.
    PMID: 25309529 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00509
    Despite the urgent need for sustained development of novel antibacterial compounds to combat the drastic rise in antibiotic resistant and emerging bacterial infections, only a few clinically relevant antibacterial drugs have been recently developed. One of the bottlenecks impeding the development of novel antibacterial compounds is the identification of new enzymatic targets. The nutritionally essential amino acid anabolic pathways, for example lysine biosynthesis, provide an opportunity to explore the development of antibacterial compounds, since human genomes do not possess the genes necessary to synthesize these amino acids de novo. The diaminopimelate (DAP)/lysine (lys) anabolic pathways are attractive targets for antibacterial development since the penultimate lys precursor meso-DAP (m-DAP) is a cross-linking amino acid in the peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall of most Gram-negative bacteria and lys plays a similar role in the PG of most Gram-positive bacteria, in addition to its role as one of the 20 proteogenic amino acids. The L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL) pathway was recently identified as a novel variant of the DAP/lys anabolic pathways. The DapL pathway has been identified in the pathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus; Chlamydia, Leptospira, and Treponema. The dapL gene has been identified in the genomes of 381 or approximately 13% of the 2771 bacteria that have been sequenced, annotated and reposited in the NCBI database, as of May 23, 2014. The narrow distribution of the DapL pathway in the bacterial domain provides an opportunity for the development and or discovery of narrow spectrum antibacterial compounds.
  2. Gan HM, Triassi AJ, Wheatley MS, Savka MA, Hudson AO
    Genome Announc, 2014;2(2).
    PMID: 24625871 DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.00170-14
    Here we report the whole-genome sequences of three endophytic bacteria, Enterobacter sp. strain DC1, Enterobacter sp. strain DC3, and Enterobacter sp. strain DC4, from root tubers of the yellow yam plant, Dioscorea cayenensis. Preliminary analyses suggest that the genomes of the three bacteria contain genes involved in acetoin and indole-3-acetic acid metabolism.
  3. Mellor D, Fuller-Tyszkiewicz M, McCabe MP, Ricciardelli LA, Skouteris H, Mussap AJ
    Ethn Health, 2014;19(5):548-64.
    PMID: 24261816 DOI: 10.1080/13557858.2013.857761
    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify cultural-level variables that may influence the extent to which adolescents from different cultural groups are dissatisfied with their bodies.
    DESIGN: A sample of 1730 male and 2000 female adolescents from Australia, Fiji, Malaysia, Tonga, Tongans in New Zealand, China, Chile, and Greece completed measures of body satisfaction, and the sociocultural influences on body image and body change questionnaire, and self-reported height and weight. Country gross domestic product and national obesity were recorded using global databases.
    RESULTS: Prevalence of obesity/overweight and cultural endorsement of appearance standards explained variance in individual-level body dissatisfaction (BD) scores, even after controlling for the influence of individual differences in body mass index and internalization of appearance standards.
    CONCLUSIONS: Cultural-level variables may account for the development of adolescent BD.
    KEYWORDS: GDP; adolescents; body dissatisfaction; culture; sociocultural influences
  4. Gan HY, Gan HM, Savka MA, Triassi AJ, Wheatley MS, Smart LB, et al.
    Genome Announc, 2014;2(3).
    PMID: 24812212 DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.00288-14
    Shrub willow, Salix spp. and hybrids, is an important bioenergy crop. Here we report the whole-genome sequences and annotation of 13 endophytic bacteria from stem tissues of Salix purpurea grown in nature and from commercial cultivars and Salix viminalis × Salix miyabeana grown in bioenergy fields in Geneva, New York.
