Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 36 in total

  1. Aziz, A., Mohamad, I., Zawawi, N.
    Malaysian Family Physician, 2018;13(2):32-35.
    Kimura disease presents as benign lesion and is commonly present among the Asian population. It
    is a disease with a favourable prognosis and a peak age of onset in the third decade. It is a chronic
    inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology that involves the lymph nodes and subcutaneous
    tissues of the head and neck region. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy with multiple Kimura
    lymphadenopathies involving the left posterior auricular region as well as the anterior and posterior
    triangles of the neck.
  2. Zawawi, N., Azizah, A. H., Maznah, I.
    The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-obesity and lipolysis effects of Strobilanthes
    crispus leaves extract (SCE) in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats by administering 1% (w/w) of
    SCE in drinking water. Methods: Normal Sprague-Dawley rats were induced obese using a
    high-fat (HF) diet formulation for 14 weeks. DIO rats were subsequently treated with 1% (w/w)
    SCE while the HF diet was switched to normal rat chow diet. Food intake, water intake and
    bodyweight were measured weekly. Other parameters e.g. blood lipid profile were determined
    in normal and DIO rats before and after treatment with SCE. Histopathological changes in the
    liver were also observed after treatment. Results: Prior to treatment, DIO rats have significantly
    higher (p
  3. Zawawi N, Ismail M
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Nov;25(6):46-58.
    PMID: 30914878 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.6.5
    Background: Strobilanthes crispus (S. crispus) leaves were traditionally consumed for its body weight lowering effect. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of S. crispus leaves extract (SCE).

    Methods: Mice (n = 48) were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 25 weeks to induce obesity, after which half were maintained on HFD and half switched to low-fat diet (LFD)while they were given normal water (H2O) or 0.1% (w/v) SCE in water at week 0-4 which was increased to 1% (w/v) at week 5-9. Effects of treatment with SCE were compared between HFDH2O, HFDSCE, LFDH2O and LFDSCE groups. Respiratory exchange ratios (RER) were measured at weeks 0, 5 and 10. Food, water intake and body weight were measured weekly. Plasma lipid profile and organ weights were determined at week 10.

    Results: SCE had significantly reduced RER at week 9 (P = 0.011). Food intake, body weight, and abdominal adipose tissue weight were not altered by SCE at weeks 5 and 10. However, significant increase in plasma and liver cholesterol (P < 0.050) was observed.

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that SCE induced lipolysis and body fat oxidation and increased energy expenditure. Further studies in other animal models should be done to confirm the consistency of these results.

