METHODS: A cross-sectional study using stratified random sampling was conducted in seven coastal villages in Semporna, Sabah: Kabogan Laut, Salimbangun, Pekalangan, Pokas, Tampi-Tampi Timbayan, Sum Sum and Selinggit. Socio-demographic data were obtained via interviewer administered questionnaires in Sabah Malay creole. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and blood lipids were obtained.
RESULTS: A total of 330 adults (133 males, 197 females) completed the study. Mean age was 43.7 ± 15.8 years. Most participants (87%) were living below the Poverty Line Income. Median per capita household income was RM83.33/month (≈ USD20/month). The number of newly diagnosed cases of hypercholesterolemia was 40.6%, diabetes mellitus was 5.8%, and hypertension was 24.5%. Adults from the hardcore poor economic status (household income ≤RM760/month (≈USD183/month) were the most represented in those who did not have a blood pressure, blood sugar and blood lipids check in the 12 months preceding the study (Χ2, p
CASE REPORT: A 34-year-old woman with intractable epigastric pain was referred to have repeated endoscopy with biopsy. She was found to multiple gastric erosions and nodules that were diagnosed as inflammatory lesions both endoscopically and histologically. Meanwhile, she developed an acute onset of severe back pain associated with a pathologic compression fracture in the T3 thoracic vertebral body. Imaging studies disclosed a disseminated systemic disease involving abdominopelvic lymph nodes and cervical and thoracic vertebral bodies. The needle biopsy of the pelvic lymph node disclosed diffuse proliferation of monomorphic small round cells that were diffusely positive for CD30 and ALK. A diagnosis of ALK+ ALCL with a monomorphic SC pattern was rendered.
DISCUSSION: A retrospective review of the gastric biopsies with the aid of immunohistochemistry enabled us to recognise the presence of lymphomatous infiltrates with a mixed LH and SC pattern in every piece of gastric biopsies that were repeatedly misdiagnosed as inflammatory lesions. This case illustrates a significant diagnostic pitfall of the LH- and SC-patterns in ALK+ ALCL, in which the tumour cells featuring lymphoid, plasmacytoid or histiocytoid appearance can be masqueraded as inflammatory cells.
METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia from Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and Taiwan were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with 40 or 80 mg/d of lurasidone or placebo. The primary efficacy measure was change from baseline to week 6 on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score. Efficacy was evaluated using a mixed-model repeated-measures (MMRM) analysis in the modified intention-to-treat (mITT) population.
RESULTS: On the basis of the analysis for the mITT population, the estimated difference score for lurasidone 40 and 80 mg/d vs placebo was -4.8 (P = 0.050) and -4.2 (P = 0.080). For the full intention-to-treat (ITT) population, the difference score for lurasidone 40 and 80 mg/d vs placebo was -5.8 (P = 0.017) and -4.2 (P = 0.043). The most frequent adverse events in the lurasidone 40 and 80 mg/d and placebo groups, respectively, were akathisia (7.3%, 10.4%, 3.3%), somnolence (6.0%, 2.6%, 0.7%), and vomiting (6.0%, 5.8%, 2.0%). The proportion of patients experiencing clinically significant weight gain (≥7%) was 5.3% for lurasidone 40 mg/d, 1.3% for 80 mg/d, and 1.4% for placebo. End point changes in metabolic parameters and prolactin were comparable for both lurasidone groups and placebo.
CONCLUSIONS: In the ITT (but not the mITT) population, treatment with lurasidone was associated with significant improvement in the PANSS total score in patients with schizophrenia. Lurasidone was generally well tolerated with minimal impact on weight and metabolic parameters.
METHODS: Eligible Asian patients (enrolled at Asian sites) who were at least 18 years of age (≥20 years in Japan) and had untreated EGFR-mutated advanced NSCLC were randomized 1:1 to receive osimertinib (80 mg, orally once daily) or an SoC EGFR TKI (gefitinib, 250 mg, or erlotinib, 150 mg, orally once daily). The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS). The key secondary end points were overall survival, objective response rate, central nervous system efficacy, and safety.
RESULTS: The median PFS was 16.5 versus 11.0 months for the osimertinib and SoC EGFR TKI groups, respectively (hazard ratio = 0.54, 95% confidence interval: 0.41-0.72, p < 0.0001). The overall survival data were immature (24% maturity). The objective response rates were 80% for osimertinib and 75% for an SoC EGFR TKI. The median central nervous system PFS was not calculable for the osimertinib group and was 13.8 months for the SoC EGFR TKI group (hazard ratio = 0.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.25-1.17, p = 0.118). Fewer adverse events of grade 3 or higher (40% versus 48%) and fewer adverse events leading to treatment discontinuation (15% versus 21%) were reported with osimertinib versus with an SoC EGFR TKI, respectively.
CONCLUSION: In this Asian population, first-line osimertinib demonstrated a clinically meaningful improvement in PFS over an SoC EGFR TKI, with a safety profile consistent with that for the overall FLAURA study population.
OBJECTIVE: To identify subgroups of COPD with distinct phenotypes, evaluate the distribution of phenotypes in four related regions and calculate the 1-year change in lung function and quality of life according to subgroup.
METHODS: Using clinical characteristics, we performed factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis in a cohort of 1676 COPD patients from 13 Asian cities. We compared the 1-year change in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale score, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score and exacerbations according to subgroup derived from cluster analysis.
RESULTS: Factor analysis revealed that body mass index, Charlson comorbidity index, SGRQ total score and FEV1 were principal factors. Using these four factors, cluster analysis identified three distinct subgroups with differing disease severity and symptoms. Among the three subgroups, patients in subgroup 2 (severe disease and more symptoms) had the most frequent exacerbations, most rapid FEV1 decline and greatest decline in SGRQ total score.
CONCLUSION: Three subgroups with differing severities and symptoms were identified in Asian COPD subjects.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tumor tissue EGFRm status was determined at screening using the central cobas tissue test or a local tissue test. Baseline circulating tumor (ct)DNA EGFRm status was retrospectively determined with the central cobas plasma test.
RESULTS: Of 994 patients screened, 556 were randomized (289 and 267 with central and local EGFR test results, respectively) and 438 failed screening. Of those randomized from local EGFR test results, 217 patients had available central test results; 211/217 (97%) were retrospectively confirmed EGFRm positive by central cobas tissue test. Using reference central cobas tissue test results, positive percent agreements with cobas plasma test results for Ex19del and L858R detection were 79% [95% confidence interval (CI), 74-84] and 68% (95% CI, 61-75), respectively. Progression-free survival (PFS) superiority with osimertinib over comparator EGFR-TKI remained consistent irrespective of randomization route (central/local EGFRm-positive tissue test). In both treatment arms, PFS was prolonged in plasma ctDNA EGFRm-negative (23.5 and 15.0 months) versus -positive patients (15.2 and 9.7 months).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results support utility of cobas tissue and plasma testing to aid selection of patients with EGFRm advanced NSCLC for first-line osimertinib treatment. Lack of EGFRm detection in plasma was associated with prolonged PFS versus patients plasma EGFRm positive, potentially due to patients having lower tumor burden.