To address the association of dietary vitamins, anthropometric profile, lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in hypertensive participant compared with normotensive healthy controls.
An equipment for calculating 2nd, 3rd, and higher order geometric moments by using accumulators, adders, subtractors, and multiplier blocks has been presented. The performance analysis of the proposed equipment with the existing systems in terms of speed and power dissipation has been carried out and has been shown that the computational time to calculate the geometric moments is reduced to half and the power dissipation is reduced by a factor of about 3 at a clock frequency of 10 MHz. The hardware has been implemented in BSIM4.3.0 50 nm technology operating at 1 V and its functionality has been verified using P-Spice simulator.
This is the first time we encountered a peculiar case of osteomyelitis complicating a closed fracture. The patient was a 38 year-old lady who presented just like any other patient with a closed fracture of the right femur. Intraoperatively we were surprised to find pus from the fracture site. This not only changed the surgical management but altered the subsequent outcome as well.
The present study was aimed at assessing alterations in serum PCT in terms of its relation to body weight gain in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients undergoing treatment. Among patients (25-75 years) diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, those that were new smear positive, showed sputum conversion at the end of 2 months and were declared clinically cured at the end of 6 months, were included in the study (n = 40). Serum procalcitonin was determined by BRAHMS PCT-Q kit. Patients were divided into two study groups-Group 1 (n = 21; serum PCT > 2 ng/ml at diagnosis), Group 2 (n = 19; serum PCT > 10 ng/ml at diagnosis). Body weights of all patients were obtained at three different time points, PTB-0 (at diagnosis), PTB-2 (after 2 months of intensive treatment) and PTB-6 (after 6 months of treatment). In both groups, mean body weights at PTB-2 and PTB-6 were significantly higher than those at PTB-0 and at PTB-6 were significantly higher than those at PTB-2. However, percentage body weight gain following 2 months of intensive treatment was higher in group 1 (4.05 % gain, p
Our study was aimed to assess the levels of serum calcium and phosphorus in pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Blood samples were collected from 40 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis before treatment (PTB-0), at the end of 2 months of intensive phase of treatment (PTB-2) and after 6 months of treatment (PTB-6). Age and weight matched normal healthy volunteers (n = 37) served as normal controls. Serum was analyzed for calcium and phosphorus. Serum calcium significantly decreased to hypocalcemic levels and serum phosphorus significantly decreased but was within normophosphatemic limits in pulmonary tuberculosis. Chemotherapy for tuberculosis managed to raise serum levels of both the ions, with hypocalcemia still persisting in majority of patients during treatment but getting resolved in a significant percentage of patients at the end of 6 months of treatment. Results indicate the need for calcium and phosphorus supplements in tuberculosis patients during chemotherapy. This study also warrants the need for regular monitoring of serum calcium and phosphorus in patients undergoing anti-tuberculosis treatment.
This paper explores the migration of adaptive filtering with swarm intelligence/evolutionary techniques employed in the field of electroencephalogram/event-related potential noise cancellation or extraction. A new approach is proposed in the form of controlled search space to stabilize the randomness of swarm intelligence techniques especially for the EEG signal. Swarm-based algorithms such as Particles Swarm Optimization, Artificial Bee Colony, and Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm with their variants are implemented to design optimized adaptive noise canceler. The proposed controlled search space technique is tested on each of the swarm intelligence techniques and is found to be more accurate and powerful. Adaptive noise canceler with traditional algorithms such as least-mean-square, normalized least-mean-square, and recursive least-mean-square algorithms are also implemented to compare the results. ERP signals such as simulated visual evoked potential, real visual evoked potential, and real sensorimotor evoked potential are used, due to their physiological importance in various EEG studies. Average computational time and shape measures of evolutionary techniques are observed 8.21E-01 sec and 1.73E-01, respectively. Though, traditional algorithms take negligible time consumption, but are unable to offer good shape preservation of ERP, noticed as average computational time and shape measure difference, 1.41E-02 sec and 2.60E+00, respectively.
BACKGROUND: In future, increase in the number of healthcare professionals is dependent on the career interest among present undergraduate medical students. Based on their interest to pursue their specialty, the availability of medical doctors in each specialty could be done.
AIMS: This study was to find out future career interest and factors that influence undergraduate medical students to choose their future specialization.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out among first-year medical students from five countries. The students were asked to complete an 8-item questionnaire. Two thousand one hundred fifty three participants were enrolled in the study. Data were analyzed in Microsoft-Excel and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences.
