Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 70 in total

  1. Tan J
    Nephrology (Carlton), 2014 May;19(5):288-95.
    PMID: 24641721 DOI: 10.1111/nep.12228
    Brunei Darussalam is a small South East Asian country with a high prevalence and incidence of end stage kidney disease (ESRD). This study aims to compare key performance indicators recorded in the Brunei Dialysis and Transplant Registry and department records against international practice. Registries from the USA (USRDS), UK (UK Renal Registry), Australasia (ANZDATA), Europe (ERA-EDTA Registry) and Malaysia (MDTR) were used for comparisons.
  2. Chung, B. H., Tan, J. R.
    The own price, income and price of a substitute are the determinants of demand in the classical theory of consumer behavior. We used the theory to analyze the demand for local rice in Malaysia by using time series variables. We examined whether there is a long run relationship among the variables by using the unit root and cointegration tests. We then conducted the Granger causality, variance decomposition and impulse response function tests to examine their directions of causality as well as short term dynamics. The results show that there is a long run relationship among the variables and a unidirectional causality from price and income to demand. There are also lagged and short term dynamics among the variables.
  3. Tan J
    Zootaxa, 2018 Aug 07;4457(1):129-142.
    PMID: 30314183 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4457.1.6
    A new species of Argiope Audouin 1826, A. hoiseni new species is described from Perak and Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia based on morphology and DNA information of the mitochondrial (16S rRNA, COI and COII) and nuclear-encoded (H3A, 18S rRNA) molecular markers. Epigynal structure suggested Argiope hoiseni to be similar to A. jinghongensis Yin, Peng Wang 1994, A. luzona (Walckenaer 1841), A. pulchella Thorell 1881 and A. taprobanica Thorell 1887. Molecular sequence data including the new species inferred that it is monophyletic with an intraspecific variation of 0.87-3.59 % based on the 16S+COI+COII+H3A dataset. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed insights into the evolutionary lineages of Argiope species in Southeast Asia as well as corroborated recent taxonomic changes and species synonymies associated with Argiope. Two new distribution records were also reported for A. chloreis Thorell,1877 and A. doleschalli Thorell, 1873 in Peninsular Malaysia.
  4. Shaminie J, Peh SC, Tan J
    Pathology, 2005 Feb;37(1):39-44.
    PMID: 15875732
    AIM: Tumour suppressor gene p53 is a common target in carcinogenesis, reported to be altered and functionally inactive in 70% of human cancers. Although p53 mutations are less commonly present in haematological malignancies when compared with other solid tumours, they have been reported in histological transformation of follicular lymphoma. We aimed to investigate the frequency of p53 gene alterations in paraffin-embedded tissue using commercially available PCR-SSCP, and to correlate the results with P53 protein expression by immunohistochemistry.

    METHODS: Surgical samples from seven patients with a total of 17 sequential biopsies were retrieved for the study of p53 gene expression using immunohistochemical stain, and gene status by PCR-SSCP for exons 5-8. The tumours were graded according to the WHO classification criteria. P53 was distinctly over-expressed in five transformed higher grade biopsies, and all except one showed electrophoretic mobility shift in PCR-SSCP analysis. Sequencing analysis revealed single nucleotide substitutions in three of four of these high-grade transformed cases with band shift (75%), whereas some other studies reported a lower frequency of 25-30%, and mobility shift result was found to correlate with P53 expression. Lower grade tumours without P53 over-expression did not demonstrate band shift, and sequencing analysis did not reveal mutations.

    CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the feasibility of adopting PCR-SSCP for screening of p53 mutations in archival tissue samples in this study, and there is a strong correlation of p53 gene over-expression and mutation events in high-grade transformed tumours.

