Displaying all 20 publications

  1. Poh, K. W., Syed Osman, S. I. H.
    We report on a rare case of a child with persistent right upper lid eversion with conjunctival prolapse since birth that
    failed various attempts in repositioning the right superior fornix at other centre. He was found to have a right superotemporal
    orbital mass above the prolapsed area. Computerized tomography (CT) scan of orbit confirmed a right
    lacrimal gland tumour with thinning of the right lesser wing of sphenoid. An excision biopsy of the tumour via
    anterior orbitotomy and eyelid reconstruction were performed. Histopathology report reviewed plexiform
    neurofibroma of the lacrimal gland. Further physical examination confirmed presence of multiple café-au-lait spots.
    He was diagnosed as Neurofibromatosis Type 1.
  2. Asgari B, Osman SA, Adnan A
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:503016.
    PMID: 25050400 DOI: 10.1155/2014/503016
    Cable-stayed bridges are one of the most popular types of long-span bridges. The structural behaviour of cable-stayed bridges is sensitive to the load distribution between the girder, pylons, and cables. The determination of pretensioning cable stresses is critical in the cable-stayed bridge design procedure. By finding the optimum stresses in cables, the load and moment distribution of the bridge can be improved. In recent years, different research works have studied iterative and modern methods to find optimum stresses of cables. However, most of the proposed methods have limitations in optimising the structural performance of cable-stayed bridges. This paper presents a multiconstraint optimisation method to specify the optimum cable forces in cable-stayed bridges. The proposed optimisation method produces less bending moments and stresses in the bridge members and requires shorter simulation time than other proposed methods. The results of comparative study show that the proposed method is more successful in restricting the deck and pylon displacements and providing uniform deck moment distribution than unit load method (ULM). The final design of cable-stayed bridges can be optimised considerably through proposed multiconstraint optimisation method.
  3. Mohd Nawi, N. S. A., Rahmad, A. A., Abdul Hamid, K., Rahman, S., Osman, S. S., Surat, S., et al.
    The connectivity patterns among the DMN nodes when the brain is resting are still in great debate. Among the unknowns is whether a dominant node exists in the network and if any, how does it influences the other nodes. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) was utilized in data acquisition on 25 healthy male and female participants. The DMN nodes selected were posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), bilateral inferior parietal cortex (IPL) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Fully connected causal models were constructed comprising four DMN nodes. The time invariant covariance of the random fluctuations between nodes was then estimated to obtain the effective connectivity (EC) between the DMN nodes. The EC values among the DMN nodes were averaged over the participants using Bayesian Parameter Averaging (BPA). All the DMN nodes have self-inhibitory dynamics. All connections between nodes were significant (P > 0.9) with a condition for any of the two nodes, one node inhibited the others. The PCC which exhibited the highest signal intensity was in fact inhibited by others. Inter-hemispheric RIPC to LIPC connections acted the same way, with excitatory LIPC to RIPC and inhibitory RIPC to LIPC connections. The results also showed a stronger mPFC to RIPC connection in the right hemisphere (as compared to mPFC to LIPC connection in the left hemisphere) and a weaker PCC to RIPC connection in the right hemisphere (as compared to PCC to LIPC connection in the left hemisphere). PCC can be regarded as a dominant node among the four nodes, being connected to all other nodes in different ways. All the four nodes were significantly activated and connected to each other even though the brain was in a state of resting.
  4. Khoo CS, Tan HJ, Sharis Osman S
    Am J Case Rep, 2018 Jul 13;19:825-828.
    PMID: 30002360 DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.909883
    BACKGROUND Dermal fillers are increasingly used for medical and aesthetic purposes in clinical practice. Common complications following filler injections include bruising, itching, infections, allergic reactions, and tissue necrosis. This case is the first report of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis as a possible complication of dermal filler injection. CASE REPORT A 27-year-old woman with no past medical history presented with altered mental state, headaches, and seizures. She had a nasal dermal filler injection for aesthetic purpose five weeks before her acute presentation. A diagnosis of HSV-1 encephalitis was made based on brain imaging with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings that showed bilateral frontotemporal lobe hyperintensity. Analysis of her cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) confirmed the presence of HSV-1 DNA. Despite anti-viral treatment with acyclovir, she developed postencephalitic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS This case report highlights the possibility that among the complications of the use of cosmetic dermal fillers, the transmission of HSV-1 and the development of HSV-1 encephalitis should be recognized.
