Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 151 in total

  1. Ismail, I., Anuar, M.S., Shamsudin, R.
    Green coffee beans are stored for a certain period and under certain conditions until they are finally utilized. The storage period may depend on customer demand while the storage conditions depend on where the coffee beans are stored. Thus, this research emphasizes the physicochemical changes that occur in Liberica coffee beans during storage under the Malaysian
    climate (average temperature and relative humidity of 29.33ºC and 71.75% respectively). The changes in the physico-chemical (coffee size, mass, densities, colour, proximate analysis, sucrose, chlorogenic acid content) and microbiological (yeast and mould count) properties were evaluated during eight months of storage. After the storage, the physical properties of the coffee changed as the coffee beans expanded in size, reduced in mass and density and became brighter in colour. Changes in the chemical properties were also detected where the moisture decreased and the ash content increased. In addition, the sucrose level was found to decrease with a corresponding increase in chlorogenic acid. During storage, the counts of yeast and mould were reduced. Model equations describing the changes in the properties were developed. The overall conclusion was that the coffee beans reduced in quality during storage.
  2. Ismail, I., Anuar, M. S., Shamsudin, R.
    Liberica coffee is the most important coffee species grown in Malaysia. However, there is little or no research at all conducted on coffee berries and green coffee beans since the plant itself is a low income crop in Malaysia. Therefore, research on Malaysian Liberica coffee can help to increase the knowledge of coffee farmers and coffee manufacturers in the processing and handling of the coffee. Physical properties of Liberica coffee berries and beans were investigated the current study. The properties investigated include the size, mass, density, coefficient of friction, angle of repose, fracture force and colour. In comparison to Arabica and Robusta coffee, Liberica coffee has the biggest size, mass, true density and fracture force values but were lower in bulk density in both berries and beans. The Liberica berries and beans were found to be orange-ish and yellowish colour respectively. Angle of repose was low and approximately similar in berries and beans while jute fibre gave the highest friction to both Liberica berries and beans.
  3. Ismail, I., Yap, B.W., Abidin, A.S.Z.
    Prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) is associated with increase in mortality and resource utilisation as well as hospitalisation costs. This study evaluates the risk factors of PMV. A retrospective study was conducted involving 890 paediatric patients comprising 237 neonates, 306 infants, 223 of pre-school age and 124 who are of school going age. The data mining decision trees algorithms and logistic regression was employed to develop predictive models for each age category. The independent variables were classified into four categories, that is, demographic data, admission factors, medical factors and score factors. The dependent variable is the duration of ventilation where it is categorized 0 denoting non-PMV and 1 denoting PMV. The performances of three decision tree models (CHAID, CART and C5.0) and logistic regression were compared to determine the best model. The results indicated that the decision tree outperformed the logistic regression model for all age categories, given its good accuracy rate for testing dataset. Decision trees results identified length of stay and inotropes as significant risk factors in all age categories. PRISM 12 hours and principal diagnosis were identified as significant risk factors for infants.
  4. Azhari, N. A. M., Markom, M., Ismail, I., Anuar, N.
    Polygonum minus is a plant rich with bioactive components that contribute to food, pharmaceutical, and perfume industries. However, high moisture content in fresh plants will allow
    microbial activity that leads to the degradation of plant quality. This can be prevented by
    drying the fresh plants to preserve the characteristics of their bioactive components. The
    present work was conducted to determine the effect of different drying methods such as
    air-drying, oven-drying (40 and 60°C), and freeze-drying on essential oil (EO) yield and
    chemical compounds of P. minus roots. For comparison purposes, all samples were extracted
    by maceration with n-hexane at room temperature. Then, the samples were analysed and
    identified by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest EO yield
    extract was obtained from freeze-drying (4.15 ± 0.5), followed by air-drying (3.79 ± 0.19). EO
    yield from oven-drying at 40 and 60°C was 3.4 ± 0.14 and 0.86 ± 0.04, respectively. Results
    showed that by increasing the drying temperature, the EO yield would decrease and cause a
    loss of major chemical compounds in the P. minus root. Air-drying was found to be the best
    method in preserving the presence of important chemical compound in P. minus roots such as
    β-caryophyllene (1.43%), pentadecane (4.34%), hexadecanoic acid (3.91%) and oleic acid
  5. Ismail I, Bulgiba A
    PLoS One, 2013;8(8):e73250.
    PMID: 23951346 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073250
    BACKGROUND: Mortality among TB/HIV co-infected patients is still high particularly in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the predictors of death in TB/HIV co-infected patients during TB treatment.
