Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 131 in total

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  1. Nyam, K.L., Tan, C.H., Long, K.
    MyJurnal
    The aim of this study was to investigate the oxidative stability, antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of 2 minutes microwave pre-treated kenaf seed oil (MKSO) in comparison with the untreated kenaf seed oil (KSO) under accelerated storage for 24 days. Results obtained on oxidative stability for both KSO and MKSO by the end of storage with PV were 9.83 meq O2 /kg and 8.97 meq O2 /kg, respectively; p-Anv were 17.28 and 13.48, respectively; TOTOX value of 36.94 and 31.42, respectively; IV value were measured 84.50 g of I2 / 100 g and 84.34 g of I2 / 100 g oil, respectively; FFA value of 5.67 mg KOH/100g oil and 5.14 mg KOH/100g oil, respectively. Aside from that, the antioxidant activity in MKSO was better than KSO. For the fatty acid composition, the oleic and linoleic acids were affected significantly throughout storage for both KSO and MKSO. MKSO presented a better overall oxidative stability, antioxidant activity and retained higher content of MUFA and PUFA significantly (p< 0.05) upon accelerated storage.
  2. Nyam, K.L., Wong, M.M., Long, K., Tan, C.P.
    MyJurnal
    With the concern of adverse effects of lipid oxidation on food deterioration and human health, the antioxidant activities of kenaf seed extracts (KSE), roselle seed extracts (RSE) and roselle extracts (RE) were evaluated by comparing its oxidative stability in refined, bleached & deodorised (RBD) sunflower oils with that of in synthetic antioxidant, BHA. Established methods such as peroxide values (PV), p-anisidine values (AV), TOTOX values, free fatty acids (FFA), iodine values (IV), total phenolic contents (TPC), conjugated dienes (CD) and conjugated triene (CT) were employed to assess the extent of oil deterioration. During 24 days storage, consensus was accomplished based on the results assessed by PV, TOTOX, CD, CT, IV and TPC at which the antioxidant activities of KSE, RSE and RE were better than BHA. Surprisingly, the results obtained by AV and FFA assays showed the reversed. Among the extracts, RSE exhibited the best antioxidant activities. These suggest that KSE, RSE and RE may be used as potential source of natural antioxidants in the application of food industry to prevent lipid oxidation.
  3. Abdulkarim, S.M., Lai, O.M., Muhammad, S.K.S., Long, K., Ghazali, H.M.
    MyJurnal
    Solvent-extracted Moringa oleifera seed oil was transesterified using immobilized lipase (Lipozyme IM 60) (Novozymes Bagsvaerd Denmark) at 1% (w/w) concentration, shaken at 60oC and 200 rpm for up to 24h. After transesterification, the oil was fractionated with acetone at -18oC and without acetone at 10oC to obtain two fractions, stearin and olein fractions. Incubation of the transesterified oil at 10oC for 24 h resulted in the formation of fat crystals, which settled at the bottom of the flask in sample transesterified for 24 h, while the control (0 h) sample became rather viscous with fat crystals in suspension. Transesterification resulted in a change in the triacylglycerol (TAG) profile of the oil, which in turn affected its solid fat content (SFC) and thermal behavior. The SFC value at 0oC after 24 h of reaction was 10.35% and significantly (P
  4. Nyam, K. L., Tang, J. L. K., Long, K.
    MyJurnal
    The aim of this research is to determine the antiulcer properties and percentage protection of
    Hibiscus cannabinus and Hibiscus sabdariffa seed samples towards ulcer-induced Sprague
    dawley rats. Rats were divided into six groups each for each ulceration method and fed with
    distilled water, Omeprazole, H. cannabinus seed oil (HCSO), H. cannabinus seed extract
    (HCSE), H. sabdariffa seed oil (HSSO) and H. sabdariffa seed extract (HSSE), respectively
    via oral administration. Among the two plants tested, H. cannabinus showed the best protection
    percentage towards ethanol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cold restrain
    stress induced ulcers. H. cannabinus seed extract (HSSE) exhibited an exceptionally high ulcer
    protection of 74.98 ± 0.78% against NSAIDs induced ulcer. The gastric lesions were controlled
    primarily by both mucosal protection and acid inhibition. In conclusion, addition of these seeds
    to the daily diet may reduce free radical activity in the body and reduce the risk of developing
    peptic ulcer disease.