  5. Brown BA, Oberste MS, Alexander JP, Kennett ML, Pallansch MA
    J. Virol., 1999 Dec;73(12):9969-75.
    PMID: 10559310
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) (genus Enterovirus, family Picornaviridae), a common cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), may also cause severe neurological diseases, such as encephalitis and poliomyelitis-like paralysis. To examine the genetic diversity and rate of evolution of EV71, we have determined and analyzed complete VP1 sequences (891 nucleotides) for 113 EV71 strains isolated in the United States and five other countries from 1970 to 1998. Nucleotide sequence comparisons demonstrated three distinct EV71 genotypes, designated A, B, and C. The genetic variation within genotypes (12% or fewer nucleotide differences) was less than the variation between genotypes (16.5 to 19.7%). Strains of all three genotypes were at least 94% identical to one another in deduced amino acid sequence. The EV71 prototype strain, BrCr-CA-70, isolated in California in 1970, is the sole member of genotype A. Strains isolated in the United States and Australia during the period from 1972 to 1988, a 1994 Colombian isolate, and isolates from a large HFMD outbreak in Malaysia in 1997 are all members of genotype B. Although strains of genotype B continue to circulate in other parts of the world, none have been isolated in the United States since 1988. Genotype C contains strains isolated in 1985 or later in the United States, Canada, Australia, and the Republic of China. The annual rate of evolution within both the B and C genotypes was estimated to be approximately 1.35 x 10(-2) substitutions per nucleotide and is similar to the rate observed for poliovirus. The results indicate that EV71 is a genetically diverse, rapidly evolving virus. Its worldwide circulation and potential to cause severe disease underscore the need for additional surveillance and improved methods to identify EV71 in human disease.
  6. Škalamera D, Dahmer-Heath M, Stevenson AJ, Pinto C, Shah ET, Daignault SM, et al.
    Oncotarget, 2016 09 20;7(38):61000-61020.
    PMID: 27876705 DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.11314
    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental program that has been implicated in progression, metastasis and therapeutic resistance of some carcinomas. To identify genes whose overexpression drives EMT, we screened a lentiviral expression library of 17000 human open reading frames (ORFs) using high-content imaging to quantitate cytoplasmic vimentin. Hits capable of increasing vimentin in the mammary carcinoma-derived cell line MDA-MB-468 were confirmed in the non-tumorigenic breast-epithelial cell line MCF10A. When overexpressed in this model, they increased the rate of cell invasion through Matrigel™, induced mesenchymal marker expression and reduced expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin. In gene-expression datasets derived from breast cancer patients, the expression of several novel genes correlated with expression of known EMT marker genes, indicating their in vivo relevance. As EMT-associated properties are thought to contribute in several ways to cancer progression, genes identified in this study may represent novel targets for anti-cancer therapy.
  7. Chung KF, Seiffert J, Chen S, Theodorou IG, Goode AE, Leo BF, et al.
    ACS Nano, 2017 03 28;11(3):2652-2664.
    PMID: 28221763 DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.6b07313
    There is a potential for silver nanowires (AgNWs) to be inhaled, but there is little information on their health effects and their chemical transformation inside the lungs in vivo. We studied the effects of short (S-AgNWs; 1.5 μm) and long (L-AgNWs; 10 μm) nanowires instilled into the lungs of Sprague-Dawley rats. S- and L-AgNWs were phagocytosed and degraded by macrophages; there was no frustrated phagocytosis. Interestingly, both AgNWs were internalized in alveolar epithelial cells, with precipitation of Ag2S on their surface as secondary Ag2S nanoparticles. Quantitative serial block face three-dimensional scanning electron microscopy showed a small, but significant, reduction of NW lengths inside alveolar epithelial cells. AgNWs were also present in the lung subpleural space where L-AgNWs exposure resulted in more Ag+ve macrophages situated within the pleura and subpleural alveoli, compared with the S-AgNWs exposure. For both AgNWs, there was lung inflammation at day 1, disappearing by day 21, but in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), L-AgNWs caused a delayed neutrophilic and macrophagic inflammation, while S-AgNWs caused only acute transient neutrophilia. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) levels in BALF increased after S- and L-AgNWs exposure at day 7. L-AgNWs induced MIP-1α and S-AgNWs induced IL-18 at day 1. Large airway bronchial responsiveness to acetylcholine increased following L-AgNWs, but not S-AgNWs, exposure. The attenuated response to AgNW instillation may be due to silver inactivation after precipitation of Ag2S with limited dissolution. Our findings have important consequences for the safety of silver-based technologies to human health.