  5. Tan, J. A. M. A., George, E., Lim, E. J., Zakaria, Z., Hassan, R., Wee, Y. C., et al.
    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the UBI MAGIWELTM ζ-GLOBIN ELISA Kit for the presumptive diagnosis of αo-thalassaemia. The ELISA results obtained were confirmed by molecular characterisation of αo-thalassaemia using a Duplex-PCR. Methods: Routine peripheral blood counts and red cell indices were determined in 94 blood samples sent for Hb analysis. Hb subtypes were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Hb electrophoresis conducted on agarose gel at pH 8.5. Zeta-globin chain levels were determined using the UBI MAGIWELTM ζ-GLOBIN ELISA Kit. Molecular analysis was performed using a duplex-PCR which simultaneously amplifies
    a normal 136 bp sequence between the ψα−α2-globin genes and a 730 bp Southeast Asian deletion-specific sequence (–SEA) between the ψα2−θ1-globin genes. Results: Using the ELISA assay kit, 20 blood samples were presumptively identified as α-thalassaemia carriers from elevated ζ-globin chains (OD>0.3) while the remaining 74 blood samples showed OD
  6. Tan JK, Tan EL, Gan SY
    Exp. Oncol., 2014 Sep;36(3):170-3.
    PMID: 25265349
    Deregulation of microRNA has been associated with cancer progression and the modification of cancer phenotypes could be achieved by targeting microRNA expression. This study aimed to determine the effects of miR-372 on cell progression and gene expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line, TW01.
  7. Kuppusamy UR, Tan JA
    West Indian Med J, 2011 Jan;60(1):3-8.
    PMID: 21809703
    Beta-thalassaemia major causes severe anaemia and patients with it may be transfusion-dependent for life. Regular blood transfusions cause iron-overload that leads to oxidative damage which can hasten mortality. The objective of this research was to study the oxidant-antioxidant indices in beta-thalassaemia major patients at the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) who were on desferrioxamine-chelation or without chelation therapy. Blood was collected from 39 Chinese patients and 20 controls. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysates (PBMC) were extracted and biochemical tests to evaluate oxidative stress were performed. Oxidative stress was evident in these patients as advanced oxidized protein products (AOPP) and lipid hydroperoxides were elevated, whereas glutathione peroxidase activity and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were reduced. The catalase activity in the patients' PBMC was elevated, possibly as a compensatory mechanism for the reduced glutathione peroxidase activity in both red blood cells and PBMC. The lower FRAP and higher AOPP levels in the non-chelated patients compared with the chelated patients were indicative of a lower oxidative stress level in the chelated patients. The ferritin levels in the chelated and non-chelated patients were high and the mean levels of liver enzyme activities in the majority of patients were elevated regardless of chelation therapy. In conclusion, this study indicates that desferrioxamine chelation therapy does not normalize ferritin level but attenuates oxidative damage and improves total antioxidant level in Malaysian Chinese beta-thalassaemia major patients.
  8. Tan JS, Ong Kc KC, Rhodes A
    Malays J Pathol, 2016 Aug;38(2):75-82.
    PMID: 27568663 MyJurnal
    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a family of evolutionary conserved proteins that work as molecular chaperones for cellular proteins essential for cell viability and growth as well as having numerous cyto-protective roles. They are sub-categorised based on their molecular weights; amongst which some of the most extensively studied are the HSP90 and HSP70 families. Important members of these two families; Heat shock proteins 70 and heat shock proteins 90 (Hsp70/90), are the glucose regulated proteins (GRP). These stress-inducible chaperones possess distinct roles from that of the other HSPs, residing mostly in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, but they can also be translocated to other cellular locations. Their ability in adapting to stress conditions in the tumour microenvironment suggests novel functions in cancer. GRPs have been implicated in many crucial steps of carcinogenesis to include stabilization of oncogenic proteins, induction of tumour angiogenesis, inhibition of apoptosis and replicative senescence, and promotion of invasion and metastasis.
  9. Chen WS, Tan JH, Mohamad Y, Imran R
    Injury, 2019 May;50(5):1118-1124.
    PMID: 30591225 DOI: 10.1016/j.injury.2018.12.031
    BACKGROUND: The establishment of an accurate prognostic model in major trauma patients is important mainly because this group of patients will benefit the most. Clinical prediction models must be validated internally and externally on a regular basis to ensure the prediction is accurate and current. This study aims to externally validate two prediction models, the Trauma and Injury Severity Score model developed using the Major Trauma Outcome Study in North America (MTOS-TRISS model), and the NTrD-TRISS model, which is a refined MTOS-TRISS model with coefficients derived from the Malaysian National Trauma Database (NTrD), by regarding mortality as the outcome measurement.