  5. Chang CH, Riazi M, Yunus MH, Osman S, Noordin R
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 2014 Dec;80(4):278-81.
    PMID: 25241641 DOI: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2014.08.012
    This study evaluated 2 rapid leptospirosis serological tests, Leptorapide® (Linnodee, Northern Ireland) and VISITECT®-LEPTO (Omega Diagnostics, Scotland, UK), which are commonly used in Malaysia. A total of 183 samples comprised 113 sera from leptospirosis patients, and 70 sera from other infections and healthy controls were used. The leptospirosis sera were grouped into 2 serum panels, i.e., Group I (MAT+, PCR+) and Group II (MAT+). When inconclusive results were interpreted as positives, both tests showed lower diagnostic sensitivities (≤ 34%) with Group I sera, as compared to Group II sera (Leptorapide®, 93%; VISITECT®-LEPTO, 40%). When inconclusive results were interpreted as negatives, the 2 tests showed ~20% sensitivity with both serum panels. The diagnostic specificity of VISITECT®-LEPTO (94%) was superior to Leptorapide® (69%). Since both tests had misdiagnosed a large proportion of Group I patients and showed many inconclusive results among Group II patients, they have limited diagnostic value in detecting acute leptospirosis.
  6. Yahaya A, Wa Kammal WS, Abd Shukor N, Osman SS
    Malays J Pathol, 2019 Apr;41(1):59-63.
    PMID: 31025640
    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing carcinoma which microscopically mimics hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a rare entity known as hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HC). They usually arise in the stomach, while oesophageal origin is only occasionally encountered. This tumour is highly aggressive and is associated with a poor prognosis. They frequently metastasise to the liver, thus giving rise to diagnostic difficulty, especially in cases where simultaneous oesophageal and liver mass are present. We reported a case of oesophageal hepatoid carcinoma with multiple liver metastasis, that was associated with an increased serum AFP. The distinction between HCC and HC is important because HC is more aggressive and has a poorer prognosis with limited therapeutic options. An extensive diagnostic work-up which include a thorough clinical history, radiological investigations (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) as well as tissue biopsy supported by a panel of immunohistochemical markers are necessary to aid in the diagnosis of HC.
  7. Jackson N, Zaki M, Rahman AR, Nazim M, Win MN, Osman S
    J Clin Pathol, 1997 May;50(5):436-7.
    PMID: 9215130
    A 35 year old man with a fatal Campylobacter jejuni infection is described. He had HbE/beta zero thalassaemia and had undergone splenectomy nine months previously for hypersplenism; he also had chronic hepatitis C infection. He presented with high grade fever but no gastrointestinal symptoms and rapidly progressed to septicaemic shock and hepatic encephalopathy despite treatment with penicillin, gentamicin, and, later, chloramphenicol and ceftazidime. Only one case of Campylobacter jejuni septicaemia occurring post-splenectomy has been reported previously, also in an iron overloaded thalassaemia patient. Unusual Gram negative bacilli must be covered by the chosen antibiotic regimen when splenectomised thalassaemic patients present with high grade fever.
  8. Teh AY, Amerizadeh A, Osman S, Yunus MH, Noordin R
    Pathog Glob Health, 2016 Oct-Dec;110(7-8):277-286.
    PMID: 27697019
    The IgG avidity assay is an important tool in the management of suspected toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. This study aimed to produce new Toxoplasma gondii recombinant proteins and to assess their usefulness in an IgG avidity assay. Toxoplasma positive and negative serum samples were used, the former were categorized into low (LGA) and high (HGA) IgG avidity samples. Immunoblots were performed on 30 T. gondii cDNA clones to determine the reactivity and IgG avidity to the expressed proteins. Two of the clones were found to have diagnostic potential and were analyzed further; AG12b encoded T. gondii apical complex lysine methyltransferase (AKMT) protein and AG18 encoded T. gondii forkhead-associated (FHA) domain-containing protein. The His-tagged recombinant proteins, rAG12b and rAG18, were expressed and tested with LGA and HGA samples using an IgG avidity western blot and ELISA. With the IgG avidity western blot, rAG12b identified 86.4% of LGA and 90.9% of HGA samples, whereas rAG18 identified 81.8% of both LGA and HGA samples. With the IgG avidity ELISA, rAG12b identified 86.4% of both LGA and HGA samples, whereas rAG18 identified 77.3% of LGA and 86.4% of HGA serum samples. This study showed that the recombinant antigens were able to differentiate low avidity and high avidity serum samples, suggesting that they are potential candidates for use in the Toxoplasma IgG avidity assay.
