Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 80 in total

  1. Sinev AY, Yusoff FM
    Zootaxa, 2015;4000(5):581-91.
    PMID: 26623748 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4000.5.7
    Fauna of Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of Sabah state of Malaysia, Borneo Island, was evaluated for the first time. Samples from 40 locations were studied, and 31 species of Cladocera were revealed, including three species of Sididae, one species of Daphnidae, one species of Moinidae, four species of Macrothricidae, two species of Ilyocryptidae, and 20 species of Chydoridae. One species of Ilyocryptidae, Ilyocryptus yooni Jeong, Kotov and Lee, 2012, is recorded for Malaysia for the first time, and one more, Anthalona sp., is probably new for science. Of 31 species recorded for Sabah, only three are true planktonic species and 28 are substrate-associated species. Absence of large natural lakes, habitats with most rich cladoceran fauna, can be an important factor limiting diversity of Cladocera in Sabah.
  2. Sinev AY, Yusoff FM
    Zootaxa, 2018 Jun 21;4438(2):362-372.
    PMID: 30313150 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4438.2.10
    Unlike those in the mainland of Southeast Asia, the Cladocera of the Malay Archipelago has not been intensively studied, except for the state of Sabah in the north-eastern part of the Borneo island. This study aimed to complete the inventory of the Cladocera in Sabah by looking at different types of water bodies including oxbow lakes, small lakes, reservoirs, ponds, ditches and paddy fields. From 32 sites examined, 35 species of cladocerans, nine of which were new records to Sabah, were found from 25 localities. With this new finding, the total number of cladoceran species in Sabah increased to 39 species, including five species of Sididae, four species of Daphniidae, one species of Moinidae, five species of Macrothricidae, two species of Ilyocryptidae, and 22 species of Chydoridae. Only 8 % ( three species) of Sabah cladocerans are true planktonic. This study illustrated that most cladocerans were associated with substrates in the littoral zone and thus appropriate sampling methods should be employed in different microhabitats for comprehensive biodiversity assessment.
  3. Sinev AY, Yusoff FM
    Zootaxa, 2016 Jun 01;4117(3):399-410.
    PMID: 27395182 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4117.3.7
    Study of Ephemeroporus Frey, 1982 populations from Peninsular Malaysia revealed a new species. Ephemeroporus malaysiaensis sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of four-five large denticles on anal margin of postabdomen instead of two-three, and five distinctive pigmented spots on each valve. Pigmented spots on the valves were never recorded for any species of family Chydoridae. E. malaysiaensis sp. nov. seems to be another endemic Chydoridae species of South-East Asia. E. malaysiaensis sp. nov. is a rare species, associated with emergent macrophytes in the littoral zone of shallow lake. Most of Ephemeroporus populations from Peninsular Malaysia belong to eurybiotic Paleotropical species Ephemeroporus barroisi (Richard, 1984).
  4. Lai JI, Yusoff FM, Shariff M
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2012 Jul 01;15(13):635-40.
    PMID: 24218933
    Outdoor mass culture of microalgae in the tropical area is important to minimize its production cost. This study evaluates the growth of Chaetoceros calcitrans in 120 L annular photobioreactors at indoor temperature (Treatment I, 25 +/- 2 degrees C) and outdoor tropical ambient temperature, (Treatment II, 30 +/- 6 degrees C). Each treatment was done in duplicates. For both treatments, C. calcitrans was first grown in starter columns of 10 L capacity for a period of 7 days at 25 +/- 2 degrees C. After 7 days, the 9 L culture was transferred to the annular photobioreactors and subsequently brought to a final volume of 100 L by adding 20 L fresh medium every 5 days. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the dry weight of microalgae grown in natural light and those grown indoor. The results suggest that C. calcitrans can be grown in outdoor conditions, hence, saving time and microalgae production cost for the larviculture industry.
  5. Banerjee S, Devaraja TN, Shariff M, Yusoff FM
    J Fish Dis, 2007 Jul;30(7):383-9.