  4. Zawawi, N., Gangadharan, P., Ahma Zaini, R., Samsudin, M.G., Karim, R., Maznah, I.
    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) seeds have always being wasted as agricultural waste. Recent studies revealed that the seeds contain high fiber. The purpose of this study is to develop defatted kenaf seeds yellow noodles (DKSY) and assess the nutritional and physicohemical properties of the noodles. Defatted kenaf flour at 25% and 75% were used to make DKSY noodles and compared to wheat yellow noodles (Control). Fresh DKSY noodles were analyzed for their nutritional and physiochemical properties. The ash and fiber contents increased in order of Control > 25% DKSY > 75% DKSY noodles. While total phenolic contents (TPC) was found to be higher in 75% DKSY noodles (138.30 ± 1.63 mg GAE/100 g) than Control noodles. Colour (L, b) and hardness decreased in order of Control > 25% DKSY > 75% DKSY indicating that DKSY noodles developed less quality than Control noodles. However, cooking loss values were found to be in the same order while cooking values exist in the opposite order indicating that. DKSY noodles have better noodle cooking quality. In conclusion, nutritional properties and noodle cooking quality of yellow noodles increased with higher concentration of defatted kenaf flour but the physicochemical properties were compromised. More research needs to be done in order to develop a formulation that can increase all of the attributes studied.
  5. Aziz A, Mohamad I, Zawawi N
    Malays Fam Physician, 2018;13(2):32-35.
    PMID: 30302182
    Kimura disease presents as benign lesion and is commonly present among the Asian population. It is a disease with a favourable prognosis and a peak age of onset in the third decade. It is a chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology that involves the lymph nodes and subcutaneous tissues of the head and neck region. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy with multiple Kimura lymphadenopathies involving the left posterior auricular region as well as the anterior and posterior triangles of the neck.
  6. Mohammad, S. M., Mohd Razali, S. F., Mohamad Rozaiman, N. H. N., Laizani, A. N., Zawawi, N.
    Kappaphycus alvarezii is a species of red algae, and one of the most important carrageenan
    sources for food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. It is commercially cultivated in the
    eastern part of Malaysia. Although K. alvarezii is rich in nutrients, it is limited in its integration
    into Malaysian food products. Therefore, the present work was conducted to investigate the
    quality characteristics, sensorial attributes, and antioxidant activity of K. alvarezii in Malaysian
    food products. Seaweed puree (SP) from K. alvarezii at 10%, 20% and 30% concentrations were
    prepared in the formulations of fish sausages, flat rice noodles and yellow alkaline noodles.
    Proximate analysis, physicochemical analysis, microbial count, total phenolic content (TPC),
    sensory evaluation, and consumer acceptance survey of the formulated food were conducted.
    The incorporation of K. alvarezii significantly increased the fibre, moisture, and ash content in
    formulated foods. In addition, the TPC content of K. alvarezii food also significantly increased
    up to 42 mg GAE/100 g. The presence of SP in food at higher concentration decreased the
    microbial counts. Sensory analysis confirmed that only fish sausages added with SP was
    overall acceptable as compared to control. Based on customer survey, functional foods that are
    “research proven” were the most preferred. In conclusion, K. alvarezii has the potential to be
    incorporated in Malaysian food products and developed as functional food.
  7. Sarega N, Imam MU, Esa NM, Zawawi N, Ismail M
    PMID: 26924713 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-016-1049-5
    Clinacanthus nutans is used traditionally in many parts of Asia to improve well-being, but there are limited studies on its efficacy. We explored the potential use of C. nutans for prevention of high fat and high cholesterol diet-(HFHC-) induced insulin resistance in rats.
  8. Jackson N, Menon BS, Zarina W, Zawawi N, Naing NN
    Ann Hematol, 1999 May;78(5):233-6.
    PMID: 10391104
    Acute leukemia is more common in males at almost every age, and this fact remains unexplained. A study was carried out in northeast peninsular Malaysia, where the population is predominantly Malay, to examine whether there was a difference in ABO blood group distribution between males and females with acute leukemia (AL). The ABO blood groups of 109 male and 79 female patients with AL (98 ALL, 90 AML) were compared with those of 1019 controls. In the control population, 39.7% were group O. Among males with AL, 39.4% were group O, whereas among females with AL, the proportion was 24.1% (p=0.03). The same trend to a lower proportion of group O among females was seen if the group was divided into adult/pediatric or lymphoblastic/myeloblastic groups, though these differences were not statistically significant. If these findings can be confirmed, they suggest the presence of a "sex-responsive" gene near to the ABO gene locus on chromosome 9, which relatively protects group O women against AL, at least in our population. The existence of such a gene might also partly explain why acute leukemia, and possibly other childhood cancers, are more common in males.
  9. Mohammad SM, Mahmud-Ab-Rashid NK, Zawawi N
    Molecules, 2021 Feb 11;26(4).
    PMID: 33670262 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26040957
    Stingless bee-collected pollen (bee bread) is a mixture of bee pollen, bee salivary enzymes, and regurgitated honey, fermented by indigenous microbes during storage in the cerumen pot. Current literature data for bee bread is overshadowed by bee pollen, particularly of honeybee Apis. In regions such as South America, Australia, and Southeast Asia, information on stingless bee bee bread is mainly sought to promote the meliponiculture industry for socioeconomic development. This review aims to highlight the physicochemical properties and health benefits of bee bread from the stingless bee. In addition, it describes the current progress on identification of beneficial microbes associated with bee bread and its relation to the bee gut. This review provides the basis for promoting research on stingless bee bee bread, its nutrients, and microbes for application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
  10. Zawawi NSM, Aziz NA, Fisher R, Ahmad K, Walker MF
    J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis, 2020 Aug;29(8):104875.
    PMID: 32689648 DOI: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.104875
    INTRODUCTION: Facilitating stroke survivors and their caregivers to lead a fulfilling life after stroke requires service providers to think about their different needs. Poor post stroke care may lead to unmet needs in stroke survivors and stroke caregivers. This may compromise them in leading their lives optimally after stroke.