RESULTS: Of the 2153 participants, only 1470 responded. Among the 1470 participants, 169 participants were excluded due to the ambiguity in responses, finally making it to 1301 participants. Among them, Anatomy (49.3%) followed by Biochemistry (26.7%) and Physiology (24%) were the most preferred subjects.
CONCLUSIONS: Anatomy was the most preferred basic science subject among the other subjects and the students were interested to pursuing surgery in future. Furthermore, the most preferred future specialties were surgery, internal medicine and pediatrics with gender variations; males preferring surgery and females in obstetrics and gynecology.
KEYWORDS: China; First year medical students; Malaysia; Medical Education; Post-Graduation; SAARC country
The aim of the study was the assessment of hematological parameters in pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Forty patients diagnosed with tuberculosis were recruited from the Institute of Thoracic Medicine on the basis of history, clinical examination, chest radiography, sputum examination and related laboratory parameters and were compared with age and sex matched healthy volunteers (n = 40). Hematological parameters and CRP in tuberculosis patients were determined. The mean values for serum hemoglobin level, RBC count and platelet count in PTB was found to be less (p
Isopods occur very commonly as parasites in food fishes. Parasitic isopods are typically marine and usually inhabit the warmer seas. They are blood-feeding; several species settle in the buccal cavity of fish, others live in the gill chamber or on the body surface including the fins. Isopods can cause morbidity and mortality in captive fish populations. The infestation usually pressure atrophy often accompanies the presence of larger parasites. The present study was aimed at collecting information on the neglected group of isopod parasites of the marine fishes from the Miri coastal environment, East Malaysia. A very little information available regarding the distribution of isopod parasites of Malaysian coastal environment. In the present study, nine isopod parasites were oberved from ten marine fish species. The maximum number of parasites were observed in the months of June and October, 2013. Maximum prevalence was observed in October (50 %) and the minimum was observed in June (7.14 %). The parasitic infestation may lead to an economic loss in commercial fish species.
Electrospinning is a promising and versatile technique that is used to fabricate polymeric nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Ideal scaffolds should be biocompatible and bioactive with appropriate surface chemistry, good mechanical properties and should mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) of bone. Selection of the most appropriate material to produce a scaffold is an important step towards the construction of a tissue engineered product. Bone tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field, where the principles of engineering are applied on bone-related biochemical reactions. Scaffolds, cells, growth factors, and their interrelation in microenvironment are the major concerns in bone tissue engineering. This review covers the latest development of biomimetic electrospun polymeric biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. It includes the brief details to bone tissue engineering along with bone structure and ideal bone scaffolds requirements. Details about various engineered materials and methodologies used for bone scaffolds development were discussed. Description of electrospinning technique and its parameters relating their fabrication, advantages, and applications in bone tissue engineering were also presented. The use of synthetic and natural polymers based electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering and their biomineralization processes were discussed and reviewed comprehensively. Finally, we give conclusion along with perspectives and challenges of biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering based on electrospun nanofibers.
The use of muscles of scapular region in transposition and reparative surgery has made the anatomical knowledge of axillary artery and its branches imperative. The subscapular arterial tree is frequently used as a source of microvascular grafts to replace damaged or diseased portion of arteries especially in upper and lower limbs. This investigation is aimed to study the variation in branching pattern of the third part of axillary artery.
HP0986 protein of Helicobacter pylori has been shown to trigger induction of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-8 and TNF-α) through the activation of NF-κB and also to induce Fas mediated apoptosis of human macrophage cells (THP-1). In this study, we unravel mechanistic details of the biological effects of this protein in a murine macrophage environment. Up regulation of MCP-1 and TNF-α in HP0986-induced RAW 264.7 cells occurred subsequent to the activation and translocation of NF-κB to the cell nucleus. Further, HP0986 induced apoptosis of RAW 264.7 cells through Fas activation and this was in agreement with previous observations made with THP-1 cells. Our studies indicated activation of TNFR1 through interaction with HP0986 and this elicited the aforementioned responses independent of TLR2, TLR4 or TNFR2. We found that mouse TNFR1 activation by HP0986 facilitates formation of a complex comprising of TNFR1, TRADD and TRAF2, and this occurs upstream of NF-κB activation. Furthermore, FADD also forms a second complex, at a later stage, together with TNFR1 and TRADD, resulting in caspase-8 activation and thereby the apoptosis of RAW 264.7 cells. In summary, our observations reveal finer details of the functional activity of HP0986 protein in relation to its behavior in a murine macrophage cell environment. These findings reconfirm the proinflammatory and apoptotic role of HP0986 signifying it to be an important trigger of innate responses. These observations form much needed baseline data entailing future in vivo studies of the functions of HP0986 in a murine model.