    PMID: 17584435
    Use of antibiotics for the control of bacterial diseases in shrimp culture has caused several adverse impacts to the industry. This has resulted in the search for alternative environment friendly approaches to overcome bacterial infections. This study was conducted to investigate the use of beneficial bacteria as an alternative to antibiotics. Ten pathogenic bacterial species isolated from shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and Artemia cysts were tested for susceptibility to indigenous marine Bacillus subtilis AB65, Bacillus pumilus AB58, Bacillus licheniformis AB69 and compared with oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and bacitracin, which are common antibiotics used in Asian aquaculture. The Bacillus spp. were isolated from the local marine environment for bioremediation use in shrimp hatcheries and were proven to reduce total ammonium nitrogen. The pathogenic bacterial isolates were 90% susceptible to B. subtilis AB65, 70% susceptible to B. pumilus AB58 and B. licheniformis AB69 and 100% susceptible to oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol and gentamicin but only 40% to bacitracin. Two representative isolates of the vibrio group, Vibrio alginolyticus VaM11 and Vibrio parahaemolyticus VpM1, when tested for competitive exclusion by a common broth method using the marine Bacillus spp., showed decreased viable counts from 10(8) to 10(2) cfu mL(-1). The results suggest that the action of the marine bacteria appears to be significant in protecting the host shrimp against pathogenic bacteria. In addition to the alternative use of antibiotics, the selected marine bacteria had additional bioremediation properties of reducing ammonia.
  6. Shariff M, Jayawardena PA, Yusoff FM, Subasinghe R
    Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2001 May;11(4):281-91.
    PMID: 11417716
    This study was to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50) of copper to Javenese carp, Puntius gonionotus (Bleeker), and the immune response after the fish were exposed to sublethal levels of copper and challenged with formalin killed Aeromonas hydrophila. The LC50 of copper on P. gonionotus at 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h were estimated as 2.17, 0.91, 0.57, 0.53 and 0.42 mg l(-1), respectively. To determine the effect of copper on the immune system, fish were exposed for 66 days to 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mg Cu l(-1). After 56 days of initial exposure to copper, fish were challenged with 0.1 ml of 4.5 x 10(5) cfu ml(-1) formalin killed A. hydrophila and maintained in the same concentration of copper. After the challenge, the immune response was monitored for 2 weeks using haematological and serological assays. During the initial phase of exposure to copper, significant changes were noted in the white blood cell, lysozyme, potential killing activity, total plasma protein, total immunoglobulin and haematocrit levels between the control and treated fish. One week after challenge with A. hydrophila, there was a significant increase in the values of white blood cells, total protein and total immunoglobulin compared to the values before the challenge. However, these values were not significantly different (P>0.05) between the control and the treated fish. In contrast, NBT and lysozyme assays exhibited a significant difference (P<0.05) in fish exposed to 0.10 mg Cu l(-1) (0.525 +/- 0.17; 24.42 +/- 3.35 x 10(2) micromg ml(-1)) and 0.15 mg Cu 1(-1) (0.536 +/- 0.19; 21.78 +/- 1.29 x 10(2) micromg ml(-1)) compared to the control (0.746 +/- 0.31; 30.73 +/- 5.42 x 10(2) micromg ml(-1)) after the bacterial challenge (day 61). There was however no significant difference (P>0.05) in NBT and lysozyme levels in fish exposed to lower level of copper (0.05 mg Cu l(-1)), suggesting the absence of immunosuppressive effects at lower level of exposure.
  7. Tahir D, Shariff M, Syukri F, Yusoff FM
    Vet World, 2018 Mar;11(3):327-331.
    PMID: 29657425 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2018.327-331
    Background and Aim: Brown-marbled grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus is a premium marine food fish with high demand in Asia. In fish, stress due to environmental changes such as fluctuations in the salinity can result in increased cortisol level. Stress in fish increases susceptibility to diseases ultimately resulting in death. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the salinity tolerance of E. fuscoguttatus and their survival in lower salinities.

    Materials and Methods: In this study, grouper juveniles (92.43±standard error of the mean 0.51 mm) maintained in 31 ppt seawater were transferred into five tanks with seawater diluted to 25, 20, 15, 10, and 5 ppt. The salinity of the control group was not changed and was maintained at 31 ppt. Serum cortisol was measured using ELISA at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min after the fish were transferred to the different concentrations of salinity.