    METHOD: This retrospective study included patients with major trauma injuries reported to a trauma centre of Hospital Sultanah Aminah over a 6-year period from 2011 and 2017. Model validation was examined using the measures of discrimination and calibration. Discrimination was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The Hosmer-Lemeshow (H-L) goodness-of-fit test was used to examine calibration capabilities. The predictive validity of both MTOS-TRISS and NTrD-TRISS models were further evaluated by incorporating parameters such as the New Injury Severity Scale and the Injury Severity Score.

    RESULTS: Total patients of 3788 (3434 blunt and 354 penetrating injuries) with average age of 37 years (standard deviation of 16 years) were included in this study. All MTOS-TRISS and NTrD-TRISS models examined in this study showed adequate discriminative ability with AUCs ranged from 0.86 to 0.89 for patients with blunt trauma mechanism and 0.89 to 0.99 for patients with penetrating trauma mechanism. The H-L goodness-of-fit test indicated the NTrD-TRISS model calibrated as good as the MTOS-TRISS model for patients with blunt trauma mechanism.

    CONCLUSION: For patients with blunt trauma mechanism, both the MTOS-TRISS and NTrD-TRISS models showed good discrimination and calibration performances. Discrimination performance for the NTrD-TRISS model was revealed to be as good as the MTOS-TRISS model specifically for patients with penetrating trauma mechanism. Overall, this validation study has ascertained the discrimination and calibration performances of the NTrD-TRISS model to be as good as the MTOS-TRISS model particularly for patients with blunt trauma mechanism.

  10. Achin NA, Kit TJ, Ngah WZW, Makpol S, Mazlan M, Hamezah HS, et al.
    Curr Aging Sci, 2018;11(3):182-194.
    PMID: 30338748 DOI: 10.2174/1874609811666181019141217
    BACKGROUND: Cognitive frailty emerges as one of the threats to healthy aging. It is in continuum with advancing of age with uncertain indicator between pathological and physiological changes. Alterations in pathways associated with the aging process have been observed including oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, and inflammation. However, the exact mechanisms leading to cognitive decline are still unclear.

    OBJECTIVE: This study was sought to assess the level of cognitive functions and linked with blood oxidative status during normal aging in rats.

    METHODS: A longitudinal study using male Sprague Dawley rats was performed starting from the age of 14 months old to 27 months old. Cognitive functions tests such as open field, Morris water maze and object recognition were determined at the age of 14, 18, 23, and 27 months old and were compared with group 3 months old. Blood was collected from the orbital venous sinus and oxidative status was determined by measuring the level of DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity.

    RESULTS: Aged rats showed declining exploratory behavior and increased in the level of anxiety as compared to the young rats. The level of DNA damage increased with increasing age. Interestingly, our study found that both levels of malondialdehyde and plasma carbonyl content decreased with age. In addition, the level of superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased with age whereas catalase activity was significantly increased from 18 months of age. However, no significant difference was found in glutathione peroxidase activity among all age groups.

    CONCLUSION: The progressions of cognitive impairment in normal aging rats are linked to the increment in the level of DNA damage.