  9. Li Y, Yao P, Osman S, Zainudin N, Sabri MF
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2022 Nov 18;19(22).
    PMID: 36429983 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph192215267
    The food delivery service is the most typical and visible example of online-to-offline (O2O) commerce. More consumers are using food delivery services for various reasons during the COVID-19 pandemic, making this business model viral worldwide. In the post-pandemic era, offering food delivery services will become the new normal for restaurants. Although a growing number of publications have focused on consumer behavior in this issue, no review paper has addressed current research and industry trends. Thus, this paper aims to review the literature published from 2020 to the present (October 2022) on consumers' use of food delivery services during the pandemic. A thematic review was conducted, with 40 articles searched from Scopus and Web of Science being included. Quantitative findings showed current research trends, and thematic analyses formed eight themes of factors influencing consumer behavior: (1) technical and utilitarian factors, (2) system-related attributes, (3) emotional and hedonic factors, (4) individual characteristics, (5) service quality, (6) risk-related factors, (7) social factors, and (8) food-related attributes. The paper also emphasizes COVID-19-related influences and suggests promising future research directions. The results offer insights into industry practices and starting points for future research.
  10. Khalilpour A, Osman S, Yunus MH, Santhanam A, Vellasamy N, Noordin R
    BMC Res Notes, 2014;7:809.
    PMID: 25406411 DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-7-809
    Helicobacter pylori is a human pathogen and during the process of infection, antigens from the bacterium elicit strong host humoral immune responses. In our previous report, native H. pylori UreG protein showed good reactivity with sera from H. pylori patients. This study was aimed at producing the recombinant form of the protein (rUreG) and determining its seroreactivities.
  11. Khalilpour A, Sadjjadi SM, Moghadam ZK, Yunus MH, Zakaria ND, Osman S, et al.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2014 Nov;91(5):994-9.
    PMID: 25200268 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0170
    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by infection with Echinococcus granulosus is of major concern for humans in many parts of the world. Antigen B was prepared from E. granulosus hydatid fluid, and Western blots confirmed eight batches showing a band corresponding to the 8-/12-kDa subunit with positive serum and no low-molecular mass band (< 15 kDa) with negative serum. The batches were pooled and used to prepare lateral flow immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) and IgG dipsticks. Diagnostic sensitivity was determined using serum samples from 21 hydatidosis patients, and diagnostic specificity was established using sera from 17 individuals infected with other parasites and 15 healthy people. IgG4 dipstick had a diagnostic sensitivity of 95% (20 of 21) and a specificity of 100% (32 of 32). The IgG dipstick had a sensitivity of 100% (21 of 21) and a specificity of 87.5% (28 of 32). Thus, both IgG and IgG4 dipsticks had high sensitivities, but IgG4 had greater specificity for the diagnosis of human CE.
  12. Abdul Rahman Z, Hamzah SH, Hassan SA, Osman S, Md Noor SS
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2013 Jun;7(6):448-52.
    PMID: 23771288 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.2535
    INTRODUCTION: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are a group of micro-organisms that are increasingly implicated as a cause of significant infection and the leading cause of bloodstream infection (BSI). One important predictor of true BSI is the isolation of CoNS from multiple blood cultures, presuming that the isolates represent the same species. Thus the objective of this study was to determine the significance of repeated CoNS isolated from blood cultures.
    METHODOLOGY: This was a prospective laboratory study which was initiated in June 2007 and lasted until July 2008. CoNS isolates were obtained from patients who had two positive blood cultures within a 14-day interval. CoNS were identified to the species level using an API-Staph, and antibiotics susceptibility testing was performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute specifications. Strain relatedness was confirmed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
    RESULTS: During the study period, 202 CoNS-positive samples were isolated from 101 patients. The most common species isolated was Staphylococcus epidermidis (59.0%), and 83.2% of the patients isolated the same species of CoNS from repeated blood cultures. Among the isolates of the same species, only 40.7% had the same antibiogram. CoNS with the same species and antibiogram had 93.3% probability of belonging to the same strain. Most (65.5%) of the patients were treated with antibiotics, primarily from the glycopeptides group.