    Results: The survival percentage was recorded for 14 days following the transfer and the results revealed that serum cortisol of fish in a high change in salinity (15, 10, and 5 ppt) was significantly higher than the control group immediately after exposure. At the high salinity change, the cortisol levels gradually decrease at 30 min and 60 min, until no difference in cortisol concentration was observed at 120 min. No mortality was observed in fish exposed to low salinity change (25 and 20 ppt) while in higher salinity change (5 ppt), the survival percentage was 50%.

    Conclusion: The study revealed that the serum cortisol concentration was high initially and continues to decrease to resting cortisol level at 120 min indicating that cortisol hormone is released following acute stress as a primary response in grouper juveniles.

  8. Medipally SR, Yusoff FM, Sharifhuddin N, Shariff M
    J Environ Biol, 2016 07;37(4 Spec No):829-38.
    PMID: 28779745
    Asian arowana, Scleropages formosus is a highly valued aquarium fish in the world, particularly in Asian countries, and has been listed as one of the most highly endangered species. This is a freshwater, carnivorous, fairly large mouth breeding fish belonging to the family Osteoglossidae. Arowana can be found in different colour varieties such as green, red, silver and golden. Among these varieties, Malaysian golden is the most valuable fish and is endemic to the Krian riverine system, Malaysia. However, overexploitation, habitat change and pollution have caused a serious decline of this arowana variety. Recently, arowana aquaculture industry is expanding rapidly in Southeast Asian countries. However, difficulties in an accurate differentiation of sex and strains, causing imbalanced stocking ratios for optimum spawning, remain major obstacles in maximizing arowana production. In addition, problems in sustainable water sources of suitable quality and prevention of diseases need to be addressed. Recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) and bioremediation are two possible technologies that could be used to minimize pollution and ensure adequate high-quality water for arowana culture. In addition, the application of appropriate molecular markers for sex and strain identification is also an important strategy required for the improvement of captive breeding. This review discusses several issues such as the importance of arowana as an aquarium fish, its market demand, current problems in the arowana aquaculture industry and the possible technologies to enhance reproductive capacity and increase culture production. ?
  9. Balqis ARS, Yusoff FM, Arshad A, Nishikawa J
    J Environ Biol, 2016 Jul;37(4 Spec No):685-95.
    PMID: 28779727
    Seasonal variations of zooplankton community in terms of biomass and size-fractionated densities were studied in a tropical Sangga Kechil river, Matang, Perak from June 2010 to April 2011. Zooplankton and jellyfish (hydromedusae, siphonophores and ctenophores) samples were collected bimonthly from four sampling stations by horizontal towing of a 140-?m plankton net and 500 ?m bongo net, respectively. A total of 12 zooplankton groups consisting of six groups each of mesozooplankon (0.2 mm-2.0 mm) and macrozooplankton (2.0 mm-20.0 cm) were recorded. The total zooplankton density (12375?3339 ind m(-3)) and biomass (35.32?14.56 mg m(-3)) were highest during the northeast (NE) monsoon and southwest (SW) monsoon, respectively, indicating the presence of bigger individuals in the latter season. Mesozooplankton predominated (94%) over the macrozooplankton (6%) during all the seasons, and copepods contributed 84% of the total mesozooplankton abundance. Macrozooplankton was dominated by appendicularians during most of the seasons (43%-97%), except during the NE monsoon (December) when chaetognaths became the most abundant (89% of the total macrozooplankton). BIO-ENV analysis showed that total zooplankton density was correlated with turbidity, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, which in turn was positively correlated to chlorophyll a. Cluster analysis of the zooplankton community showed no significant temporal difference between the SW and NE monsoon season during the study period (> 90% similarity). The present study revealed that the zooplankton community in the tropical mangrove estuary in the Straits of Malacca was dominated by mesoplankton, especially copepods.
  10. Looi LJ, Aris AZ, Yusoff FM, Hashim Z
    Environ Monit Assess, 2015 Jan;187(1):4099.