  5. Amin, Z.A., Koh, S.P., Hamid, N.S.A., Long, K., Tan, C.P.
    Food Research, 2017;1(1):15-22.
    MyJurnal
    The aim of this work was to investigate the microencapsulation efficiency (MEE) of different
    grades of broken rice (RB) and breadfruit (BB)-based maltodextrin as a coating material,
    using virgin coconut oil (VCO) as a model system. The VCO was generally found to be well
    microencapsulated using BB, RB or commercial (COM) maltodextrin at a core/wall material
    ratio of 1:3. In comparison to a different dextrose equivalent (DE) group, both RB and BB
    maltodextrins with DE values of 10-14 showed higher MEE values (84.81-94.39%) than
    maltodextrins with DE value of 15-19 (78.23-79.65%). Low DE value maltodextrins were
    shown higher glass transition temperatures than high DE value maltodextrins under the same
    moisture content. Both RB and BB maltodextrins were found to be compatible with COM
    maltodextrin as shown in the microstructure appearance when viewed with a scanning electron
    microscope (SEM).
  6. Koh, S. P., Long, K., Yusoff, M. S. A., Arifin, N.
    MyJurnal
    The potential use of medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCT) oil blends in food applications such as frying oil and salad dressings were investigated. The frying strength of palm-based MLCT oil with different antioxidants under deep frying conditions was assessed. Palm-based MLCT oil showed better thermal-resistant oxidative strength than refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein throughout the five consecutive days of frying. Sensory evaluation and rancidity assessment on fried chips showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) between chips fried in RBD palm olein and palm-based MLCT oil. MLCT-based salad dressings treated with different antioxidants showed similar rheological behaviors as compared to soybean based salad dressings. The overall quality of the physical appearance and organoleptic acceptability based on quantitative descriptive analysis showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in all salad dressings. These findings indicated that MLCT-based oil blends can be used as healthy functional oil for daily consumption.
  7. Amin, Z.M., Koh, S.P., Tan, C.P., Yeap, S.K., Hamid, N.S.A., Long, K.
    MyJurnal
    To study the wound healing efficacy of breadfruit starch hydrolysate, an in vitro wound scratch assay was conducted, in which the migration rate of wounded NIH 3T3 fibroblasts was determined. Wounds treated with lower dextrose equivalent (DE), (DE 10-14) starch hydrolysate were found capable to improve the wound healing of NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell with the percentage of wound closure improvement of 77%, respectively when compared with higher DE range (DE 15-19 and DE 20-24). The findings obtained in the BrdU uptake and MTT viability assays confirmed the wound healing properties of breadfruit starch hydrolysate as the starch hydrolysate-treated wounded NIH 3T3 fibroblasts were able to proliferate well and no cytotoxicity was observed. Together, these findings indicated that the newly developed breadfruit starch hydrolysate performed better than commercial (COM) starch hydrolysate of the same DE ranges. In conclusion, breadfruit starch hydrolysate had better functional properties than did starch hydrolysates derived from other sources and that they could play a beneficial role in wound healing applications.
  8. Arifin, N., Cheong, L.Z., Koh, S.P., Long, K., Tan, C.P., Yusoff, M.S.A., et al.
    ASM Science Journal, 2010;4(2):113-122.