Porous Carbon Nanoparticles (PCNs) with well-developed microporosity were obtained from bio-waste oil palm leaves (OPL) using single step pyrolysis in nitrogen atmosphere at 500-600 °C in tube-furnace without any catalysis support. The key approach was using silica (SiO2) bodies of OPL as a template in the synthesis of microporous carbon nanoparticles with very small particle sizes of 35-85 nm and pore sizes between 1.9-2 nm.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by impaired memory function and oxidative damage. NO is a major signaling molecule produced in the central nervous system to modulate neurological activity through modulating nitric oxide synthase. Recently, PPAR-γ agonists have shown neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative disorders. However, there have been only a few studies identifying mechanisms through which cognitive benefits may be exerted. The present study was designed to investigate the possible nitric oxide mechanism in the protective effect of pioglitazone against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced memory dysfunction. Wistar rats were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected with STZ. Then rats were treated with pioglitazone, NO modulators [L-arginine and nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)] for 21 days. Behavioral alterations were assessed in between the study period. Animals were sacrificed immediately after behavioral session, and mito-oxidative parameters, TNF-α, IL-6, and caspase-3 activity were measured. STZ-treated rats showed a memory deficit and significantly increased in mito-oxidative damage and inflammatory mediators and apoptosis in the hippocampus. Chronic treatment of pioglitazone significantly improved memory retention and attenuated mito-oxidative damage parameters, inflammatory markers, and apoptosis in STZ-treated rats. However, L-arginine pretreatment with lower dose of pioglitazone has not produced any protective effect as compared to per se. Furthermore, pretreatment of L-NAME significantly potentiated its protective effect, which indicates the involvement of nitric oxide for activation of PPAR-γ action. These results demonstrate that pioglitazone offers protection against STZ-induced memory dysfunction possibly due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic action mediating nitric oxide pathways and, therefore, could have a therapeutic potential in AD.
This report documents an incidental finding during a study investigating the effects of melatonin supplementation on the development of blood pressure in SHR. Administration of 10 mg/kg/day of melatonin in drinking water during pregnancy to Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) dams caused a loss of more than 50% of the pups by the age of three weeks and 95% by the age of 6 weeks. There was no maternal morbidity or mortality in the two strains or death of any of the SHR pups. No obvious physical defects were present but mean body weight was lower in the surviving WKY rats when compared to that of melatonin supplemented SHR or non-supplemented WKY pups. The reason for the high mortality in WKY pups is uncertain and appears to be strain if not batch specific. There is a need for caution in its use, particularly during pregnancy, and clearly necessitates more detailed studies.
Malaria, particularly that due to chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum, which requires management with antimalarial drugs capable of protecting against multiresistant strains, has emerged in Malaysia. A study was carried out to assess the efficacy and tolerability of 2 dosages of mefloquine/sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (MSP; RO 13-5112) compared to Fansidar in a malaria endemic area. 914 subjects in 3 random groups were studied. Occurrence of malaria was assessed both clinically as well as by blood films. Plasma drug levels were also measured. The results showed that the low dose of MSP was completely effective in suppressing parasitaemia. 2.7% of the study population reported adverse drug reactions, the lowest incidence being in subjects on the low dose; their blood chemical profiles were also the least affected. The plasma levels of pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine achieved in the low dose group were slightly higher than expected, but there was no significant difference in bioavailability. The study showed that, for chemoprophylaxis, a low dose of MSP provided effective protection with minimal side effects.
A single dose pharmacokinetic study of a combined antimalarial formulation of mefloquine, sulphadoxine and pyrimethamine (Fansimef) has been performed in 10 healthy adult male Malaysian volunteers. The dose consisted of two tablets containing 250 mg mefloquine base, 500 mg sulphadoxine base and 25 mg pyrimethamine base each. Plasma concentrations of mefloquine and pyrimethamine were measured by GC-ECD, those of sulphadoxine by h.p.l.c. Time to peak concentrations (mean +/- s.d. for mefloquine (5.70 +/- 0.95 h), sulphadoxine (3.75 +/- 2.03 h) and pyrimethamine (3.30 +/- 1.98 h) were similar to those observed by others after administration of the single compounds. This was also true for elimination half-lives (t1/2). The t1/2s for mefloquine, sulphadoxine and pyrimethamine were 387 +/- 98 h, 255 +/- 61 h and 114 +/- 42 h, respectively.