    PMID: 25380712 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-014-4099-5
    Sediment is a great indicator for assessing coastal mercury contamination. This work profiled the magnitude of mercury pollution in the tropical estuaries and coastal sediments of the Strait of Malacca. Mercury was extracted through the ultrasound-assisted mercury extraction method and analyzed using the flow injection mercury system. The mean concentration of mercury in the sediment samples was 61.43 ± 23.25 μg/kg, ranging from 16.55 ± 0.61 to 114.02 ± 1.54 μg/kg. Geoaccumulation index revealed that a total of 13% of sampling sites were moderately enriched with mercury. The northern part of the Strait of Malacca had the highest mean mercury (Hg) concentration (76.36 ± 27.25 μg/kg), followed by the southern (64.59 ± 16.09 μg/kg) and central (39.33 ± 12.91 μg/kg) parts. Sediment mercury concentration in the current study was lower than other regions like Japan, China, Indian, east Mediterranean, and Taiwan. When compared to the Canadian interim marine and freshwater sediment, China's soil interim environmental guidelines, mercury contamination in the Strait of Malacca was found to be below these permissible limits. Sediment organic matter content was found to have significant correlation with sediment mercury concentration. This study could provide the latest benchmark of mercury pollution and prove beneficial to future pollution studies in relation to monitoring works in tropical estuaries and coastal sediments.
  11. Begum H, Yusoff FM, Banerjee S, Khatoon H, Shariff M
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2016 Oct 02;56(13):2209-22.
    PMID: 25674822 DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2013.764841
    Microalgae are the major photosynthesizers on earth and produce important pigments that include chlorophyll a, b and c, β-carotene, astaxanthin, xanthophylls, and phycobiliproteins. Presently, synthetic colorants are used in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. However, due to problems associated with the harmful effects of synthetic colorants, exploitation of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors becomes an attractive option. There are various factors such as nutrient availability, salinity, pH, temperature, light wavelength, and light intensity that affect pigment production in microalgae. This paper reviews the availability and characteristics of microalgal pigments, factors affecting pigment production, and the application of pigments produced from microalgae. The potential of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors is enormous as an alternative to synthetic coloring agents, which has limited applications due to regulatory practice for health reasons.
  12. Imaizumi Y, Nagao N, Yusoff FM, Taguchi S, Toda T
    Bioresour Technol, 2014 Jun;162:53-9.
    PMID: 24747382 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.03.123
    To determine the optimum light intensity per cell required for rapid growth regardless of cell density, continuous cultures of the microalga Chlorella zofingiensis were grown with a sufficient supply of nutrients and CO2 and were subjected to different light intensities in the range of 75-1000 μE m(-2) s(-1). The cell density of culture increased over time for all light conditions except for the early stage of the high light condition of 1000 μE m(-2) s(-1). The light intensity per cell required for the high specific growth rate of 0.5 day(-1) was determined to be 28-45 μE g-ds(-1) s(-1). The specific growth rate was significantly correlated to light intensity (y=0.721×x/(66.98+x), r(2)=0.85, p<0.05). A high specific growth rate was maintained over a range of light intensities (250-1000 μE m(-2) s(-1)). This range of light intensities suggested that effective production of C. zofingiensis can be maintained outdoors under strong light by using the optimum specific light intensity.
  13. Matias-Peralta H, Yusoff FM, Shariff M, Arshad A
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2005;51(8-12):722-8.
    PMID: 16291188
    The effects of salinity, temperature, and light conditions on the reproduction and development of harpacticoid copepod, Nitocra affinis f. californica under controlled laboratory conditions were determined. Seven different salinity levels (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 ppt), four temperatures (20, 25, 30, 35 degrees C), three different light intensities (25, 56, 130 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) and photoperiods (24 h:0 h, 1 h:23 h, 12 h:12 h LD cycle) were employed in this study. The highest (p < 0.05) overall reproduction and fastest development time were achieved by copepods reared under 30-35 ppt salinity. The optimum temperature required for the maximum reproduction was 30 degrees C while under 30 degrees C and 35 degrees C the copepod development time was shortest (p < 0.05) compared to other temperature levels. The overall reproduction was highest (p < 0.05) and development rate of N. affinis was shortest (p < 0.05) under lowest light intensity (25 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). Continuous light (24 h:0 h LD) inhibited the egg production while, continuous darkness (1 h:23 h LD) and 12 h:12 h LD significantly favoured the overall reproductive activity of the female. Photoperiods 1 h:23 h and 12 h:12 h LD yielded highest total (p < 0.05) offspring female(-1) coupled with highest (p < 0.05) survival percentage. This study illustrated that although N. affinis can tolerate wide range of environmental conditions, prolonged exposure to subnormal environments affect its reproduction and development. This study showed that this species can be mass cultured for commercial purposes and has a potential to be used for toxicity studies due to its high reproductive performance fast development and a wide range of tolerance to environmental conditions.