    CONCLUSION: Speciation and antibiogram of CoNS from repeated blood cultures are adequate in determining the significance of repeated CoNS isolated from blood cultures.
  13. Khalilpour A, Santhanam A, Wei LC, Saadatnia G, Velusamy N, Osman S, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(3):1635-42.
    PMID: 23679248
    Helicobacter pylori antigen was prepared from an isolate from a patient with a duodenal ulcer. Serum samples were obtained from culture-positive H. pylori infected patients with duodenal ulcers, gastric ulcers and gastritis (n=30). As controls, three kinds of sera without detectable H. pylori IgG antibodies were used: 30 from healthy individuals without history of gastric disorders, 30 from patients who were seen in the endoscopy clinic but were H. pylori culture negative and 30 from people with other diseases. OFF-GEL electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and Western blots of individual serum samples were used to identify protein bands with good sensitivity and specificity when probed with the above sera and HRP-conjugated anti-human IgG. Four H. pylori protein bands showed good (≥ 70%) sensitivity and high specificity (98-100%) towards anti-Helicobacter IgG antibody in culture- positive patients sera and control sera, respectively. The identities of the antigenic proteins were elucidated by mass spectrometry. The relative molecular weights and the identities of the proteins, based on MALDI TOF/ TOF, were as follows: CagI (25 kDa), urease G accessory protein (25 kDa), UreB (63 kDa) and proline/pyrroline- 5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (118 KDa). These identified proteins, singly and/or in combinations, may be useful for diagnosis of H. pylori infection in patients.
  14. Muniandy J, Azman A, Murugasan V, Alwi RI, Zuhdi Z, Jarmin R, et al.
    Ann Med Surg (Lond), 2021 Aug;68:102573.
    PMID: 34354831 DOI: 10.1016/j.amsu.2021.102573
    Background: The rate of surgical site infection (SSI) differ with variable nature with appendicitis with a global incidence of up to 11%. Several randomised trials describe a significant reduction in incisional SSI using wound edge protectors (WEP), mainly in elective procedures. This study was designed to analyse WEP use in emergency open appendicectomy.

    Method: This randomised controlled trial enrolled 200 patients who underwent emergency open appendicectomy. Permuted block randomisation was used to assign subjects to either mechanical retraction or double ring WEP. The primary endpoints were SSI rates and cost analysis between the methods.

    Results: The incidence of SSI was similar, n = 7 (7.4%) in the control group and n = 8 (8.4%) in the WEP group, and demonstrates no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). Cost analysis showed a statistically significant (p 

  15. Shaharir SS, Osman SS, Md Rani SA, Sakthiswary R, Said MSM
    Lupus, 2018 Jan;27(1):25-32.
    PMID: 28467290 DOI: 10.1177/0961203317707062
    Introduction White matter hyperintense (WMHI) lesions are the most common finding in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Objective The objective of this article is to determine the clinical factors associated with an increase in WMHI lesion load among SLE patients. Method A total of 83 SLE patients with MRI of the brain from National University of Malaysia Medical Centre were included. The WMHI lesion load was determined using the Scheltens score and Fazekas scale, and their distribution was divided into the deep white matter (DWMHI) and periventricular (PVH) regions. The clinical correlates of WMHI lesions were initially determined using univariate analyses and subsequently multivariable regression analyses were performed to determine the independent factors of increased WMHI lesion load. Results MRI of the brain of 46 patients who had WMHI lesions were compared with 37 patients with normal MRI. We found significant association between the presence of WMHI lesions and age, presence of cerebral infarcts, positive antiphospholipid antibody (aPL), active disease, neuropsychiatric lupus (NPSLE) and disease damage. Age, SLEDAI scores, cerebral infarcts and disease damage were significantly associated with higher DWMHI and PVH Scheltens scores. Meanwhile, patients with active lupus nephritis (LN), lower serum albumin and more severe proteinuria were associated with larger Fazekas WMHI lesions. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that the independent factors associated with presence of WMHI lesions were positive aPL and SLEDAI scores ( p 
  16. Amerizadeh A, Khoo BY, Teh AY, Golkar M, Abdul Karim IZ, Osman S, et al.
    BMC Infect Dis, 2013;13:287.