  11. Lim PE, Tan J, Eamsobhana P, Yong HS
    Sci Rep, 2013 Oct 17;3:2977.
    PMID: 24131999 DOI: 10.1038/srep02977
    The phylogenetic relationships of some taxa in the Platycnemidinae at the species and generic levels have been investigated. Phylogenetic trees were generated from both individual mitochondrial encoded COI, COII, 16S rDNA and nuclear encoded 28S rDNA and also combined sequences; these data indicate that the component taxa of the genus Copera belong to two distinct genetic clades - the marginipes group and the annulata group. There was no distinct genetic difference between the red-legged and yellow-legged morphs of C. vittata. Molecular data showed that the annulata group is considered a member of the genus Platycnemis, as originally proposed. The genus Coeliccia, a member of the subfamily Calicnemiinae (Platycnemididae), is not grouped with the Platycnemidinae. The Disparoneurinae of the 'Protoneuridae' showed a closer relationship to the Platycnemidinae than the Calicnemiinae. The dataset supports the placement of the Disparoneurinae as a subfamily of the Platycnemididae. This resolves the monophyly of Platycnemididae.
  12. Kho SL, Chua KH, George E, Tan JA
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2013;12(3):2409-15.
    PMID: 23479149 DOI: 10.4238/2013.February.28.4
    Beta-thalassemia is a life-threatening inherited blood disorder. Rapid characterization of β-globin gene mutations is necessary because of the high frequency of Malaysian β-thalassemia carriers. A combination real-time polymerase chain reaction genotyping assay using TaqMan probes was developed to confirm β-globin gene mutations. In this study, primers and probes were designed to specifically identify 8 common β-thalassemia mutations in the Malaysian Malay and Chinese ethnic groups using the Primer Express software. "Blind tests" using DNA samples from healthy individuals and β-thalassemia patients with different genotypes were performed to determine the specificity and sensitivity of this newly designed assay. Our results showed 100% sensitivity and specificity for this novel assay. In conclusion, the TaqMan genotyping assay is a straightforward assay that allows detection of β-globin gene mutations in less than 40 min. The simplicity and reproducibility of the TaqMan genotyping assay permit its use in laboratories as a rapid and cost-effective diagnostic tool for confirmation of common β-thalassemia mutations in Malaysia.
  13. Poh R, Tan JA, Deva JP, Poo D, Yong Y, Arjunan S
    West Indian Med J, 2012 Sep;61(6):569-73.
    PMID: 23441349
    To determine the activity of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in keratoconus in a Malaysian population in comparison with non-keratoconic subjects.
  14. Loong BJ, Tan JH, Lim KH, Mbaki Y, Ting KN
    Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol., 2015 Oct;388(10):1061-7.
    PMID: 26051407 DOI: 10.1007/s00210-015-1140-3
    The functional responses of different overnight-stored in vitro tissues are not clearly described in any animal model. The influence of overnight storage in an animal model may vary between tissue types. We employed Sprague-Dawley rat as our animal model and investigated the functional changes of rat aorta, trachea, bronchus and bladder that were used (i) immediately after surgical removal (denoted as fresh) and (ii) after storage in aerated (95% O2, 5% CO2) Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution at 4 °C for 24 h (denoted as stored). The aorta ring was pre-contracted with phenylephrine, and the functional response of the tissue was investigated using isoprenaline, forskolin and carbachol. Carbachol was also used to increase the tone in trachea, bronchus rings and bladder strips. A clear reduced function of endothelium, with a minor if any effect in the smooth muscle function in rat aorta was observed after overnight storage. The contractile response of overnight-stored rat airway (trachea and bronchus) and bladder smooth muscles remained unchanged. Among all tested tissues, only bronchus showed a reduced response rate (only 40% responded) after storage. In vitro rat tissues that are stored in Krebs solution at 4 °C for 24 h can still be used to investigate smooth muscle responses, however, not endothelium-mediated responses for aorta. The influence of overnight storage on different tissues from an animal model (Sprague-Dawley rat in our study) also provides an insight in maximising the use of sacrificed animals.
  15. George E, Teh LK, Tan J, Lai MI, Wong L
    Pathology, 2013 01;45(1):62-5.
    PMID: 23222244 DOI: 10.1097/PAT.0b013e32835af7c1
    AIMS: Classical carriers of β-thalassaemia are identified by a raised HbA2 level. Earlier studies indicated that the Filipino β-deletion has high raised HbA2 levels. The introduction of automated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for thalassaemia screening is an important advance in technology for haematology laboratories. The BioRad Variant II Hb analyser is a common instrument used to quantify HbA2 levels in thalassaemia screening. This study aimed to determine HbA2 levels in carriers of Filipino β-mutation using the BioRad Variant II Hb analyser.