    METHODS: We reviewed medical records at the time of TB diagnosis and subsequent follow-up of all newly registered TB patients with HIV co-infection at TB clinics in the Institute of Respiratory Medicine and three public hospitals in the Klang Valley between January 2010 and September 2010. We reviewed these medical records again twelve months after their initial diagnosis to determine treatment outcomes and survival. We analysed using Kaplan-Meier and conducted multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis to identify predictors of death during TB treatment in TB/HIV co-infected patients.
    RESULTS: Of the 227 patients studied, 53 (23.3%) had died at the end of the study with 40% of deaths within two months of TB diagnosis. Survival at 2, 6 and 12 months after initiating TB treatment were 90.7%, 82.8% and 78.8% respectively. After adjusting for other factors, death in TB/HIV co-infected patients was associated with being Malay (aHR 4.48; 95%CI 1.73-11.64), CD4 T-lymphocytes count < 200 cells/µl (aHR 3.89; 95% CI 1.20-12.63), three or more opportunistic infections (aHR 3.61; 95% CI 1.04-12.55), not receiving antiretroviral therapy (aHR 3.21; 95% CI 1.76-5.85) and increase per 10(3) total white blood cell count per microliter (aHR 1.12; 95% CI 1.05-1.20).
    CONCLUSION: TB/HIV co-infected patients had a high case fatality rate during TB treatment. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy in these patients can improve survival by restoring immune function and preventing opportunistic infections.
  6. Ismail I, Bulgiba A
    Prev Med, 2013;57 Suppl:S27-30.
    PMID: 23295172 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.12.023
    To determine predictors of unsuccessful treatment in HIV-infected tuberculosis (TB) patients.
  7. Ismail I, Joo ST
    Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour, 2017;37(6):873-883.
    PMID: 29725209 DOI: 10.5851/kosfa.2017.37.6.87
    Variations in the definition of poultry meat quality exist because the quality traits are not solely based on intrinsic and extrinsic factors but also consumers' preference. Appearance quality traits (AQT), eating quality traits (EQT), and reliance quality traits (RQT) are the major factors focused by the consumer before buying good quality of poultry meat. AQT and EQT of poultry meat are controlled by physical and biochemical characteristics of muscle fibers which can be categorized into a total number of fibers (TNF), cross-sectional area of fibers (CSAF), and fiber type composition (FTC). In poultry meat, it has been shown that muscle fiber properties play a key role in meat quality because numerous studies have reported the relationships between quality traits and fiber characteristics. Despite intensive research has been carried out to manipulate the muscle fiber to improve poultry meat quality, demand in a rapid growth of poultry muscle has correlated to the deterioration in the meat quality. The present paper reviews the definition of poultry meat quality, meat quality traits, and variations of meat quality. Also, this review presents recent knowledge underlying the relationship between poultry meat quality traits and muscle fiber characteristics.
  8. Tan WY, Ismail I
    JUMMEC, 2020;23(101):238-246.
    Introduction: Health literacy (HL) has been linked to various health outcomes among diabetics. However, there is no study exploring HL among diabetics within Malaysia.

    Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study examined HL levels among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients, and its association with glycaemic control.

    Results: The response rate was 93.7%; whereby 289 T2DM patients from three public health clinics participated in the study between July 2018 and August 2018. 83.1% of the participants had limited HL (high likelihood of limited HL: 64.4%, adequate HL: 16.9%) and there was no association between HL and glycaemic control (P-value = 0.839). Forward logistic regression showed that limited HL was associated with age (OR 3.231; 95% CI 1.611-6.482) and education level (OR 7.290; 95% CI 3.547-14.984).

    Conclusion: As our findings show, many T2DM patients have a limited HL, especially among those who are older and those who have a lower education level, diabetics should be consistently advised by using layman’s terms to improve their understanding.
  9. Ismail IN, Alaga A
    Med J Malaysia, 2023 Nov;78(6):751-755.
    PMID: 38031216
    INTRODUCTION: Ultrasound guided lung biopsy (USLB) is a minimally invasive diagnostic tool with short examination time and real-time monitoring conducted bedside for accurate diagnosis in order to provide the best treatment. However, it is not widely performed by pulmonologists. We aim to explicate the efficacy and safety of USLB led by pulmonologists. The objective of this study is to assess safety and efficacy of USLB performed by pulmonologists in an outpatient setting.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled patients who underwent the procedure from January 2018 to April 2022. Under real time ultrasound (Hitachi Medical ProSound F37), thoracic lesions adjacent to the chest wall were sampled with a full-core biopsy needle (CT Core Single Action Biopsy Device, 18G × 15 cm, Vigeo, Italy). Chest x-ray was performed 30 minutes post procedure ruling out pneumothorax. Patients were discharged home 1-2 hours post biopsy. Data was analysed using Microsoft Excel 2010 and Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Version 26.