    PMID: 23800344 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-287
    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular zoonotic parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa which infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals, including humans. In this study in-vivo induced antigens of this parasite was investigated using in-vivo induced antigen technology (IVIAT) and pooled sera from patients with serological evidence of acute infection.
  17. Embong Z, Wan Hitam WH, Yean CY, Rashid NH, Kamarudin B, Abidin SK, et al.
    BMC Ophthalmol, 2008;8:7.
    PMID: 18445283 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2415-8-7
    The sensitivity and specificity of 18S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the detection of fungal aetiology of microbial keratitis was determined in thirty patients with clinical diagnosis of microbial keratitis.
  18. Deshpande PS, Kotresha D, Noordin R, Yunus MH, Saadatnia G, Golkar M, et al.
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo, 2013 4 9;55(2):79-83.
    PMID: 23563759
    Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of congenital infection. The present study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of recombinant (r) GRA-7 cloned from nucleotides (n) 39-711 in discriminating between acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. First, commercial IgM, IgG and IgG avidity ELISAs were used to determine the serological profile of the sera. Serum samples were from 20 symptomatic patients with acute infection (low IgG avidity, IgM positive), 10 with chronic infection (high IgG avidity, IgM negative) and 10 with indeterminate IgG avidity (IgM positive) which were tested for IgG avidity status with an in-house developed IgG avidity Western blot using the rGRA-7 recombinant antigen. All 20 sera from cases of probable acute infection showed bands which either faded out completely or reduced significantly in intensity after treatment with 8 M urea, whereas the band intensities of the 10 serum samples from chronic cases remained the same. Of the 10 sera with indeterminate IgG avidity status, after treatment with 8 M urea the band intensities with six sera remained the same, two sera had completely faded bands and another two sera had significantly reduced band intensities. Discrimination between acute and chronic toxoplasmosis was successfully performed by the in-house IgG avidity Western blot.
  19. Ampeng A, Liam J, Simpson B, Traelholt C, Md Nor S, Abdan-Saleman MSB, et al.
    Biodivers Data J, 2021;9:e60753.
    PMID: 33531863 DOI: 10.3897/BDJ.9.e60753
    Wildlife surveys were conducted in Usun Apau National Park (UANP), Sarawak from Oct 2017 to Oct 2020. This was the first attempt to document fauna diversity in Usun Apau National Park on the UANP plateau at 1200-1400 m a.s.l. On 17 September 2020, 10 AM, we observed an orangutan individual, Pongo pygmaeus, over a period of one minute at Libut Camp UANP (E: 114039'.546, N: 2052'36.44) at 1,020 m a.s.l. We also recorded four nests and orangutan vocalisation twice. This observation is important for Bornean orangutan conservation as this was the first orangutan sighting in UANP and well outside the species distribution range for in Sarawak.
  20. Wong WK, Mohd-Nor N, Noordin R, Foo PC, Mohamed Z, Haq JA, et al.
    Parasitol Res, 2019 Sep;118(9):2635-2642.
    PMID: 31363922 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-019-06406-7
    The geographical distribution of tuberculosis (TB) overlaps with various parasitic infections. Uncovering the characteristics of coinfecting parasites that potentially affect the host susceptibility to TB is pertinent as it may provide input to current TB therapeutic and prophylactic measures. The present study was aimed at examining the types of parasitic infections in TB patients and healthy TB contacts (HC) in Orang Asli, Malaysian aborigines, who dwelled in the co-endemic areas. Stool and serum samples were collected from Orang Asli who fulfilled the selection criteria and provided written informed consents. Selected parasitic infections in the two study groups were determined by stool examination and commercial serum antibody immunoassays. The prevalence of parasitic infections in TB and HC participants were 100% (n = 82) and 94.6% (n = 55) respectively. The parasitic infections comprised toxocariasis, trichuriasis, amoebiasis, toxoplasmosis, hookworm infection, ascariasis, strongyloidiasis, and brugian filariasis, in decreasing order of prevalence. Overall, helminth or protozoa infection did not show any significant association with the study groups. However, when the species of the parasite was considered, individuals exposed to trichuriasis and toxoplasmosis showed significant odds reduction (odds ratio (OR) 0.338; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.166, 0.688) and odds increment (OR 2.193; 95% CI 1.051, 4.576) to have active pulmonary TB, respectively. In conclusion, trichuriasis and toxoplasmosis may have distinct negative and positive associations respectively with the increase of host susceptibility to TB.
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