    OBJECTIVES & METHODOLOGY: This systematic narrative review examines articles published from 1990 to 2017, generated from Ovid, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PubMed. The search was also supplemented by an examination of reference lists for related articles via Scopus. We included 105 articles.

    FINDINGS: We found that the type of unmet needs in stroke survivors and the contributing factors were substantially different from their caregivers. The unmet needs in stroke survivors ranged from health-related needs to re-integration into the community; while the unmet needs in stroke caregivers ranged from information needs to support in caring for the stroke survivors and caring for themselves. Additionally, the unmet needs in both groups were associated with different factors.

    CONCLUSION: More research is required to understand the unmet needs of stroke survivors and stroke caregivers to improve the overall post-stroke care services.

  11. Kanesan N, Mohamad I, Mohamad Umbaik NA, Zawawi N
    Medeni Med J, 2020;35(2):166-169.
    PMID: 32733767 DOI: 10.5222/MMJ.2020.82956
    Carcinosarcoma is a rare type of malignant tumour that possess both the elements of carcinoma and sarcoma. They may occur in various locations such as the uterus, breast, thyroid, lung and gastrointestinal system. However, very few primary mediastinal carcinosarcomas have been reported. We are presenting a case of a 75-year-old male who presented with progressive dysphagia and hoarseness for 3 weeks. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the neck showed features of enlarged mediastinal necrotic nodes and the biopsy of this mass showed morphology and immunohistochemical profile that are consistent with carcinosarcoma. However, the patient succumbed to his illness soon after diagnosis.
  12. Abubakar B, Zawawi N, Omar AR, Ismail M
    PLoS One, 2017;12(7):e0181309.
    PMID: 28727791 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0181309
    Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder with established, well-defined precursors. Obesity and insulin resistance are amongst most important factors in predisposition to diabetes. Rice is a staple for about half the global population and its consumption has been strongly linked with diabetogenesis. We assert that tackling the prevalence of predisposing factors by modifying certain rice cultivars could reduce the global burden of obesity and insulin resistance, and by extension type 2 diabetes. Several rice cultivars with various properties were fed to nulliparous rats (five weeks old at the start of the experiment) for 90 days. They were then returned to a diet of standard pellets and mated with males raised on a standard diet. The resulting pups and dams were investigated for obesity and insulin resistance markers. We found that germination did more to reduce predisposition to obesity and insulin resistance than high amylose content. The combined reducing effect of germination and high amylose content on predisposition to obesity and insulin resistance was greater than the sum of their independent effects. Polished (white) rice with a low amylose content predisposed dams on a high-fat diet to markers of insulin resistance and obesity and this predisposition was inherited (in biochemical terms) by their F1 offspring. Overall, the results suggest that harnessing the beneficial properties of germination and amylose in rice would reduce the burden of obesity and insulin resistance, which are known to be key risk factors for development of type 2 diabetes.
  13. Abubakar B, Yakasai HM, Zawawi N, Ismail M
    J Food Drug Anal, 2018 04;26(2):706-715.
    PMID: 29567241 DOI: 10.1016/j.jfda.2017.06.010
    Diet-related metabolic diseases, and especially obesity, are metabolic disorders with multifactorial aetiologies. Diet has been a cornerstone in both the aetiology and management of this metabolic disorders. Rice, a staple food for over half of the world's population, could be exploited as part of the solution to check this menace which has been skyrocketing in the last decade. The present study investigated nine forms of rice from three widely grown Malaysian rice cultivars for in vitro and in vivo (glycaemic index and load) properties that could translate clinically into a lower predisposition to diet-related diseases. The germinated brown forms of MRQ 74 and MR 84 rice cultivars had high amylose content percentages (25.7% and 25.0%), high relative percentage antioxidant scavenging abilities of 85.0% and 91.7%, relatively low glycaemic indices (67.6 and 64.3) and glycaemic load (32.3 and 30.1) values, and modest glucose uptake capabilities of 33.69% and 31.25%, respectively. The results show that all things being equal, rice cultivars that are germinated and high in amylose content when compared to their white and low amylose counterparts could translate into a lower predisposition to diet-related diseases from the dietary point of view in individuals who consume this cereal as a staple food.