    RESULTS: A total of 18 patients (14 males, 4 females) underwent USLB for lung tumours. Biopsies were histologically deemed adequate with an overall diagnostic yield of 77.8% (14/18). A total of 57% were positive for thoracic malignancy (21% squamous cell carcinoma, 21% adenocarcinoma, 15% small cell carcinoma) and another 43% were positive for extra thoracic malignancy (1 hepatocellular carcinoma, 2 DLBCL, 1 Hodgkin's lymphoma, 1 seminoma, 1 thymoma). Four patients had inconclusive results but managed to get positive results from surgical or lymph node biopsy (thymoma and adenocarcinoma). Statistical analysis showed more than two passes are needed to achieve a positive HPE yield (p value<0.05). There were nil complications to all the cases done.

    CONCLUSIONS: USLB can safely and effectively be performed by trained pulmonologists with excellent accuracy and low complication rate in outpatients.

  10. Ismail I, Singh R, Sirisinghe RG
    PMID: 17883020
    This crossover study assessed the effectiveness of plain water (PW), sports drink (SD), fresh young coconut water (CW) and sodium-enriched fresh young coconut water (SCW) on whole body rehydration (R) and plasma volume (PV) restoration after exercise-induced dehydration. Ten healthy male subjects ran at 65% of VO2max in an environmental temperature of 32.06 +/- 0.02 degree C with a relative humidity (rh) of 53.32 +/- 0.17% for 90 minutes to lose 3% body weight (BW). During the 2-hour rehydration period, subjects drank, in randomized order, PW, SD, CW or SCW equivalent to 120% of BW lost in three boluses representing 50, 40 and 30% of the fluid lost at 0, 30, and 60 minutes, respectively. In all trials subjects were still somewhat dehydrated even after the 2-hour rehydration period. Indexes of percent rehydration with PW, SD, CW and SCW were 58 +/- 2, 68 +/- 2, 65+/- 2 and 69 +/- 1%, respectively, with significantly better rehydration with SD and SCW. The rehydration indexes for SD and SCW were significantly lower than PW (p < 0.01). PV was restored to euhydration levels after 2 hours of rehydration with SD, CW and SCW but not with PW. The plasma glucose concentration were significantly higher when SD, CW and SCW were ingested. SCW was similar in sweetness to CW and SD but caused less nausea and stomach upset compared to SD and PW. In conclusion, ingesting SCW was as good as ingesting a commercial sports drink for whole body rehydration after exercise-induced dehydration but with better fluid tolerance.
  11. Ismail IA, Chan SC
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 Mar;59(1):4-10.
    PMID: 15535328 MyJurnal
    The knowledge and practice of doctors (n=40) towards complementary medicine (CM) in 16 health clinics in the Kinta District were assessed by questionnaire. Thirty-four (85%) responded. More than half felt that acupuncture (73.50), homeopathy (59%) and herbal medicine (59%) were occasionally harmful. Forty-four percent felt manipulative therapy was frequently harmful. Relaxation technique (79%) and nutritional therapy (44%) were considered most frequently useful. 59% used some form of CM. There were no significant differences found in usage rates by gender, age group and exposure to CM during undergraduate training. Sixty-seven percent had encouraged patients to seek CM. Seventy-three percent perceived an increasing demand for CM. Eighty-eight percent were in favour of a hospital based CM referral center. Only 6% were trained in CM.