    MyJurnal
    Several binary and ternary medium- and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT)-enriched margarine formulations were examined for their solid fat content, heating profile, polymorphism and textural properties. MLCT feedstock was produced through enzymatic esterification of capric and stearic acids with glycerol. The binary formulations were produced by mixing MLCT feedstock blend (40%–90%) and palm olein (10%–60%) with 10% increments (w/w). Solid fat profiles of commercial margarines were used as a reference to determine the suitability of the formulations for margarine production. The solid fat content of the binary formulations of MO 82 and MO 91 (M, MLCT, O, palm olein) were similar to the commercial margarines at 25°C which met the basic requirement for efficient dough consistency. Ternary formulations using reduced MLCT feedstock blend proportion (from 80%–90% to 60%–70%) were also developed. The reduction of MLCT feedstock blend was
    done as it had the highest production cost (3USD/kg) in comparison to palm olein (0.77USD/kg) and palm stearin (0.7USD/kg). The proportions of 5%–15% of palm stearin were substituted with palm olein in MO 64 and MO 73 (M, MLCT; O, palm olein) formulations with 5% increment (w/w). As a result, MOS 702010 and MOS 603010 (M, MLCT; O, palm olein; S, palm stearin) margarine formulations showed similar SFC % to the commercial margarines at 25ºC. These formulations were subsequently chosen to produce margarines. The onset melting and complete melting points of MLCT-enriched margarine formulations were high (51.04ºC –57.93ºC) due to the presence of a high amount of long chain saturated fatty acids. Most of the formulations showed β΄- crystals. MOS 702010 was selected as the best formulation due to values for textural parameters comparable (P
  9. Marikkar JM, Ghazali HM, Long K
    J Oleo Sci, 2010;59(1):7-14.
    PMID: 20032594
    This study was to characterize the seed fat from Madhuca longifolia known as Mee fat and its solid and liquid fractions with the objective of distinguishing them. A sample of Mee fat was partitioned into solid and liquid fractions using acetone as the solvent medium. The isolated fractions were compared to the native Mee fat sample with respect to various physico-chemical parameters using standard chemical methods as well as instrumental techniques such as, gas liquid chromatography (GLC), reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Basic analyses indicated that there were wide variations between the native sample and its fractions with respect to iodine value (IV), and slip melting point (SMP). The cloud point (CP) of the liquid fraction was found to be 10.5 degrees C. Fatty acid compositional analyses showed that the proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA) such as palmitic and stearic went up in the high-melting fraction (HMF) while in low-melting fraction (LMF) the proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) such as oleic and lenoleic increased. According to the HPLC analyses, Mee fat had a tiacyl glycerol (TAG) sequence similar to that of palm oil. After fractionation, the solid and liquid fractions obtained were found to have TAG profiles very much different from the native sample. Thermal analyses by DSC showed that Mee fat had two-widely separated high and low melting thermal transitions, a feature which was beneficial for the effective separation of solid and liquid fractions. The thermal profiles displayed by the fractions were clearly distinguishable from that of the native sample.
  10. Nyam KL, Leao SY, Tan CP, Long K
    J Food Sci Technol, 2014 Dec;51(12):3830-7.
    PMID: 25477650 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-012-0902-x
    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed is a valuable food resource as it has an excellent source of dietary fibre. Therefore, this study examined the functional properties of roselle seeds. Replacement of cookie flour with roselle seed powder at levels of 0-30 % was investigated for its effect on functional and nutritional properties of cookies. Among the four formulations cookies, the most preferred by panelists was 20 % roselle seed powder cookie (F3), followed by 10 % roselle seed powder cookie (F2) and 30 % roselle seed powder cookie (F4). The least preferred formulation among all was control cookie (F1). Cookie with 20 % roselle seed powder added showed higher content of total dietary fibre (5.6 g/100 g) as compared with control cookie (0.90 g/100 g). Besides that, cookies incorporated with roselle seed powder exhibited improved antioxidant properties. Thus, roselle seed powder can be used as a dietary fibre source and developed as a functional ingredient in food products.
  11. Manaf YN, Marikkar JM, Long K, Ghazali HM
    J Oleo Sci, 2013;62(6):335-43.