  14. Marimuthu K, Gunaselvam P, Aminur Rahman M, Xavier R, Arockiaraj J, Subramanian S, et al.
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 2015 May;19(10):1895-9.
    PMID: 26044237
    Sea urchin gonad is considered as a highly prized delicacy in several countries. It is also rich in valuable bioactive compounds including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and β-carotene. This study was undertaken to examine the antimicrobial properties of the ovary extract from sea urchin Diadema setosum against selected Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.
  15. Medipally SR, Yusoff FM, Banerjee S, Shariff M
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:519513.
    PMID: 25874216 DOI: 10.1155/2015/519513
    The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technically and economically viable and cost competitive, require no additional lands, require minimal water use, and mitigate atmospheric CO2. However, commercial production of microalgae biodiesel is still not feasible due to the low biomass concentration and costly downstream processes. The viability of microalgae biodiesel production can be achieved by designing advanced photobioreactors, developing low cost technologies for biomass harvesting, drying, and oil extraction. Commercial production can also be accomplished by improving the genetic engineering strategies to control environmental stress conditions and by engineering metabolic pathways for high lipid production. In addition, new emerging technologies such as algal-bacterial interactions for enhancement of microalgae growth and lipid production are also explored. This review focuses mainly on the problems encountered in the commercial production of microalgae biofuels and the possible techniques to overcome these difficulties.
  16. Wee SY, Aris AZ, Yusoff FM, Praveena SM
    Chemosphere, 2021 Feb;264(Pt 1):128488.
    PMID: 33045559 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128488
    Contamination of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in tap water is an emerging global issue, and there are abundant influencing factors that have an ambivalent effect on their transportation and fate. Different housing types vary in terms of water distribution system operation and design, water consumption choices, and other hydraulic factors, which potentially affect the dynamics, loadings, and partitioning of pollutants in tap water. Thus, this study analyzed 18 multiclass EDCs in tap water from different housing types (i.e., landed and high-rise) and the associated health risks. Sample analyses revealed the presence of 16 EDCs, namely hormones (5), pharmaceuticals (8), a pesticide (1), and plasticizers (2) in tap water, with the prevalent occurrence of bisphenol A up to 66.40 ng/L in high-rise housing. The presence of caffeine and sulfamethoxazole distribution in tap water was significantly different between landed and high-rise housings (t(152) = -2.298, p = 0.023 and t(109) = 2.135, p = 0.035). Moreover, the salinity and conductivity of tap water in high-rise housings were significantly higher compared to those in landed housings (t(122) = 2.411, p = 0.017 and t(94) = 2.997, p = 0.003, respectively). Furthermore, there were no potential health risks of EDCs (risk quotient 
  17. Samat NA, Yusoff FM, Rasdi NW, Karim M
    Animals (Basel), 2020 Dec 21;10(12).
    PMID: 33371528 DOI: 10.3390/ani10122457
    At the present time, no artificial larval diet is capable of entirely fulfilling the dietary requirements of several larval fish and crustacean species. Zooplankton live food is the basic foundation of fish larviculture, and successful rearing of fish larvae still heavily depends on an adequate supply of nutritious live food. Despite being important, the production protocols of copepods and cladocerans (Moina) are still underdeveloped in hatcheries. Rotifers and Artemia are the most commonly used live foods. However, these live foods are evidently lacking in crucial nutrient constituents. Hence, through nutrient enrichment, live food with the nutritional profile that meets the requirements of fish larvae can be produced. With the aim to maximize the effectiveness of production to optimize profitability, it is important to evaluate and improve culture techniques for the delivery of micro- and macro-nutrients as feed supplements to larvae in aquaculture systems. Bioencapsulation and enrichment are the evolving techniques in aquaculture that are commonly employed to enhance the nutritional quality of live food by integrating nutrients into them, which subsequently improves the growth, survival, and disease resistance of the consuming hosts. This review aims to highlight some of the approaches and methods used to improve the nutritional quality of live food by modifying their nutrient composition, which could have immense promise in the enhancement of aquatic animal health.