    Study site: Klinik kesihatan, Perak, Malaysia
  12. Zunaina E., Siti Zulaikha Nashwa M., Abdul Salim I., Abdul Aziz M.Y., Noraida, R., Mohd Ismail I., et al.
    The aim of this study is to determine the risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and also to screen Norrie Disease Pseudoglioma (NDP) gene mutation in order to determine if mutation in the NDP gene may play a role in the development of ROP among Malay premature infants. This was a case control studyamong Malay premature infants from Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) conducted from August 2011 to May 2013. Written consent were taken from their parents before conducting the study. The stage of ROP, systemic risk factors (gestational age and birth weight) and enviromental risk factors (oxygen exposure and duration of ventilation)were reviewed from patients’medical records. DNA was extracted from venous blood and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) before direct sequencing of NDP gene. A total of 56 Malay premature infants (Case group = 28 ROP premature infants, Controlgroup = 28 non-ROP premature infants)from Hospital USMwere enrolled in this study. Out of 28 premature infants with ROP, 11 (39.3%) premature infants were in stage 3. Only 1 (3.6%) premature infant in stage 4 and 2 (7.2%) premature infants in stage 5. The gestational age (p = 0.010) and birth weight (p = 0.010) were the significant risk factors for ROP. There was no significant difference ofenvironmental risk factors between the two groups. The NDPgene mutation was not detected in Malay premature infants with ROP and also in control group. The gestational age and birth weight were important risk factors of ROP.Although NDPgene mutations were being linked to ROP but NDPgene mutation was not detected in premature infants with ROPas well as premature infants with non-ROP among Malay ethnic background.
  13. Cheng A, Ismail I, Osman M, Hashim H
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(5):6156-66.
    PMID: 22754356 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13056156
    The polymorphisms of Waxy (Wx) microsatellite and G-T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the Wx gene region were analyzed using simplified techniques in fifteen rice varieties. A rapid and reliable electrophoresis method, MetaPhor agarose gel electrophoresis (MAGE), was effectively employed as an alternative to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for separating Wx microsatellite alleles. The amplified products containing the Wx microsatellite ranged from 100 to 130 bp in length. Five Wx microsatellite alleles, namely (CT)(10), (CT)(11), (CT)(16), (CT)(17), and (CT)(18) were identified. Of these, (CT)(11) and (CT)(17) were the predominant classes among the tested varieties. All varieties with an apparent amylose content higher than 24% were associated with the shorter repeat alleles; (CT)(10) and (CT)(11), while varieties with 24% or less amylose were associated with the longer repeat alleles. All varieties with intermediate and high amylose content had the sequence AGGTATA at the 5'-leader intron splice site, while varieties with low amylose content had the sequence AGTTATA. The G-T polymorphism was further verified by the PCR-AccI cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) method, in which only genotypes containing the AGGTATA sequence were cleaved by AccI. Hence, varieties with desirable amylose levels can be developed rapidly using the Wx microsatellite and G-T SNP, along with MAGE.
  14. Masura SS, Parveez GK, Ismail I
    N Biotechnol, 2010 Sep 30;27(4):289-99.
    PMID: 20123048 DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2010.01.337
    The ubiquitin extension protein (uep1) gene was identified as a constitutively expressed gene in oil palm. We have isolated and characterized the 5' region of the oil palm uep1 gene, which contains an 828 bp sequence upstream of the uep1 translational start site. Construction of a pUEP1 transformation vector, which contains gusA reporter gene under the control of uep1 promoter, was carried out for functional analysis of the promoter through transient expression studies. It was found that the 5' region of uep1 functions as a constitutive promoter in oil palm and could drive GUS expression in all tissues tested, including embryogenic calli, embryoid, immature embryo, young leaflet from mature palm, green leaf, mesocarp and meristematic tissues (shoot tip). This promoter could also be used in dicot systems as it was demonstrated to be capable of driving gusA gene expression in tobacco.
  15. Muniandy S, Qvist R, Zaini A, Chinna K, Ismail IS
    PMID: 16295560
    The concentration of plasma sialic acid was estimated using the modified chemical method and the more sensitive enzymatic method in 20 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and 20 control subjects. The mean sialic acid concentration values of the control subjects and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance using the enzymatic method were 1.747 +/- 0.047 and 2.583 +/- 0.070 mmole/l and 1.753 +/- 0.067 and 2.591 +/- 1.02 mmole/l for the chemical method. The intra-assay coefficient of variation for the control subjects and for the subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were 1.963% and 1.583%, respectively, for the enzymatic assay and 2.728% and 2.431%, respectively, for the chemical assay. The inter-assay coefficient of variation for the control subjects and for the subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were 2.686% and 2.723% for the enzymatic assay, and 3.819% and 3.95% for the chemical assay. Since the values do not differ significantly, the chemical assay is a cost effective method that can be used in large epidemiological studies.
  16. Zainal Z, Sajari R, Ismail I
    J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Biophys., 2002 Dec;6(6):415-9.
    PMID: 14972797
    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is an enzyme of one of the two pathways of putrescine biosynthesis in plants. The genes encoding ODC have previously been cloned from Datura stramonium and human. Using differential screening, we isolated ODC cDNA clone from a cDNA library of ripening Capsicum annuum fruit. The cDNA clone designated CUKM10 contains an insert of 1523 bp. The longest open reading frame potentially encodes a peptide of 345 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 47 kDa and exhibit striking similarity to other ODCs. Expression analysis showed that the capODC hybridised to a single transcript with a size of 1.7 kb. The capODC transcript was first observed in early ripening and increased steadily until it reached fully ripening stage. From the observation it is suggested that capODC is developmentally regulated especially during later stage of ripening.