    PMID: 23728324
    The seeds (6.9±0.2% by weight of fruit) of the red-skin rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) contain a considerable amount of crude fat (38.0±4.36%) and thus, the aim of the study was to determine the physico-chemical properties of this fat for potential applications. The iodine and saponification values, and unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acid contents of the seed fat were 50.27 g I2/100g fat, 182.1 mg KOH/g fat, 0.8% and 2.1%, respectively. The fat is pale yellow with a Lovibond color index of 3.1Y+1.1R. The fatty acid profile indicates an almost equal proportion of saturated (49.1%) and unsaturated (50.9%) fatty acids, where oleic (42.0%) and arachidic (34.3%) acids were the most dominant fatty acids. It also contained small amounts of stearic (8.0%), palmitic (4.6%), gadoleic (5.9%), linoleic (2.2%), behenic (2.1%) palmitoleic (0.7%) myristic (0.1%) and erucic (0.1%) acids. HPLC analysis showed that the fat comprised mainly unknown triacylglycerols (TAG) with high retention times indicating they have higher carbon numbers compared with many vegetable oils. The fat has melting and cooling points of 44.2°C and -42.5°C, respectively, making it a semi-solid at room temperature. The solid content at 0°C was 53.5% and the fat melted completely at 40°C. z-Nose analysis showed that the presence of high levels of volatile compounds in red-skin rambutan seed and seed fat.
  12. Yanty NA, Marikkar JM, Man YB, Long K
    J Oleo Sci, 2011;60(7):333-8.
    PMID: 21701095
    Lard being an edible fat could be used in different forms in food systems. In this study, composition and thermal analysis of lard stearin (LS) and lard olein (LO) were undertaken to determine some common parameters which would enable their detection in food. A sample of native lard was partitioned into LS and LO using acetone as solvent and the fractions were compared to the original sample with respect to basic physico-chemical parameters, fatty acid and triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, and thermal characteristics. Although LS and LO displayed wider variations in basic physico-chemical parameters, thermal properties and solidification behavior, they do possess some common characteristic features with regard to composition. In spite of the proportional differences in the major fatty acids, both LS and LO are found to possess extremely high amount of palmitic (C16:0) acid at the sn-2 positions of their TAG molecules. Similar to native lard, both LS and LO contained approximately equal proportions of TAG molecules namely, linoleoyl-palmitoyl-oleoyl glycerol (LPO) and dioleoyl-palmitoyl glycerol (OPO). Hence, the calculated LPO/OPO ratio for LS and LO are comparably similar to that of native lard.
  13. Loo JL, Lai OM, Long K, Ghazali HM
    World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2007 Dec;23(12):1771-8.
    PMID: 27517833 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-007-9427-2
    Mycelium-bound lipase (MBL) was prepared using a strain of Geotrichum candidum isolated from local soil. At the time of maximum lipase activity (54 h), the mycelia to which the lipase was bound were harvested by filtration and centrifugation. Dry MBL was prepared by lyophilizing the mycelia obtained. The yield of MBL was 3.66 g/l with a protein content of 44.11 mg/g. The lipase activity and specific lipase activity were 22.59 and 510 U/g protein, respectively. The moisture content of the MBL was 3.85%. The activity of free (extracellular) lipase in the culture supernatant (after removal of mycelia) was less than 0.2 U/ml. The MBL showed selectivity for oleic acid over palmitic acid during hydrolysis of palm olein, indicating that the lipase from G. candidum displayed high substrate selectivity for unsaturated fatty acid containing a cis-9 double bond, even in crude form. This unique specificity of MBL could be a direct, simple and inexpensive way in the fats and oil industry for the selective hydrolysis or transesterification of cis-9 fatty acid residues in natural triacylglycerols.
  14. Wong YH, Tan WY, Tan CP, Long K, Nyam KL
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2014 May;4(Suppl 1):S510-5.
    PMID: 25183141 DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1090
    To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines.
  15. Yanty NA, Marikkar JM, Nusantoro BP, Long K, Ghazali HM
    J Oleo Sci, 2014;63(9):885-92.