    METHODS: The Filipino β-deletion was identified using gap-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the parents of transfusion dependent β-thalassaemia patients who were homozygous for the Filipino β-deletion in the indigenous population of Sabah, Malaysia. Hb subtypes were quantified on the BioRad Variant II Hb analyser. Concurrent α-thalassaemia was identified by multiplex gap-PCR for deletions and amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR for non-deletional mutations.

    RESULTS: The mean HbA2 level for Filipino β-thalassaemia trait was 5.9 ± 0.47 and with coinheritance of α-thalassaemia was 6.3 ± 0.44 (-α heterozygous) and 6.7 ± 0.36 (-α homozygous). The HbA2 levels were all >4% in keeping with the findings of classical β-thalassaemia trait and significantly higher than levels seen in non-deletional forms of β-thalassaemia.

    CONCLUSION: The HbA2 level measured on the BioRad Variant II Hb analyser was lower than the level in the first description of the Filipino β-thalassaemia. β-thalassaemia trait with coinheritance of α-thalassaemia (-α) is associated with significantly higher HbA2 level.

  16. Chong YM, Tan JA, Zubaidah Z, Rahimah A, Kuldip K, George E
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2006 Jun;61(2):217-20.
    PMID: 16898315
    Thalassaemia is an inherited blood disorder and is a significant public health problem in Malaysia, with many not knowing they carry the gene for thalassaemia. The two major forms are alpha and beta thalassaemia. An individual can co-inherit both the alpha and beta thalassaemia genes. This study determined the frequency of concurrent carriers of alpha thalassaemia in 231 beta thalassaemia carriers. Gap-PCR was done on extracted DNA of the beta thalassaemia samples to check for alpha thalassaemia 1 molecular defect. Eight (3.5%) samples were found to have concurrently inherited the alpha thalassaemia 1 (- -SEA) deletion. The significant carrier rate for alpha thalassaemia 1 indicates the need for the implementation of DNA analysis to complement thalassaemia screening in high risk populations.
  17. Thong MK, Tan JA, Tan KL, Yap SF
    J. Trop. Pediatr., 2005 Dec;51(6):328-33.
    PMID: 15967770 DOI: 10.1093/tropej/fmi052
    beta-thalassaemia major, an autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy, is one of the most common single gene disorders in multi-racial Malaysia. The control of beta-thalassaemia major requires a multi-disciplinary approach that includes population screening, genetic counselling, prenatal diagnosis and the option of termination of affected pregnancies. To achieve this objective, the molecular characterisation of the spectrum of beta-globin gene mutations in each of the affected ethnic groups is required. We studied 88 consecutive unrelated individuals and their respective families with beta-thalassaemia (74 beta-thalassaemia major, 12 HbE-beta-thalassaemia, 2 with HbE homozygotes) and four individuals with beta-thalassaemia trait that contributed a total 180 alleles for study. Using a 2-step molecular diagnostic strategy consisting of amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) to identify the 8 most common mutations followed by other DNA-based diagnostic techniques, a total of 177 (98.3 per cent) of the 180 beta-thalassaemia alleles were characterised. One out of 91 (1 per cent) of the Chinese alleles, one out of 46 (2.2 per cent) Malay alleles and one out of two Indian alleles remained unknown. A 100 per cent success rate was achieved in studying the Kadazandusun community in this study. A strategy to identify beta-globin gene mutations in Malaysians with beta-thalassaemia is proposed based on this outcome.
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