  17. Ismail I, Hwang YH, Joo ST
    Meat Sci, 2019 Nov;157:107882.
    PMID: 31295690 DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2019.107882
    This paper describes the influence of different factors on toughness of beef semitendinosus (ST) by means of low temperature-long time cooking with single-stage (60 °C, 65 °C, 70 °C, and 75 °C for 6 h and 12 h) and two-stage sous-vide procedure (45 + 60 °C, 45 + 65 °C, 45 + 70 °C, and 45 + 75 °C; 49 + 60 °C, 49 + 65 °C, 49 + 70 °C, and 49 + 75 °C for 3 h at the first temperature, and either 3 or 9 h at the second temperature). Reduced toughness of ST beef steak muscle could be attained in 6 h at 60 °C and 45 + 60 °C were due from the minimum shrinkage of sarcomere as well as lower perimysial thickness, cooking loss, and elastic modulus. Collagen solubility showed a positive correlation to the toughness values. The relationship between proteolytic activity and shear force can be seen after 12 h of cooking duration. For the other quality attributes, two stepped cooking temperature-time combination seems to be more effective in preserving the redness values and water content than a single-stage sous-vide method.
  18. ul Hassan MN, Zainal Z, Ismail I
    Plant Biotechnol J, 2015 Aug;13(6):727-39.
    PMID: 25865366 DOI: 10.1111/pbi.12368
    Plants have evolved numerous constitutive and inducible defence mechanisms to cope with biotic and abiotic stresses. These stresses induce the expression of various genes to activate defence-related pathways that result in the release of defence chemicals. One of these defence mechanisms is the oxylipin pathway, which produces jasmonates, divinylethers and green leaf volatiles (GLVs) through the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). GLVs have recently emerged as key players in plant defence, plant-plant interactions and plant-insect interactions. Some GLVs inhibit the growth and propagation of plant pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and fungi. In certain cases, GLVs released from plants under herbivore attack can serve as aerial messengers to neighbouring plants and to attract parasitic or parasitoid enemies of the herbivores. The plants that perceive these volatile signals are primed and can then adapt in preparation for the upcoming challenges. Due to their 'green note' odour, GLVs impart aromas and flavours to many natural foods, such as vegetables and fruits, and therefore, they can be exploited in industrial biotechnology. The aim of this study was to review the progress and recent developments in research on the oxylipin pathway, with a specific focus on the biosynthesis and biological functions of GLVs and their applications in industrial biotechnology.
  19. Mohd-Zain Z, Kamsani NH, Ismail IS, Ahmad N
    Trop Biomed, 2012 Sep;29(3):372-80.
    PMID: 23018500 MyJurnal
    Prior to the implementation of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination worldwide, H. influenzae has been one of the main causative agents of community acquired pneumonia and meningitis in children. Due to the lack of information on the characteristics of the H. influenzae isolates that have previously been collected in Malaysia, the H. influenzae were assessed of their microbial susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. Emphasis was made on strains that were resistance to co-trimoxazole (SXT) and their mode of transfer of the antibiotic resistance determinants were examined. A collection of 34 H. influenzae isolates was serotyped and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed to 11 antibiotics. To the isolates that were found to be resistant to co-trimoxazole, minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) to SXT was performed using Etest while agar dilution method was used to measure the individual MICs of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SUL). These isolates were also examined for presence of plasmid by PCR and isolation method. Conjugal transfers of SXT-resistant genes to SXT-susceptible hosts were performed to determine their rate of transfer. Result showed that 20.6% of the total number of isolates was serotype B while the remaining was non-typeable. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of all the isolates revealed that 58.8% was resistant to at least one antibiotic. Majority of these isolates were equally resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline (29.4% each), followed by resistance to SXT (26.5%). From nine isolates that were found to be SXT-resistant, five contained plasmid/s. Conjugal transfer experiment showed that these five isolates with plasmid transferred SXT-resistance determinants at a higher frequency than those without. From these observations, it is postulated that plasmid is not involved in the transfer of SXT-resistance genes but presence of plasmid facilitates their transfer. The information obtained from this study provides some basic knowledge on the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the H. influenzae isolates and their mode of transfer of SXT-resistance genes.
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