  14. Zawawi NK, Ahmat N, Mazatulikhma MZ, Shafiq RM, Wahid NH, Sufian AS
    Nat Prod Res, 2013;27(17):1589-93.
    PMID: 23035830 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2012.730047
    Phytochemical investigation on the stem bark of Shorea maxwelliana yielded five oligostilbenoids identified as α-viniferin (1), maximol A (2), vaticanol A (3), suffruticosol A (4) and vaticanol G (5). Chemotaxonomy of isolated compounds was discussed briefly. Major compounds were tested for neurotoxic and cytotoxic activities. Neurotoxicity for all tested compounds did not pose any toxic effect against cultured cell (cell viability range ±100-94%). Compounds 2-5 possessed active cyctotoxic activity against HL60 cell line with IC50 values range of 2.7-78 µg mL(-1).
  15. Sarega N, Imam MU, Ooi DJ, Chan KW, Md Esa N, Zawawi N, et al.
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2016;2016:4137908.
    PMID: 26881026 DOI: 10.1155/2016/4137908
    Clinacanthus nutans is used as traditional medicine in Asia but there are limited scientific studies to support its use. In this study, the stem and leaf of C. nutans were extracted using solvents of differing polarities, and their antioxidant capacities were determined using multiple antioxidant assays. The water and aqueous methanolic leaf extracts were further fractionated and their antioxidant capacities and phenolic compositions were tested. Furthermore, the efficacies of the water and aqueous methanolic leaf extracts were tested against hyperlipidemia-induced oxidative stress in rats. Serum and hepatic antioxidant and oxidative stress markers were tested after feeding the rats with high fat diet together with the extracts or simvastatin for 7 weeks. The results indicated that both leaf extracts attenuated oxidative stress through increasing serum antioxidant enzymes activity and upregulating the expression of hepatic antioxidant genes. Multiple phenolic compounds were detected in the extracts and fractions of C. nutans, although protocatechuic acid was one of the most abundant and may have contributed significantly towards the bioactivities of the extracts. However, synergistic effects of different phenolics may have contributed to the overall bioactivities. C. nutans can be a good source of functional ingredients for the management of oxidative stress-related diseases.
  16. Zawawi N, Chong PJ, Mohd Tom NN, Saiful Anuar NS, Mohammad SM, Ismail N, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Jul 21;26(15).
    PMID: 34361551 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26154399
    Honey is a well-known natural sweetener and is rich in natural antioxidants that prevent the occurrence of oxidative stress, which is responsible for many human diseases. Some of the biochemical compounds in honey that contribute to this property are vitamins and phenolic compounds such as phenolic acids and flavonoids. However, the extent to which these molecules contribute towards the antioxidant capacity in vitro is inconsistently reported, especially with the different analytical methods used, as well as other extrinsic factors that influence these molecules' availability. Therefore, by reviewing recently published works correlating the vitamin, total phenolic, and flavonoid content in honey with its antioxidant activities in vitro, this paper will establish a relationship between these parameters. Based on the literature, vitamins do not contribute to honey's antioxidant capacity; however, the content of phenolic acids and flavonoids has an impact on honey's antioxidant activity.
  17. Lee SY, Mediani A, Maulidiani M, Khatib A, Ismail IS, Zawawi N, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2018 Jan;98(1):240-252.
    PMID: 28580581 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8462
    BACKGROUND: Neptunia oleracea is a plant consumed as a vegetable and which has been used as a folk remedy for several diseases. Herein, two regression models (partial least squares, PLS; and random forest, RF) in a metabolomics approach were compared and applied to the evaluation of the relationship between phenolics and bioactivities of N. oleracea. In addition, the effects of different extraction conditions on the phenolic constituents were assessed by pattern recognition analysis.