  8. Chan LG, Parashar UD, Lye MS, Ong FG, Zaki SR, Alexander JP, et al.
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2000 Sep;31(3):678-83.
    PMID: 11017815
    From April through June 1997, 29 previously healthy children aged <6 years (median, 1.5 years) in Sarawak, Malaysia, died of rapidly progressive cardiorespiratory failure during an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused primarily by enterovirus 71 (EV71). The case children were hospitalized after a short illness (median duration, 2 days) that usually included fever (in 100% of case children), oral ulcers (66%), and extremity rashes (62%). The illness rapidly progressed to include seizures (28%), flaccid limb weakness (17%), or cardiopulmonary symptoms (of 24 children, 17 had chest radiographs showing pulmonary edema, and 24 had echocardiograms showing left ventricular dysfunction), resulting in cardiopulmonary arrest soon after hospitalization (median time, 9 h). Cardiac tissue from 10 patients showed normal myocardium, but central nervous system tissue from 5 patients showed inflammatory changes. Brain-stem specimens from 2 patients were available, and both specimens showed extensive neuronal degeneration, inflammation, and necrosis, suggesting that a central nervous system infection was responsible for the disease, with the cardiopulmonary dysfunction being neurogenic in origin. EV71 and possibly an adenovirus, other enteroviruses, or unknown cofactors are likely responsible for this rapidly fatal disease.
  9. Azzopardi M, Thomas R, Muruganandan S, Lam DC, Garske LA, Kwan BC, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2016 07 05;6(7):e011480.
    PMID: 27381209 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011480
    INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) can complicate most cancers, causing dyspnoea and impairing quality of life (QoL). Indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) are a novel management approach allowing ambulatory fluid drainage and are increasingly used as an alternative to pleurodesis. IPC drainage approaches vary greatly between centres. Some advocate aggressive (usually daily) removal of fluid to provide best symptom control and chance of spontaneous pleurodesis. Daily drainages however demand considerably more resources and may increase risks of complications. Others believe that MPE care is palliative and drainage should be performed only when patients become symptomatic (often weekly to monthly). Identifying the best drainage approach will optimise patient care and healthcare resource utilisation.

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A multicentre, open-label randomised trial. Patients with MPE will be randomised 1:1 to daily or symptom-guided drainage regimes after IPC insertion. Patient allocation to groups will be stratified for the cancer type (mesothelioma vs others), performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status 0-1 vs ≥2), presence of trapped lung (vs not) and prior pleurodesis (vs not). The primary outcome is the mean daily dyspnoea score, measured by a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) over the first 60 days. Secondary outcomes include benefits on physical activity levels, rate of spontaneous pleurodesis, complications, hospital admission days, healthcare costs and QoL measures. Enrolment of 86 participants will detect a mean difference of VAS score of 14 mm between the treatment arms (5% significance, 90% power) assuming a common between-group SD of 18.9 mm and a 10% lost to follow-up rate.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Sir Charles Gairdner Group Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the study (number 2015-043). Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific meetings.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12615000963527; Pre-results.

  10. Bradbury KE, Appleby PN, Tipper SJ, Travis RC, Allen NE, Kvaskoff M, et al.
    Int. J. Cancer, 2019 03 01;144(5):957-966.
    PMID: 30191956 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.31854
    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis, and is thought to play a role in tumour development. Previous prospective studies have shown that higher circulating concentrations of IGF-I are associated with a higher risk of cancers at specific sites, including breast and prostate. No prospective study has examined the association between circulating IGF-I concentrations and melanoma risk. A nested case-control study of 1,221 melanoma cases and 1,221 controls was performed in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, a prospective cohort of 520,000 participants recruited from 10 European countries. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for incident melanoma in relation to circulating IGF-I concentrations, measured by immunoassay. Analyses were conditioned on the matching factors and further adjusted for age at blood collection, education, height, BMI, smoking status, alcohol intake, marital status, physical activity and in women only, use of menopausal hormone therapy. There was no significant association between circulating IGF-I concentration and melanoma risk (OR for highest vs lowest fifth = 0.93 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71 to 1.22]). There was no significant heterogeneity in the association between IGF-I concentrations and melanoma risk when subdivided by gender, age at blood collection, BMI, height, age at diagnosis, time between blood collection and diagnosis, or by anatomical site or histological subtype of the tumour (Pheterogeneity≥0.078). We found no evidence for an association between circulating concentrations of IGF-I measured in adulthood and the risk of melanoma.