    PMID: 25174674
    A study was carried out to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the oil derived from papaya seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety. Proximate analysis showed that seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety contained considerable amount of oil (27.0%). The iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acid contents of freshly extracted papaya seed oil were 76.9 g I2/100g oil, 193.5 mg KOH/g oil, 1.52% and 0.91%, respectively. The oil had a Lovibond color index of 15.2Y + 5.2B. Papaya seed oil contained ten detectable fatty acids, of which 78.33% were unsaturated. Oleic (73.5%) acid was the dominant fatty acids followed by palmitic acid (15.8%). Based on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, seven species of triacylglycerols (TAGs) were detected. The predominant TAGs of papaya seed oil were OOO (40.4%), POO (29.1%) and SOO (9.9%) where O, P, and S denote oleic, palmitic and stearic acids, respectively. Thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that papaya seed oil had its major melting and crystallization transitions at 12.4°C and -48.2°C, respectively. Analysis of the sample by Z-nose (electronic nose) instrument showed that the sample had a high level of volatile compounds.
  16. Loo JL, Khoramnia A, Lai OM, Long K, Ghazali HM
    Molecules, 2014 Jun 23;19(6):8556-70.
    PMID: 24959682 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19068556
    Mycelium-bound lipase (MBL), from a locally isolated Geotrichum candidum strain, was produced and characterized as a natural immobilized lipase. A time course study of its lipolytic activity in 1 L liquid broth revealed the maximum MBL activity at 4 h for mycelium cells harvested after 54 h. The yield and specific activity of MBL were 3.87 g/L dry weight and 508.33 U/g protein, respectively, while less than 0.2 U/mL lipase activity was detected in the culture supernatant. Prolonged incubation caused release of the bound lipase into the growth medium. The growth pattern of G. candidum, and production and properties of MBL were not affected by the scale. The stability of mycelia harboring lipase (MBL), harvested and lyophilized after 54 h, studied at 4 °C depicted a loss of 4.3% and 30% in MBL activity after 1 and 8 months, while the activity of free lipase was totally lost after 14 days of storage. The MBL from G. candidum displayed high substrate selectivity for unsaturated fatty acids containing a cis-9 double bond, even in crude form. This unique specificity of MBL could be a direct, simple and inexpensive way in the fats and oil industry for the selective hydrolysis or transesterification of cis-9 fatty acid residues in natural triacylglycerols.
  17. Khor YP, Koh SP, Long K, Long S, Ahmad SZ, Tan CP
    Molecules, 2014 Jul 01;19(7):9187-202.
    PMID: 24988188 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19079187
    Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4). C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV), which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.
  18. Wong YH, Lau HW, Tan CP, Long K, Nyam KL
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:789346.
    PMID: 24592184 DOI: 10.1155/2014/789346
    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry.
  19. Mohamed Amin Z, Koh SP, Yeap SK, Abdul Hamid NS, Tan CP, Long K
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:687694.
    PMID: 26436094 DOI: 10.1155/2015/687694
    Maltodextrins that contain both simple sugars and polymers of saccharides have been widely used as ingredients in food products and pharmaceutical delivery systems. To date, no much work has been reported on the applications of maltodextrin from broken rice (RB) sources. Therefore, the objective of this work was to investigate the in vitro wound healing efficacy of RB maltodextrin at different conditions. Wounds treated with lower dextrose equivalent (DE) range (DE 10-14) of maltodextrins at a concentration of 10% obtained from RB were found to be able to heal the wounds significantly faster (p < 0.01) than maltodextrin with higher DE ranges (DE 15-19 and DE 20-24) and concentrations of 5% and 20%. The findings from both BrdU and MTT assay further confirmed its wound healing properties as the NIH 3T3 fibroblast wounded cells were able to proliferate without causing cytotoxic effect when wounded cell was treated with maltodextrin. All these findings indicated that the RB maltodextrin could perform better than the commercial maltodextrin at the same DE range. This study showed that RB maltodextrins had better functionality properties than other maltodextrin sources and played a beneficial role in wound healing application.
  20. Zakaria ZA, Somchit MN, Mat Jais AM, Teh LK, Salleh MZ, Long K
    Med Princ Pract, 2011;20(3):231-6.
    PMID: 21454992 DOI: 10.1159/000323756
    The present study was carried out to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of virgin coconut oil (VCO) produced by the Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute (MARDI) using various in vivo models.
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