    RESULTS: Comparison of the PLS and RF showed that RF exhibited poorer generalization and hence poorer predictive performance. Both the regression coefficient of PLS and the variable importance of RF revealed that quercetin and kaempferol derivatives, caffeic acid and vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside were significant towards the tested bioactivities. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) results showed that sonication and absolute ethanol are the preferable extraction method and ethanol ratio, respectively, to produce N. oleracea extracts with high phenolic levels and therefore high DPPH scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.

    CONCLUSION: Both PLS and RF are useful regression models in metabolomics studies. This work provides insight into the performance of different multivariate data analysis tools and the effects of different extraction conditions on the extraction of desired phenolics from plants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Saniasiaya J, Hamid SSA, Mohamad H, Wahab WNNWA, Zawawi N
    Turk Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 2019 Sep;57(3):157-160.
    PMID: 31620699 DOI: 10.5152/tao.2019.3900
    Paediatric germ cell tumor is composed of various neoplasms which exhibit capricious clinical presentation and histological features depending on the age and the area of presentation. Yolk sac tumor is an extremely rare malignant tumor of embryonic origin which usually arises from the gonads. Its manifestation in the head and neck region is extremely rare. Here, we report a rare case of the malignant transformation of mature teratoma into yolk sac tumor of the neck in an infant. Diagnosis was confirmed following histopathological examination of the neck mass along with marked increase of the serum alpha-fetoprotein. The child unfortunately succumbed prior to chemotherapy. We highlight the challenge we faced in diagnosing and managing this rare entity. We would also like to recommend serial monitoring of serum alpha-fetoprotein in all patients with mature teratoma to detect malignant transformation early.
  19. Mat Ramlan NAF, Md Zin AS, Safari NF, Chan KW, Zawawi N
    Antibiotics (Basel), 2021 Nov 08;10(11).
    PMID: 34827303 DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics10111365
    In the honey industry, heat treatments are usually applied to maintain honey's quality and shelf life. Heat treatment is used to avoid crystallisation and allow the easy use of honey, but treatment with heat might affect the antioxidant and antibacterial activities, which are the immediate health effects of honey. This study will determine the effect of heat treatment on Malaysian and Australian stingless bee honey (SBH) produced by the common bee species in both countries. Eighteen honey samples were subjected to heat at 45 °C, 55 °C and 65 °C for one hour and subsequently analysed for their total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results show that all samples had high TPC, TFC and antioxidant activities before the treatment. The heat treatments did not affect (p < 0.05) the TPC, TFC and antioxidant activities in most samples, but did inhibit the antibacterial activities consistently in most of the samples, regardless of the bee species and country of origin. This study also confirms a strong correlation between TPC and TFC with FRAP activities for the non-heated and heated honey samples (p < 0.05). Other heat-sensitive bioactive compounds in SBH should be measured to control the antibacterial properties present.
  20. Kandiah R, Aziz A, Nik Min NFA, Rahim MR, Zawawi N, Sayuti KA, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2021 Dec;43(3):457-461.
    PMID: 34958068
    Lichenoid uvula mass is an unusual entity and the clinicopathologic entities are important for the diagnosis. In this case report, we report an elderly lady presented with dysphagia and "hot potato voice" due to a lichenoid uvula mass. Apart from muffled voice, the other associated symptoms are dysphagia, sore throat, globus pharyngeus and snoring. She was a non-smoker, and not on any medications except for hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Apart from the enlarged uvula, other parts of the oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx were normal. She has no other signs such as cutaneous lesions. The mass was excised under general anaesthesia followed by resolution of symptoms. Awareness of this entity, the clinical and histopathological features should be highlighted to differentiate it from other diagnosis.
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