  18. Omar TFT, Aris AZ, Yusoff FM, Mustafa S
    Environ Pollut, 2019 May;248:763-773.
    PMID: 30851586 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.02.060
    The occurrence, level, and distribution of multiclass emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in fish and mollusks from the Klang River estuary were examined. The targeted EOCs for this assessment were phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds (bisphenol A, 4-OP, and 4-NP), organophosphorous pesticides (quinalphos, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon), estrogenic hormones (E2, E1, and EE2), and pharmaceutically active chemicals (primidone, sulfamethoxazole, dexamethasone, diclofenac, amoxicillin, progesterone, and testosterone). Results from this study showed that the prevalent contamination of the Klang River estuary by EOCs with diclofenac, bisphenol A, progesterone, and amoxicillin were predominantly detected in fish and mollusks. Among the EOCs, diclofenac and progesterone had the highest concentrations in fish and mollusk samples, respectively. The concentrations of diclofenac and progesterone in fish and mollusk samples range from 1.42 ng/g to 10.76 ng/g and from 0.73 ng/g to 9.57 ng/g, respectively. Bisphenol A should also be highlighted because of its significant presence in both fish and mollusks. The concentration of bisphenol A in both matrices range from 0.92 ng/g to 5.79 ng/g. The calculated hazard quotient (HQ) for diclofenac, bisphenol A, and progesterone without consideration to their degradation byproduct were less than one, thus suggesting that the consumption of fish and mollusks from the Klang River estuary will unlikely pose any health risk to consumers on the basis of the current assessment. Nonetheless, this preliminary result is an important finding for pollution studies in Malaysian tropical coastal ecosystems, particularly for organic micropollutant EOCs, and can serve as a baseline database for future reference.
  19. Wee SY, Aris AZ, Yusoff FM, Praveena SM
    Sci Total Environ, 2019 Jun 25;671:431-442.
    PMID: 30933799 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.243
    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are an emerging environmental concern and commonly occur as a mixture of compounds. The EDC mixture can be more toxic than any single compound. The present study analyses EDCs in surface water in the case of an urban tropical river, the Langat River, using the multiresidue analytical method of solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS). The Langat River is used as a drinking water source and is treated for Malaysian drinking water supply. A total of 14 EDCs i.e. five hormones, seven pharmaceuticals, one pesticide, and one plasticizer were detected. Caffeine was observed to be highest at 19.33 ng/L, followed by bisphenol A and diclofenac at 8.24 ng/L and 6.15 ng/L, respectively. Using a conservative risk quotient (RQ) method, EDCs were estimated for having negligible risks under acute and chronic exposure (RQ 
  20. Wee SY, Aris AZ, Yusoff FM, Praveena SM
    Sci Rep, 2020 10 20;10(1):17755.
    PMID: 33082440 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-74061-5
    Contamination by endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) concerns the security and sustainability of a drinking water supply system and human exposure via water consumption. This study analyzed the selected EDCs in source (river water, n = 10) and supply (tap water, n = 155) points and the associated risks. A total of 14 multiclass EDCs was detected in the drinking water supply system in Malaysia. Triclosan (an antimicrobial agent) and 4-octylphenol (a plasticizer) were only detected in the tap water (up to 9.74 and 0.44 ng/L, respectively). Meanwhile, chloramphenicol and 4-nonylphenol in the system were below the method detection limits. Bisphenol A was observed to be highest in tap water at 66.40 ng/L (detection: 100%; median concentration: 0.28 ng/L). There was a significant difference in triclosan contamination between the river and tap water (p 
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