  11. Malaspinas AS, Westaway MC, Muller C, Sousa VC, Lao O, Alves I, et al.
    Nature, 2016 Oct 13;538(7624):207-214.
    PMID: 27654914 DOI: 10.1038/nature18299
    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ~10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert.
  12. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2015 Feb 6;114(5):051801.
    PMID: 25699433
    A study of vector boson scattering in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.4  fb(-1) collected with the CMS detector. Candidate events are selected with exactly two leptons of the same charge, two jets with large rapidity separation and high dijet mass, and moderate missing transverse energy. The signal region is expected to be dominated by electroweak same-sign W-boson pair production. The observation agrees with the standard model prediction. The observed significance is 2.0 standard deviations, where a significance of 3.1 standard deviations is expected based on the standard model. Cross section measurements for W(±)W(±) and WZ processes in the fiducial region are reported. Bounds on the structure of quartic vector-boson interactions are given in the framework of dimension-eight effective field theory operators, as well as limits on the production of doubly charged Higgs bosons.
  13. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2015 Mar 13;114(10):101801.
    PMID: 25815923
    Results are presented from a search for new decaying massive particles whose presence is inferred from an imbalance in transverse momentum and which are produced in association with a single top quark that decays into a bottom quark and two light quarks. The measurement is performed using 19.7  fb^{-1} of data from proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. No deviations from the standard model predictions are observed and lower limits are set on the masses of new invisible bosons. In particular, scalar and vector particles, with masses below 330 and 650 GeV, respectively, are excluded at 95% confidence level, thereby substantially extending a previous limit published by the CDF Collaboration.
  14. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2015 Feb 13;114(6):061801.
    PMID: 25723204
    A search for new long-lived particles decaying to leptons is presented using proton-proton collisions produced by the LHC at √[s]=8  TeV. Data used for the analysis were collected by the CMS detector and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7  fb(-1). Events are selected with an electron and muon with opposite charges that both have transverse impact parameter values between 0.02 and 2 cm. The search has been designed to be sensitive to a wide range of models with nonprompt e-μ final states. Limits are set on the "displaced supersymmetry" model, with pair production of top squarks decaying into an e-μ final state via R-parity-violating interactions. The results are the most restrictive to date on this model, with the most stringent limit being obtained for a top squark lifetime corresponding to cτ=2  cm, excluding masses below 790 GeV at 95% confidence level.
  15. Chatrchyan S, Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2014 Apr 25;112(16):161802.
    PMID: 24815637
    Results are presented of a search for a "natural" supersymmetry scenario with gauge mediated symmetry breaking. It is assumed that only the supersymmetric partners of the top quark (the top squark) and the Higgs boson (Higgsino) are accessible. Events are examined in which there are two photons forming a Higgs boson candidate, and at least two b-quark jets. In 19.7  fb-1 of proton-proton collision data at s=8  TeV, recorded in the CMS experiment, no evidence of a signal is found and lower limits at the 95% confidence level are set, excluding the top squark mass below 360 to 410 GeV, depending on the Higgsino mass.
  16. Chatrchyan S, Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2014;74(8):2980.
    PMID: 25814906
    A search for invisible decays of Higgs bosons is performed using the vector boson fusion and associated ZH production modes. In the ZH mode, the Z boson is required to decay to a pair of charged leptons or a [Formula: see text] quark pair. The searches use the 8 [Formula: see text] pp collision dataset collected by the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 19.7 [Formula: see text]. Certain channels include data from 7 [Formula: see text] collisions corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.9 [Formula: see text]. The searches are sensitive to non-standard-model invisible decays of the recently observed Higgs boson, as well as additional Higgs bosons with similar production modes and large invisible branching fractions. In all channels, the observed data are consistent with the expected standard model backgrounds. Limits are set on the production cross section times invisible branching fraction, as a function of the Higgs boson mass, for the vector boson fusion and ZH production modes. By combining all channels, and assuming standard model Higgs boson cross sections and acceptances, the observed (expected) upper limit on the invisible branching fraction at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] is found to be 0.58 (0.44) at 95 % confidence level. We interpret this limit in terms of a Higgs-portal model of dark matter interactions.
  17. CMS Collaboration, Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2014;74(9):3060.
    PMID: 25814914
    A measurement of the cross section for the production of top quark-antiquark pairs ([Formula: see text]) in association with a vector boson V (W or Z) in proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] is presented. The results are based on a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 fb[Formula: see text] recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC. The measurement is performed in three leptonic (e and [Formula: see text]) channels: a same-sign dilepton analysis targeting [Formula: see text] events, and trilepton and four-lepton analyses designed for [Formula: see text] events. In the same-sign dilepton channel, the [Formula: see text] cross section is measured as [Formula: see text], corresponding to a significance of 1.6 standard deviations over the background-only hypothesis. Combining the trilepton and four-lepton channels, a direct measurement of the [Formula: see text] cross section, [Formula: see text], is obtained with a significance of 3.1 standard deviations. The measured cross sections are compatible with standard model predictions within their experimental uncertainties. The inclusive [Formula: see text] process is observed with a significance of 3.7 standard deviations from the combination of all three leptonic channels.
  18. CMS Collaboration, Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2014;74(9):3036.
    PMID: 25814912
    Searches for the direct electroweak production of supersymmetric charginos, neutralinos, and sleptons in a variety of signatures with leptons and [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and Higgs bosons are presented. Results are based on a sample of proton-proton collision data collected at center-of-mass energy [Formula: see text] with the CMS detector in 2012, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 [Formula: see text]. The observed event rates are in agreement with expectations from the standard model. These results probe charginos and neutralinos with masses up to 720 [Formula: see text], and sleptons up to 260 [Formula: see text], depending on the model details.
  19. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2014;74(10):3076.
    PMID: 25814871
    Observation of the diphoton decay mode of the recently discovered Higgs boson and measurement of some of its properties are reported. The analysis uses the entire dataset collected by the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions during the 2011 and 2012 LHC running periods. The data samples correspond to integrated luminosities of 5.1[Formula: see text]at [Formula: see text] and 19.7[Formula: see text]at 8[Formula: see text] . A clear signal is observed in the diphoton channel at a mass close to 125[Formula: see text] with a local significance of [Formula: see text], where a significance of [Formula: see text] is expected for the standard model Higgs boson. The mass is measured to be [Formula: see text] , and the best-fit signal strength relative to the standard model prediction is [Formula: see text][Formula: see text][Formula: see text]. Additional measurements include the signal strength modifiers associated with different production mechanisms, and hypothesis tests between spin-0 and spin-2 models.
  20. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2016 Feb 19;116(7):071801.
    PMID: 26943527 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.071801
    A search for narrow resonances in proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV is presented. The invariant mass distribution of the two leading jets is measured with the CMS detector using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.4  fb^{-1}. The highest observed dijet mass is 6.1 TeV. The distribution is smooth and no evidence for resonant particles is observed. Upper limits at 95% confidence level are set on the production cross section for narrow resonances with masses above 1.5 TeV. When interpreted in the context of specific models, the limits exclude string resonances with masses below 7.0 TeV, scalar diquarks below 6.0 TeV, axigluons and colorons below 5.1 TeV, excited quarks below 5.0 TeV, color-octet scalars below 3.1 TeV, and W^{'} bosons below 2.6 TeV. These results significantly extend previously published limits.
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